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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2018

Ricardo Solis Rosales

This essay explores the critical vision of Francisco Barrera Lavalle about the Mexico’s Monetary Reform of 1905. In his critique, Barrera inserts an argument about the…

Abstract

This essay explores the critical vision of Francisco Barrera Lavalle about the Mexico’s Monetary Reform of 1905. In his critique, Barrera inserts an argument about the nature of the balance of payments in the Mexican economy: the disequilibria in Mexico’s trade balance were structurally recurrent given the characteristics of what the country exports: commodities and raw materials. Barrera believed that the authorities made the mistake of overvaluing the peso, assigning it a value higher than what silver currency was worth at the time on international markets. Barrera also dismissed the idea that monetary stability could be achieved by suspending the free coinage of silver currency. Finally, Barrera held that banks should be obligated to pay their banknotes in gold, as they were in Great Britain and in the United States, not in silver coins.

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Including a Symposium on Latin American Monetary Thought: Two Centuries in Search of Originality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-431-2

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Book part
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Christina Laskaridis

After the end of the Napoleonic War, few issues of public policy dominated discussions in England as fervently as the issue of currency and the national debt. A time of…

Abstract

After the end of the Napoleonic War, few issues of public policy dominated discussions in England as fervently as the issue of currency and the national debt. A time of civil unrest and social radicalisation, the circulation of ideas and pamphlets was prolific. The difficulties of post-war reconstruction sparked a long debate on issues of monetary reform and repayment of the national debt. The growth of national debt increased the size of the financial market and had important consequences for a changing class dynamic in domestic political affairs. The distributional aspects of the conflict were present, as was the satirical mockery of mishandling of public affairs. In much of the subsequent scholarship the organisation of taxation and expenditure, and the financial system and the issue of currency have been analysed as separate. This chapter brings them together. In particular, it focuses on Ricardo’s monetary thought and his views on public finance and contextualises them in light of his contemporaries.

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Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Symposium on Public Finance in the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-699-5

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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2018

Esteban Pérez Caldentey and Matías Vernengo

Traditionally, monetary policy in Latin America followed the recommendations of the missions of the monetary “doctors” who defended an independent central bank and a…

Abstract

Traditionally, monetary policy in Latin America followed the recommendations of the missions of the monetary “doctors” who defended an independent central bank and a pro-cyclical monetary policy, adhering to the automatic adjustment of the gold standard. A key function of central banks was to support fiscal stability. The effects of the Great Depression and its aftermath in the periphery countries questioned these recommendations and gave way to a shift in monetary policy. An illustrative example is provided by the creation of the Central Bank of the Argentina Republic (BCRA) under the auspices of Raúl Prebisch, and the technical assistance missions of the United States Federal Reserve to several Latin American countries some of which were led by Robert Triffin. Prebisch actively participated in mission to Paraguay and the Dominican Republic bringing the experience he had acquired as director of the BCRA and the tools devised to adapt monetary policy to a changing external context and circumstances. The use of the discount window and exchange controls, among other instruments, was seen in this new view as necessary to pursue counter-cyclical policies and to provide support for industrialization and full employment in the periphery.

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Including a Symposium on Latin American Monetary Thought: Two Centuries in Search of Originality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-431-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1982

W.M. Scammell

There have been three essays in international monetary reform during the past 40 years. The first was unique in that, at Bretton Woods in 1944, representatives of two…

Abstract

There have been three essays in international monetary reform during the past 40 years. The first was unique in that, at Bretton Woods in 1944, representatives of two nations dominated the planning of a world monetary system which was, in essence, to endure for twenty‐five years. The uniqueness of this lay in the clean start made possible by the vacuum left by the war — an opportunity certainly not to be repeated. The fact that the Bretton Woods system prevailed, with modification and adaptation, for almost as long as the international gold standard testifies to the fact that its planning was not ill done.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2017

Sergio Rossi

This chapter argues that monetary integration must precede, rather than follow, monetary unification, in order to avoid the occurrence of structural and systemic crises…

Abstract

This chapter argues that monetary integration must precede, rather than follow, monetary unification, in order to avoid the occurrence of structural and systemic crises. It briefly overviews the relevant literature on european monetary union (EMU) with regard to the criteria to set up an optimum currency area (OCA) according to the mainstream view. It then points out that adopting the euro as single currency for a number of heterogeneous countries led inevitably to a number of major negative effects, so much so because of the counterproductive financial constraints induced by the Euro-area fiscal and monetary policies framework. Particularly, the lack of fiscal transfers between these countries and the dogmatic attitude of the European Central Bank (ECB) as regards its policy strategy and goal increase, rather than reducing, the unemployment rate, and the degree of financial instability across the euro area. In fact, a way out of the euro area exists without renouncing to the (long-run) benefits of monetary integration. It implies that countries whose population suffers most of “fiscal consolidation” introduce their national currencies again, limiting the use of the euro to their central banks only, in order for them to settle all international trade and financial-market transactions carried out by residents in these countries. This monetary–structural reform will be instrumental in increasing financial stability and employment levels across Europe, thereby inducing positive effects also for trade and public finance.

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Economic Imbalances and Institutional Changes to the Euro and the European Union
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-510-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

GEORGE C. ABBOTT

1978 will probably turn out to be one of the most momentous years in the post‐war history of international monetary affairs. It was the year in which the leaders of the…

Abstract

1978 will probably turn out to be one of the most momentous years in the post‐war history of international monetary affairs. It was the year in which the leaders of the European Economic Community (EEC) made the first positive steps towards the establishment of a European Monetary System (EMS). It was also the year in which members of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) adopted the Second Amendment to the Fund's Articles of Agreement.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Sherine Al-shawarby and Mai El Mossallamy

This paper aims to estimate a New Keynesian small open economy dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model for Egypt using Bayesian techniques and data for the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to estimate a New Keynesian small open economy dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model for Egypt using Bayesian techniques and data for the period FY2004/2005:Q1-FY2015/2016:Q4 to assess monetary and fiscal policy interactions and their impact on economic stabilization. Outcomes of monetary and fiscal authority commitment to policy instruments, interest rate, government spending and taxes, are evaluated using Taylor-type and optimal simple rules.

Design/methodology/approach

The study extends the stylized micro-founded small open economy New Keynesian DSGE model, proposed by Lubik and Schorfheide (2007), by explicitly introducing fiscal policy behavior into the model (Fragetta and Kirsanova, 2010 and Çebi, 2011). The model is calibrated using quarterly data for Egypt on key macroeconomic variables during FY2004/2005:Q1-FY2015/2016:Q4; and Bayesian methods are used in estimation.

Findings

The results show that monetary and fiscal policy instruments in Egypt contribute to economic stability through their effects on inflation, output and debt stock. The monetary policy Taylor rule estimates reveal that the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) attaches significant importance to anti-inflationary policy and (to a lesser extent) to output targeting but responds weakly to nominal exchange rate variations. CBE decisions are significantly influenced by interest rate smoothing. Egyptian fiscal policy has an important role in output and government debt stabilization. Additionally, the fiscal authority chooses pro-cyclical government spending and counter-cyclical tax policies for output stabilization. Again, past values of the fiscal instruments are influential in the evolution of the future fiscal policy-making process.

Originality/value

A few studies have examined the interaction between monetary and fiscal policy in Egypt within a unified framework. The presented paper integrates the monetary and fiscal policy analysis within a unified dynamic general equilibrium open economy rational expectations framework. Without such a framework, it would not be easy to jointly analyze monetary and fiscal transmission mechanisms for output, inflation and debt. Also, it would be neither possible to contrast the outcome of monetary and fiscal authorities commitment to a simple Taylor instrument rule vis-à-vis optimal policy outcomes nor to assess the behavior of monetary and fiscal agents in macroeconomic stability in context of an active/passive policy decisions framework.

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Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3561

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Conglai Fan and Gao Jiechao

In recent years, with the gradual differentiation of economic and financial cycles, it has been increasingly difficult for monetary policies to remain balanced in…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, with the gradual differentiation of economic and financial cycles, it has been increasingly difficult for monetary policies to remain balanced in stabilizing both economy and finance. Taking the period of 1999–2017 as a sample, the purpose of this paper is to find whether the synergy between the growth cycle and the price cycle is constantly improving in the economic cycle is more appropriate.

Design/methodology/approach

The key to stabilizing the economic cycle lies in the monetary policy and it should abandon the goal of boosting growth in a timely manner and turn into the goal of maintaining steady growth. At present, quantitative monetary policy is still more effective than price-oriented monetary policy in smoothing the economic cycle.

Findings

The impact of quantitative regulation on the financial cycle is more neutral, whereas price regulation will increase the volatility of price and financial cycles in the course of smoothing the growth cycle. In view of the continuous differentiation between the economic and financial cycles, it is realistic and reasonable to accelerate the establishment of a sound dual-pillar regulatory framework of “monetary policy and macro-prudential policy.”

Originality/value

The macro-prudential policy is specially used to smooth the financial cycle, so as to reduce the burden and increase the efficiency of the monetary policy on regulating economic cycle. Moreover, the transformation of monetary policy to price-oriented regulation must keep pace with the construction of the dual-pillar regulation framework and complement each other to prevent undesirable consequences in the financial sector. On the other hand, monetary policy still needs to rely on quantitative regulation in the future. The research in this paper also provides a new perspective for understanding the internal and external reform of China’s monetary policy in recent years.

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China Political Economy, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1983

A.N. McLeod

The functioning of the international monetary system as institutionalised under the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund after World War II began to…

Abstract

The functioning of the international monetary system as institutionalised under the Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund after World War II began to deteriorate after 1957. By that date many European countries had sufficiently recovered or improved their competitive positions in world markets to enable them to replenish their external reserves and make their currencies convertible. Up to that point their acquisitions of gold and US dollars must be viewed as a healthy redistribution of international reserves, But thereafter dollar surpluses replaced the alleged dollar shortages of earlier years on international markets. Recurring runs on the dollar appeared, vying with the periodic runs on sterling as threats to the stability of the system.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2010

Michael Sakbani

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the crisis, its causes and the corrective policy actions with the aim of drawing up from that a set of economics…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the crisis, its causes and the corrective policy actions with the aim of drawing up from that a set of economics policy and substantive implications and conclusions.

Design/methodology/approach

To throw into sharp relief the causes and particular features of the financial crisis, the paper traces the combined evolution of financial innovations and globalization which underscores the eruption of the crisis. It then analyzes the recession and the ensuing policy actions. The US actions are examined in detail by analyzing the pertinent technical, macroeconomics, and political issues. Thereafter, elements of reforms are outlined, which in part draw on the work of the Bank of International Settlements. This leads into substantive and policy conclusions of great significance.

Findings

The paper elucidates the major historic changes observed in monetary policy design and execution. It also brings out the changes in the empirical size of the various fiscal policy lags as compared with the received literature. It is argued that if the policy actions succeed the empirical relevance of the modern quantity theory and new classical macroeconomics would be thrown into question. Other set of conclusions involves setting up an internationally coordinated of financial regulations and bank supervision. It is argued that reforming the international monetary system has become unavoidable. There are also a host of specific other conclusions.

Originality/value

The conclusions and analysis contained in this paper are totally new. Given their comprehensiveness and global orientation, they will presage in future work, an overdue revision in received macroeconomic theory and financial supervision not seen since the 1960s.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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