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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

William Gerard Ryan, Alex Fenton, Wasim Ahmed and Phillip Scarf

The purpose of this research is to explore and define the digital maturity of events using the Industry 4.0 model (I4.0) to create a definition for Events 4.0 (E4.0) and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore and define the digital maturity of events using the Industry 4.0 model (I4.0) to create a definition for Events 4.0 (E4.0) and to place various relevant technologies on a scale of digital maturity.

Design/methodology/approach

In a mixed methods approach, we carried out a qualitative social media analysis and a quantitative survey of tourism and events academics. These surveys and the thorough literature review that preceded them allowed us to map the digital technologies used in events to levels of a digital maturity model.

Findings

We found that engagement with technology at events and delegate knowledge satisfactorily coexists for and across a number of different experiential levels. However, relative to I4.0, event research and the events industry appear to be digitally immature. At the top of the digital maturity scale, E4.0 might be defined as an event that is digitally managed; frequently upgrades its digital technology; fully integrates its communication systems; and optimizes digital operations and communication for event delivery, marketing, and customer experience. We expect E4.0 to drive further engagement with digital technologies and develop further research.

Originality/value

This study has responded to calls from the academic literature to provide a greater understanding of the digital maturity of events and how events engage with digital technology. Furthermore, the research is the first to introduce the concept of E4.0 into the academic literature. This work also provides insights for events practitioners which include the better understanding of the digital maturity of events and the widespread use of digital technology in event delivery.

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International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1984

Terry Ford

DELIVERY of the first of 12 Boeing 757's powered by Rolls‐Royce RB 211–535 E4 turbofans was made to Eastern Airlines in October and the aircraft entered service with the…

Abstract

DELIVERY of the first of 12 Boeing 757's powered by Rolls‐Royce RB 211–535 E4 turbofans was made to Eastern Airlines in October and the aircraft entered service with the carrier a short while afterwards. This followed a comprehensive programme of testing which culminated in certification of the powerplant by the FAA. Flight testing included engine operating characteristics, in‐flight starts and general aircraft performance as well as flight deck electronic/engine compatibility and the collection of pertinent data for flight manual revisions. Eastern Airlines at present operates a fleet of fifteen RB 211–535 C powered 757's which will be retrofitted with the —535 E4. In the UK, Monarch Airlines' Boeing 757's will also be retrofitted with the new engines.

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 56 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Abstract

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Advances in Accounting Education Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-868-1

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Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2019

Mireia Guix, Xavier Font and Maria Jesus Bonilla-Priego

This paper aims to examine the choices made by the hotel industry about what to include, and who to be accountable to, in their sustainability reports; a process defined…

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1001

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the choices made by the hotel industry about what to include, and who to be accountable to, in their sustainability reports; a process defined as materiality assessment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the findings of semi-structured interviews with eight sustainability managers (from eight of the world’s 50 largest hotel groups) to explore their understanding of, and use of, materiality and any barriers to its uptake and eight industry sustainability experts to assess the general industry-wide application of materiality.

Findings

Sustainability managers from large hotel groups are evasive when disclosing their materiality criteria, their decision-making processes and how they aggregate stakeholder feedback; they limit their disclosure to the reporting process. Sustainability managers are disempowered, with limited resources, time, knowledge and skills to apply to materiality assessment. Experts confirm that hotel groups are unsystematic and opaque about their decision-making and how they control their materiality assessments.

Practical implications

Materiality assessment is concealed from the public and may be constructed around business imperatives with high managerial capture. The hospitality industry needs to improve its sustainability reporting by examining how it defines and applies materiality and by addressing the barriers identified, if it is to demonstrate an enduring commitment to sustainability and organisational legitimacy.

Originality/value

This study addresses the limited knowledge of how hotel groups undertake materiality assessments. It identifies gaps in the conception and application of materiality by pinpointing barriers to its uptake and recommending areas in need of further research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Pekka Leviäkangas, Marcus Wigan and Harri Haapasalo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the returns to the investors and the state in private finance of road infrastructure. It uses an empirical case of the E4

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the returns to the investors and the state in private finance of road infrastructure. It uses an empirical case of the E4 Helsinki-Lahti road, which was built in 1995-1999 in Finland as the first real PPP-project.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis adopts an approach based on cash flow modelling of the project and the analyses show how the cash flows are formed and divided between the various stakeholders. The pure cash flow based approach to compare the economics of PPP vs traditional procurement of road infrastructure projects produced results that pose challenges to the logic, and pros and cons of shadow toll PPPs.

Findings

The analysis shows that potential win-win situations are hard to find in shadow toll arrangements. This is largely due to the different discount rates used by investors and state. It is argued that the state does not include all the true costs in its appraisal of projects. Private investors, in principle and as a rule, price all of the relevant risks and uncertainties of which they are cognisant.

Originality/value

The paper presents an analytical cash flow model that can be applied a wider range of PPP projects than simply to shadow toll roads. The paper contributes to the discussion on the viability of PPPs in different contexts.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1930

Planes and the like, construction of; framework.—Cantilever wings, braced against torsional deflection, have spaced spars, composed of upper and lower narrow booms b1 b2…

Abstract

Planes and the like, construction of; framework.—Cantilever wings, braced against torsional deflection, have spaced spars, composed of upper and lower narrow booms b1 b2, c1 c2 and webs b3, c3, stayed apart at intervals by compression ribs d and thus divided into rectangular or trapezoidal sections from the root to the outer end, and braced by triangular tension bracing members e1 e2, e3 e4, f1 f2, f3 f4, having their bases on the upper and lower booms and the apices of the bracing members on the upper booms of different spars connected together and also the apices of bracing members on the lower booms connected together to form opposed pyramids e1. . e4 and f1 . . f4, the apices of one pyramid being stayed apart from the apices of the opposite pyramid by means of a strut g. Alternatively an intermediate spar may replace the struts g, the apices of the pyramids being located on its booms. Similarly more than three spars may be braced together by tension members forming a link 14, has a lateral extension 4 coupled by a link 5 to a bell‐crank lever 6 which is connected by cables 10, 11 to the brakes on the two sides of the machine. Two additional cables 18, 19 extend from the brakes to the lower end of the lever 15. The cables are normally slack and the slack is taken up sufficiently to apply the brakes only when the control lever 1 is moved to extreme positions. A modification is described in which the cables 10, 11 are connected directly to the lower end of the control column 1. Hydraulically or electrically applied brakes may be used instead of the cable‐actuated brakes shown.

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 2 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Zhouyang Gu and Fanchen Meng

In the process of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A), the social capital of enterprises is dynamic. In this context, cross-cultural competence plays an important…

Abstract

Purpose

In the process of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A), the social capital of enterprises is dynamic. In this context, cross-cultural competence plays an important role and can affect the transformation process of social capital and further influence the realisation of M&A performance. However, there is still not enough research on the process of social capital transformation and corporate cross-cultural competence. This study aims to explore the influence mechanism of social capital and the cross-cultural competence of enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, four typical manufacturing M&A case studies were analysed and a grounded theoretical analysis process was used to explore the structure of cross-cultural competence and its impact on the dynamic process of social capital.

Findings

The results of this study imply that social capital experiences three stages of transformation in the process of M&A. There are also four dimensions of corporate cross-cultural competence, which are composed of various factors. These all affect the dynamic process of social capital through different influence mechanisms.

Originality/value

According to the results, a mechanism model was composed to determine how corporate cross-cultural ability affects the social capital process. This is of practical significance as it can enhance the performance of M&A integration in a cross-cultural context.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Victor R. Lee

This paper aims to introduce and explores the use of electrodermal activity (EDA) data as a tool for obtaining data about youth engagement during maker learning activities.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce and explores the use of electrodermal activity (EDA) data as a tool for obtaining data about youth engagement during maker learning activities.

Design/methodology/approach

EDA and survey data were collected from a yearlong afterschool maker program for teens that met weekly and was hosted at a children’s museum. Data from four youth who were simultaneously present for eight weeks were examined to ascertain what experiences and activities were more or less engaging for them, based on psychophysiological measures.

Findings

Most of the focal youth appeared to show higher levels of engagement by survey measures throughout the program. However, when examined by smaller time intervals, certain activities appeared to be more engaging. Planning of maker activities was one space where engagement was higher. Completing sewing projects with minimal social interaction appeared to be less engaging. Specific activities involving common maker technologies yielded mixed levels of engagement.

Originality/value

Some research is emerging that uses EDA data as a basis for generating inferences about various states while participating in maker learning activities. This paper provides a novel analysis building on some techniques established in the still emergent body of prior research in this area.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 12 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Paulo Henrique Bertucci Ramos and Marcelo Caldeira Pedroso

This paper aims to identify and analyze the agtech classification and categorization systems in the Brazilian context.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and analyze the agtech classification and categorization systems in the Brazilian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out according to the protocol of Kitchenham and Charters (2007). The classification systems found in literature were evaluated using the thinking aloud protocol, as proposed by Ericsson and Simon (1993). The responses obtained were evaluated through lexicographic analysis, described by Bécue-Bertaut (2019) and content analysis, described by Bardin (2011).

Findings

SLR identified four agtech classification systems. The model proposed by Dias, Jardim, and Sakuda (2019) was the one with the highest adherence to classify Brazilian agtechs. From the analysis of the systems found in literature, the authors proposed a new categorization model of agricultural startups (agtechs).

Research limitations/implications

The study has limitations in relation to the theoretical and empirical validation of the model proposed by the authors. This limitation can be the subject of subsequent research.

Practical implications

The SLR study considers the evolution of the classification systems of a new agribusiness reality, the agtechs. In addition, there is a practical contribution in proposing a new classification system that attempts to address some of the limitations found in previous studies.

Originality/value

Agtechs are startups focused on developing solutions for agriculture and have shown a significant increase in recent years. However, there are few studies focused on this type of company. Even rarer are the studies that seek to classify and categorize them. The present work opens the horizon for future studies focused on this new reality.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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