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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Liu Chi and Richard Kennon

Aims to check the validity of measurements of dynamic postures recorded by a body scanner.

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Abstract

Purpose

Aims to check the validity of measurements of dynamic postures recorded by a body scanner.

Design/methodology/approach

Measurements between various anatomical landmarks have been taken both manually and using a 3D body scanner so that the validity of the measurements might be assessed when dynamic postures are adopted. Mechanical measurements of changes in the body surface dimensions have been compared with figures produced by a body scanner for both the standard natural position and for five dynamic postures, which must be accommodated when designing high‐performance garments.

Findings

Although the 3D body scanner collects data almost instantaneously and without physical contact with the target surface, the readings taken in respect of dynamic poses showed significant variations from manually‐taken measurements, with discrepancies as large as 6.8 cm over a 16 cm distance.

Research limitations/implications

The research has only been carried out on a very limited number of subjects. However, significant differences between manual and automatic body measurements are clearly demonstrated.

Practical implications

The research showed that as there are as yet no universally‐accepted conventions for 3D scanner measurements, the results appear to be optimised for the natural anatomical position. Body‐scanners are not well‐suited to taking measurements of dynamic postures expected in sporting activities.

Originality/value

Measurements of anthropometric landmarks for high‐performance activities have not previously been assessed, and these results usefully indicate the limitations of current 3D scanning technology.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Mardiana Said, Muhammad Firdaus Mohd Nazeri, Nurulakmal Mohd Sharif and Ahmad Azmin Mohamad

This paper aims to investigate the morphology and tensile properties of SAC305 solder alloy under the influence of microwave hybrid heating (MHH) for soldering at…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the morphology and tensile properties of SAC305 solder alloy under the influence of microwave hybrid heating (MHH) for soldering at different microwave parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

Si wafer was used as susceptor in MHH for solder reflow. Microwave operating power for medium and high ranging from 40 to 140 s reflow time was used to investigate their effect on the microstructure and strength of SAC305/Cu solder joints. The morphology and elemental composition of the intermetallic compound (IMC) joint were evaluated on the top surface and cross-sectional view.

Findings

IMC formation transformed from scallop-like to elongated scallop-like structure for medium operating power and scallop-like to planar-like structure for high operating power when exposed to longer reflow time. Compositional and phase analysis confirmed that the observed IMCs consist of Cu6Sn5, Cu3Sn and Ag3Sn. A thinner IMC layer was formed at medium operating power, 80 s (2.4 µm), and high operating power, 40 s (2.5 µm). The ultimate tensile strength at high operating power, 40 s (45.5 MPa), was 44.9% greater than that at medium operating power, 80 s (31.4 MPa).

Originality/value

Microwave parameters with the influence of Si wafer in MHH in soldering have been developed and optimized. A microwave temperature profile was established to select the appropriate parameter for solder reflow. For this MHH soldering method, the higher operating power and shorter reflow time are preferable.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 March 2015

Rajmund Mirdala

Deficits in fiscal and current account balances in a large number of countries reveal interesting implications of the causal relationship between internal and external…

Abstract

Deficits in fiscal and current account balances in a large number of countries reveal interesting implications of the causal relationship between internal and external imbalances. Empirical evidence about the occurrence of so-called twin deficits or twin surpluses provides crucial information about the validity of an intertemporal approach. However, most recent dynamic cyclical changes during the crisis period revealed many questions about the direct interconnection between macroeconomic performance and twin imbalances. In the paper we observe substantial features of twin imbalances in European transition economies. Event study (identification of large fiscal and current account changes and their parallel occurrence) and vector auto-regression methods will be employed to examine key aspects of twin imbalances. Our results suggest that current account deteriorations were predominately associated with negative public investment and savings balances (fiscal deficits), while current account improvements were predominately associated with positive private investment and savings balances, confirming empirical evidence about twin deficits in European transition economies.

Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Gonca Güngör Göksu and Serdar Dumlupinar

In this study, various acts including regulations of public financial management, fiscal responsibility, and state budget in the selected six countries were subjected to…

Abstract

In this study, various acts including regulations of public financial management, fiscal responsibility, and state budget in the selected six countries were subjected to different readability tests, and an international comparison was made. The fiscal responsibility act of six countries – Turkey, the UK, India, Australia, Canada, and Pakistan – were included in the study and analyzed. Each country was analyzed under its official language. Since English is an official language of all of the countries except for Turkey, the authors have evaluated the fiscal responsibility acts of these countries using the following readability tests: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning-Fog, and Dale-Chall. Additionally, Public Financial Management and Control Law No. 5018 approved in Turkey was analyzed by the Ateşman Readability Test which was uniquely designed for Turkish grammar rules. The acts discussed in the study were analyzed not only as a whole but also in parts and subsections. According to the results of the study, the levels of readability of the existing laws in most of the selected countries are very difficult to understand for a university graduate. However, when the readability level of the British Budget Responsibility and National Audit Act tested as parts and subsections and a whole, it was rated at a level a university student could understand. This study analyses the readability and intelligibility of acts related to fiscal responsibility and the state budget in six selected countries, adopting Anglo-Saxon public administration model and making an inter-country evaluation. Since it is important that citizens have enough information about legislation for a citizen-oriented understanding, a legislation system that is understood by the larger part of the society is essential.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accounting and Auditing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-508-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Opeoluwa Adeniyi Adeosun, Olumide Steven Ayodele and Olajide Clement Jongbo

This study examines and compares different specifications of the fiscal policy rule in the fiscal sustainability analysis of Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines and compares different specifications of the fiscal policy rule in the fiscal sustainability analysis of Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

This is methodologically achieved by estimating the baseline constant-parameter and Markov regime switching fiscal models. The asymmetric autoregressive distributed lag fiscal model is also employed to substantiate the differential responses of fiscal authorities to public debt.

Findings

The baseline constant-parameter fiscal model provides mixed results of sustainable and unsustainable fiscal policy. The inconclusiveness is adduced to instability in primary fiscal balance–public debt dynamics. This makes it necessary to capture regime switches in the fiscal policy rule. The Markov switching estimations show a protracted fiscal unsustainable regime that is inconsistent with the intertemporal budget constraint (IBC). The no-Ponzi game and debt stabilizing results of the Markov switching fiscal model further revealed that the transversality and debt stability conditions were not satisfied. Additional findings from the asymmetric autoregressive model estimation show that fiscal consolidation responses vary with contraction and expansion in output and spending, coupled with downturns and upturns in public debt dynamics in both the long and short run. These findings thus confirm the presence of asymmetries in the fiscal policy authorities' reactions to public debt. Further, additional evidences show the violation of the IBC which is exacerbated by the deleterious effect of the pro-cyclical fiscal policy response in boom on the improvement of the primary fiscal balance.

Originality/value

This study deviates from the extant literature by accommodating time variation, periodic switches and fiscal policy asymmetries in the fiscal sustainability analysis of Nigeria.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Farley Grubb

The British North American colonies were the first western economies to rely on legislature-issued paper monies as an important internal media of exchange. This system…

Abstract

The British North American colonies were the first western economies to rely on legislature-issued paper monies as an important internal media of exchange. This system arose piecemeal. In the absence of banks and treasuries that exchanged paper monies at face value for specie monies on demand, colonial governments experimented with other ways to anchor their paper monies to real values in the economy. These mechanisms included tax-redemption, land-backed loans, sinking funds, interest-bearing notes, and legal tender laws. I assess and explain the structure and performance of these mechanisms. This was monetary experimentation on a grand scale.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-276-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 March 2014

Jari Eloranta, Svetlozar Andreev and Pavel Osinsky

Did the expansion of democratic institutions play a role in determining central government spending behavior in the 19th and 20th centuries? The link between democracy and…

Abstract

Did the expansion of democratic institutions play a role in determining central government spending behavior in the 19th and 20th centuries? The link between democracy and increased central government spending is well established for the post-Second World War period, but has never been explored during the first “wave of democracy” and its subsequent reversal, that is 1870–1938. The main contribution of this paper is the compilation of a dataset covering 24 countries over this period to begin to address this question. Utilizing various descriptive techniques, including panel data regressions, we explore correlations between central government spending and the institutional characteristics of regimes. We find that the data are consistent with the hypothesis that democracies have a broader need for legitimization than autocracies as various measures of democracy are associated with higher central government spending. Our results indicate that the extension of franchise had a slight positive impact on central government spending levels, as did a few of the other democracy variables. We also find that early liberal democracies spent less and monarchies more than other regimes; debt increases spending; and participation in the Gold Standard reduced government spending substantially.

Book part
Publication date: 28 April 2016

Peter J. Boettke and Liya Palagashvili

During times of economic crises, the public policy response is to abandon basic economic thinking and engage in “emergency economic” policies. We explore how the current…

Abstract

During times of economic crises, the public policy response is to abandon basic economic thinking and engage in “emergency economic” policies. We explore how the current financial crisis was in part caused by previous emergency economic measures. We then investigate the theoretical limitations of emergency economic responses. We argue that these responses fail to take into consideration the practical conditions of politics, thereby making them unsuitable to remedy the problems of a crisis. Lastly, we provide a preliminary analysis of the consequences resulting from emergency economic policies initiated in response to the 2008 financial crisis.

Book part
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Samuel Demeulemeester

This chapter discusses the “seigniorage argument” in favor of public money issuance, according to which public finances could be improved if the state more fully exercised…

Abstract

This chapter discusses the “seigniorage argument” in favor of public money issuance, according to which public finances could be improved if the state more fully exercised the privilege of money creation, which is, today, largely shared with private banks. This point was made in the 1930s by several proponents of the “100% money” reform scheme, such as Henry Simons of the University of Chicago, Lauchlin Currie of Harvard and Irving Fisher of Yale, who called for a full-reserve requirement in lawful money behind checking deposits. One of their claims was that, by returning all seigniorage profit to the state, such reform would allow a significant reduction of the national debt. In academic debates, however, following a criticism first made by Albert G. Hart of the University of Chicago in 1935, this argument has generally been discarded as wholly illusory. Hart argued that, because the state, under a 100% system, would be likely to pay the banks a subsidy for managing checking accounts, no substantial debt reduction could possibly be expected to follow. The 100% money proponents never answered Hart’s criticism, whose conclusion has often been considered as definitive in the literature. However, a detailed study of the subject reveals that Hart’s analysis itself appears to be questionable on at least two grounds: the first pertains to the sources of the seigniorage benefit, the other to its distribution. This chapter concludes that the “seigniorage argument” of the 100% money authors may not have been entirely unfounded.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Symposium on Public Finance in the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-699-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Eduardo Lima Campos and Rubens Penha Cysne

The objective of this work is to investigate the existence of structural breaks in multicointegration models estimated for Brazilian fiscal variables and to identify their…

293

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this work is to investigate the existence of structural breaks in multicointegration models estimated for Brazilian fiscal variables and to identify their effects on the sustainability or not of this country`s fiscal policy between December 1997 and June 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply the econometric multicointegration method, in order to analyze long-term relationships between accumulated revenue and expenses of Brazilian central government and the stock of its debt, incorporating structural breaks, over the study period.

Findings

The unsustainability of the debt/GDP ratio is found here, as in a previous work, but now considering a structural break. As one of the contributions, the present work makes it possible to identify the date as of which Brazilian fiscal policy may have become unsustainable: May 2014.

Originality/value

The work points out the worsening of Brazilian fiscal situation as of 2014. The authors adapted original methodologies both in model specification and in the stationarity test used. The estimated parameters before and after structural break allow for identifying changes in fiscal variables that may have led to unsustainability, thus providing possible guidance for fiscal policy.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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