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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

William Gerard Ryan, Alex Fenton, Wasim Ahmed and Phillip Scarf

The purpose of this research is to explore and define the digital maturity of events using the Industry 4.0 model (I4.0) to create a definition for Events 4.0 (E4.0) and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore and define the digital maturity of events using the Industry 4.0 model (I4.0) to create a definition for Events 4.0 (E4.0) and to place various relevant technologies on a scale of digital maturity.

Design/methodology/approach

In a mixed methods approach, we carried out a qualitative social media analysis and a quantitative survey of tourism and events academics. These surveys and the thorough literature review that preceded them allowed us to map the digital technologies used in events to levels of a digital maturity model.

Findings

We found that engagement with technology at events and delegate knowledge satisfactorily coexists for and across a number of different experiential levels. However, relative to I4.0, event research and the events industry appear to be digitally immature. At the top of the digital maturity scale, E4.0 might be defined as an event that is digitally managed; frequently upgrades its digital technology; fully integrates its communication systems; and optimizes digital operations and communication for event delivery, marketing, and customer experience. We expect E4.0 to drive further engagement with digital technologies and develop further research.

Originality/value

This study has responded to calls from the academic literature to provide a greater understanding of the digital maturity of events and how events engage with digital technology. Furthermore, the research is the first to introduce the concept of E4.0 into the academic literature. This work also provides insights for events practitioners which include the better understanding of the digital maturity of events and the widespread use of digital technology in event delivery.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1984

Terry Ford

DELIVERY of the first of 12 Boeing 757's powered by Rolls‐Royce RB 211–535 E4 turbofans was made to Eastern Airlines in October and the aircraft entered service with the…

Abstract

DELIVERY of the first of 12 Boeing 757's powered by Rolls‐Royce RB 211–535 E4 turbofans was made to Eastern Airlines in October and the aircraft entered service with the carrier a short while afterwards. This followed a comprehensive programme of testing which culminated in certification of the powerplant by the FAA. Flight testing included engine operating characteristics, in‐flight starts and general aircraft performance as well as flight deck electronic/engine compatibility and the collection of pertinent data for flight manual revisions. Eastern Airlines at present operates a fleet of fifteen RB 211–535 C powered 757's which will be retrofitted with the —535 E4. In the UK, Monarch Airlines' Boeing 757's will also be retrofitted with the new engines.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 56 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Abstract

Details

Advances in Accounting Education Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-868-1

Content available

Abstract

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2019

Mireia Guix, Xavier Font and Maria Jesus Bonilla-Priego

This paper aims to examine the choices made by the hotel industry about what to include, and who to be accountable to, in their sustainability reports; a process defined…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the choices made by the hotel industry about what to include, and who to be accountable to, in their sustainability reports; a process defined as materiality assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the findings of semi-structured interviews with eight sustainability managers (from eight of the world’s 50 largest hotel groups) to explore their understanding of, and use of, materiality and any barriers to its uptake and eight industry sustainability experts to assess the general industry-wide application of materiality.

Findings

Sustainability managers from large hotel groups are evasive when disclosing their materiality criteria, their decision-making processes and how they aggregate stakeholder feedback; they limit their disclosure to the reporting process. Sustainability managers are disempowered, with limited resources, time, knowledge and skills to apply to materiality assessment. Experts confirm that hotel groups are unsystematic and opaque about their decision-making and how they control their materiality assessments.

Practical implications

Materiality assessment is concealed from the public and may be constructed around business imperatives with high managerial capture. The hospitality industry needs to improve its sustainability reporting by examining how it defines and applies materiality and by addressing the barriers identified, if it is to demonstrate an enduring commitment to sustainability and organisational legitimacy.

Originality/value

This study addresses the limited knowledge of how hotel groups undertake materiality assessments. It identifies gaps in the conception and application of materiality by pinpointing barriers to its uptake and recommending areas in need of further research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Pekka Leviäkangas, Marcus Wigan and Harri Haapasalo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the returns to the investors and the state in private finance of road infrastructure. It uses an empirical case of the E4

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the returns to the investors and the state in private finance of road infrastructure. It uses an empirical case of the E4 Helsinki-Lahti road, which was built in 1995-1999 in Finland as the first real PPP-project.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis adopts an approach based on cash flow modelling of the project and the analyses show how the cash flows are formed and divided between the various stakeholders. The pure cash flow based approach to compare the economics of PPP vs traditional procurement of road infrastructure projects produced results that pose challenges to the logic, and pros and cons of shadow toll PPPs.

Findings

The analysis shows that potential win-win situations are hard to find in shadow toll arrangements. This is largely due to the different discount rates used by investors and state. It is argued that the state does not include all the true costs in its appraisal of projects. Private investors, in principle and as a rule, price all of the relevant risks and uncertainties of which they are cognisant.

Originality/value

The paper presents an analytical cash flow model that can be applied a wider range of PPP projects than simply to shadow toll roads. The paper contributes to the discussion on the viability of PPPs in different contexts.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1930

Planes and the like, construction of; framework.—Cantilever wings, braced against torsional deflection, have spaced spars, composed of upper and lower narrow booms b1 b2…

Abstract

Planes and the like, construction of; framework.—Cantilever wings, braced against torsional deflection, have spaced spars, composed of upper and lower narrow booms b1 b2, c1 c2 and webs b3, c3, stayed apart at intervals by compression ribs d and thus divided into rectangular or trapezoidal sections from the root to the outer end, and braced by triangular tension bracing members e1 e2, e3 e4, f1 f2, f3 f4, having their bases on the upper and lower booms and the apices of the bracing members on the upper booms of different spars connected together and also the apices of bracing members on the lower booms connected together to form opposed pyramids e1. . e4 and f1 . . f4, the apices of one pyramid being stayed apart from the apices of the opposite pyramid by means of a strut g. Alternatively an intermediate spar may replace the struts g, the apices of the pyramids being located on its booms. Similarly more than three spars may be braced together by tension members forming a link 14, has a lateral extension 4 coupled by a link 5 to a bell‐crank lever 6 which is connected by cables 10, 11 to the brakes on the two sides of the machine. Two additional cables 18, 19 extend from the brakes to the lower end of the lever 15. The cables are normally slack and the slack is taken up sufficiently to apply the brakes only when the control lever 1 is moved to extreme positions. A modification is described in which the cables 10, 11 are connected directly to the lower end of the control column 1. Hydraulically or electrically applied brakes may be used instead of the cable‐actuated brakes shown.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 2 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2020

Ângela Gonçalves, Dina Pereira, João Leitão and Maria del Mar Fuentes

This chapter uses an intellectual capital (IC) qualitative approach for assessing the bio health technologies entrepreneurial ecosystem of a university located in Southern…

Abstract

This chapter uses an intellectual capital (IC) qualitative approach for assessing the bio health technologies entrepreneurial ecosystem of a university located in Southern Europe, aiming to identify the role played by IC in fostering the sustainable success of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. There has been limited research dedicated to deepening the knowledge of the entrepreneurial ecosystems’ dimensions, using an IC lens, in the context of university cities with different dimensions. Small cities may not have some dimensions, so developed, comparing with the ones of the ecosystems of large urban centers. This chapter uses a qualitative approach funded in a case study exploring internal and external stakeholders of a Portuguese entrepreneurial ecosystem, UBImedical, targeted at the bio health sector. The study is part of an exploratory study funded in the scope of a European Project, aiming to explore in a pioneering way the application of the dominant triad of capitals forming IC and, thus, identifying and understanding the dimensions of different entrepreneurial ecosystems. The case study reveals that the IC’s dimensions more critical for the success of the bio health entrepreneurial ecosystems are the structural capital and the relational capital, although human capital is perceived as a basic prerequisite for fostering the entrepreneurial ecosystem’s performance. The results are funded in primary and qualitative data collected from the interviews developed to previously identified external and internal stakeholders of this type of entrepreneurial ecosystem under study.

Details

A Guide to Planning and Managing Open Innovative Ecosystems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-409-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Gustavo Piardi Piardi dos Santos, Serje Schmidt, Manuela Albornoz Gonçalves and Maria Cristina Bohnenberger

This study aims to analyse value co-creation in innovative firms within innovation environments (IEs) in the south region of Brazil from a processual and dynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse value co-creation in innovative firms within innovation environments (IEs) in the south region of Brazil from a processual and dynamic perspective, including its antecedents, initiatives and its outcomes in the multiple facets of the firms’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative and quantitative multi-method study was carried out with the management and support teams of these IEs, as well as with a sample of 91 companies installed.

Findings

The results helped clarify the value co-creation process in IEs of an emerging economy, suggesting under which conditions and how value co-creation practices are performed and its significant role in specific performance dimensions of companies.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to companies and IEs within emerging economies to prioritize practices related to the co-creation of value to enhance their results.

Originality/value

In emerging countries, IEs struggle to apply their scarce resources to the development of hosted firms. Having value co-creation as a concept that presupposes the involvement of the beneficiary and other actors to improve the companies’ value proposition, its practice may constitute a valuable ally in this effort. However, the dynamics of value co-creation in such environments, its antecedents and specific outcomes are still unclear.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Ximena D. Burgin, Sheila Coli Coli and Mayra C. Daniel

The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique event that forced K-12 schools to rethink the delivery of instruction to protect the well-being of school system stakeholders. Teachers…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique event that forced K-12 schools to rethink the delivery of instruction to protect the well-being of school system stakeholders. Teachers, school administrators and parents had to adapt to and embrace new ways of teaching and learning by utilizing available technology. The purpose of this study is to examine the challenges encountered by in-service teachers when moving from face-to-face to online teaching.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized a qualitative phenomenological research methodology to examine Ecuadorian and Uruguayan teachers' perceptions and experiences transitioning from face-to-face to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. This comparative study used convenience sampling to include 12 K-12 teachers from Ecuador and Uruguay.

Findings

The results of this study produced two themes that evidenced the demands placed on educators. The first theme was job demands, relating to teachers' perceptions about workload, preparation time and curriculum issues. The second theme related to available support provided by the school administrators and technology issues faced by teachers and students. Even though the teachers demonstrated adaptability for educating students during the pandemic, the experiences from both countries should be considered by teacher training programs and in post-graduate professional development.

Originality/value

This article examined how COVID-19 affected teachers in Uruguay and Ecuador. Data analysis documented the challenges encountered by teachers transitioning to online learning during the pandemic. The findings inform a larger audience about the needs of teachers working online.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

Keywords

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