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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2016

Carlo Cristiano

Marshall, Pigou, and Keynes on one side of the Atlantic, and Fisher on the other, had different approaches to the quantity theory of money. But they shared its basic…

Abstract

Marshall, Pigou, and Keynes on one side of the Atlantic, and Fisher on the other, had different approaches to the quantity theory of money. But they shared its basic framework, with the result that theoretical discussions did not prevent some degree of mutual support on policy proposals. If a divergence there was, at this stage, this pertained the feasibility of Fisher’s proposals, because Fisher’s enthusiasm for reform could find no match at Cambridge. This notwithstanding, and although in varying degrees, Marshall, Pigou, and Keynes were sympathetic with Fisher’s battle for “stable money.” Indeed, a fragment from the Keynes Papers shows that, at a very early stage of his career, Keynes paid great attention to Fisher’s empirical research on the relationship between “Appreciation and interest,” taking the relation between nominal and real rates of interest as a possible explanation of the trade cycle. For some time at least, this widened the common ground upon which Fisher’s proposals for “stable money” could find some support at Cambridge.

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Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-962-6

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Raja Swamy

Anthropologists who study disasters share the widely acknowledged understanding that the effects of disasters tend to be more severe among economically and socially…

Abstract

Anthropologists who study disasters share the widely acknowledged understanding that the effects of disasters tend to be more severe among economically and socially marginalized communities than others. Moreover, while poverty intensifies the effects of disasters, it also places survivors at the mercy of policies they have little control over because they often tend to be socially and politically marginalized on account of their poverty. Social vulnerability in other words is a determining factor in shaping the vulnerability of populations to catastrophic events. While scholars tend to focus on the catastrophic event itself as the locus of analysis, it has also become amply clear that such studies need to be in conversation with those that explore the long-term trajectories and effects of social inequality. Drawing upon fieldwork conducted in southern India among artisanal fisher communities affected by the tsunami of 2004, this paper argues that the conceptual aims and claims of the vulnerability concept ought to be extended beyond the confines of the disaster (conceptualized as event), to the broader historical sweep of unequal social relations of production, exchange and consumption within which such communities find themselves. Positioned at a disadvantage in relation to powerful players such as the state, multilateral entities and private big capital, such communities nevertheless might also become important loci of possibility, as they bring to bear their own critiques of power, and fashion political strategies that often frustrate and undermine the conceptual frameworks and goals of contemporary capitalist-led development.

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Individual and Social Adaptations to Human Vulnerability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-175-9

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2017

Masazumi Wakatabe

This chapter investigates the nature of the transformation of macroeconomics by focusing on the impact of the Great Depression on economic doctrines. There is no doubt…

Abstract

This chapter investigates the nature of the transformation of macroeconomics by focusing on the impact of the Great Depression on economic doctrines. There is no doubt that the Great Depression exerted an enormous influence on economic thought, but the exact nature of its impact should be examined more carefully. In this chapter, I examine the transformation from a perspective which emphasizes the interaction between economic ideas and economic events, and the interaction between theory and policy rather than the development of economic theory. More specifically, I examine the evolution of what became known as macroeconomics after the Depression in terms of an ongoing debate among the “stabilizers” and their critics. I further suggest using four perspectives, or schools of thought, as measures to locate the evolution and transformation; the gold standard mentality, liquidationism, the Treasury view, and the real-bills doctrine. By highlighting these four economic ideas, I argue that what happened during the Great Depression was the retreat of the gold standard mentality, the complete demise of liquidationism and the Treasury view, and the strange survival of the real-bills doctrine. Each of those transformations happened not in response to internal debates in the discipline, but in response to government policies and real-world events.

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Including a Symposium on New Directions in Sraffa Scholarship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-539-9

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Book part
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Raja Swamy

This chapter examines the manner in which a disaster-affected population of artisanal fishers relocated inland to new sites following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004…

Abstract

This chapter examines the manner in which a disaster-affected population of artisanal fishers relocated inland to new sites following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 experienced and adapted to problems of water quality, scarcity, sanitation, and drainage. While numerous studies of conflicts over water tend to focus on issues of equitable access (see Anand, 2011), this chapter seeks to link the problem to the contested priorities driving land and resource use and access. I show how inland relocation negatively impacted households, making it harder to sustain livelihoods due to distance from the coast, while imposing new costs including that of commodified and scarce water, locational deficiencies, and the structural weaknesses of new housing. Placed in a historical context, the problem of water can be seen as an aspect of the long-term problem of ecologically unequal exchange pitting local artisanal fisher communities against an aggressively state-supported commercial fishery sector. The continuity I seek to hone in on is the pattern of imposing costs on fishers while enabling the alienation and privatization of coastal resources. Taking water not only as a vital substance presenting questions of access and quality but also as a problem of drainage and effluence enables a fuller consideration of how the unequal distribution of costs on poorer populations became legitimized in the name of recovery. At the same time, the chapter also highlights the manner in which fishers refused to remain docile subjects of power and used their agency and autonomy in adapting to and sometimes refusing the terms of relocation.

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Anthropological Enquiries into Policy, Debt, Business, and Capitalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-659-4

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Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-807-0

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Article
Publication date: 25 December 2020

Ibrahim Abdullah Al-Qartoubi and Hussein Samh Al-Masroori

This study integrates fishers’ and decision-makers’ views on the critical factors for non-compliance in the artisanal fisheries of Oman.

Abstract

Purpose

This study integrates fishers’ and decision-makers’ views on the critical factors for non-compliance in the artisanal fisheries of Oman.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was implemented covering all coastal governorates of Oman. The questionnaires for fishers and decision-makers contained 46 and 43 questions, respectively, divided into various sections based on the Table of Eleven. Compliance factors were divided into spontaneous factors and enforcement factors. The data were collected through 1,242 questionnaires (1,125 fishers and 117 decision-makers).

Findings

The results indicated that spontaneous compliance factors (e.g. financial/economic, level of knowledge and social norms) and enforced compliance factors (e.g. social control, sanction certainty and sanction severity) have a significant influence on fishers' motivation to comply with regulations. The chi-square test (X2) was used to show that the differences between the means of responses of fishers and decision-makers in regard to the factors that influence non-compliance in the fishery were insignificant.

Originality/value

This consistency of opinions has an essential policy inference for the regulatory institutions in that it delivers assistance and trust in fisheries management authority's efforts to create effective compliance plans for the fisheries.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

Riad Mohammed Sultan

This study investigates whether higher catch rates near a marine protected area (MPA), and/or in other fishing areas within a choice set, attract more fishers. A survey…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates whether higher catch rates near a marine protected area (MPA), and/or in other fishing areas within a choice set, attract more fishers. A survey conducted in the fishing grounds near an MPA located in south east of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean shows concentration of fishers in regions with lower catch rates. This contrasts with the predictions of the “fishing the line” hypothesis and the ideal free distribution (IFD) that fishers are likely to be attracted near the MPA with higher resource abundance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the random utility model as the framework and the random parameter logit (RPL) model, the study attempts to explain spatial behaviour of fishers. Expected catch and catch variability are modelled using the Just and Pope (JP) production function. The study also estimates effort elasticities with respect to expected catch and catch variability and simulates the relocation of effort from area closure.

Findings

The paper concludes that higher catch does attract fishers but is a partial and very restrictive explanation of fishers' behaviour. The “fishing the line” hypothesis does hold to some extent, but it should not be taken for granted that rising catch rates in adjacent waters will increase fishing pressure. The paper concludes that factors such as catch variability, distance from homeport to fishing ground, potential physical risk and attitudes towards risk of fishers affect spatial behaviour of fishers and should be considered for the placement and size of MPAs. The study also finds that the responsiveness of effort to catch rates is lowest in areas which are already heavily fished and easily accessible.

Practical implications

The identification of fishing areas as complements (when fishing in one area increases fishing effort in another) and substitutes is valuable information for determining the placement and size of an MPA. A larger reserve is likely to have more displacement effect in this case than a smaller one. Therefore, a small or a network of a small reserve may be appropriate. The premise to select the site and size of the reserve is to avoid overconcentration of fishers in alternative fishing areas, which can be vulnerable to excessive fishing and unintended effects from fishers.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to an understanding of fishing behaviour and its impact on the configuration of marine reserves. It discusses the importance of effort elasticities to determine the placement and size of an MPA. Studies on this topic are very scanty in the Indian Ocean region. It also shows the application of location choice model, the RPL model and the JP production function in the fisheries sector for a small island.

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Marine Economics and Management, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-158X

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Geoffrey Sherington

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the War on two prominent academic liberal historians.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the War on two prominent academic liberal historians.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on a narrative of their lives and careers before and during the War.

Findings

The findings include an analysis of how the War engaged these academic liberals in the pursuit of the War effort.

Originality/value

By the end of the War, both sought to reaffirm much of their earlier academic liberalism despite the political and social changes in the post-war world.

Details

History of Education Review, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0819-8691

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Sonia M. Lo and Damien Power

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the relationship between product nature and supply chain strategy, by using Fisher's model as the framework.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the relationship between product nature and supply chain strategy, by using Fisher's model as the framework.

Design/methodology/approach

The research collected quantitative data by conducting a questionnaire‐based survey, with a total of 119 respondent organisations (of which 107 were usable), at an adjusted response rate of 8 per cent. The survey results provide the basis for the testing of Fisher's model relating product characteristics to supply chain strategy.

Findings

The results indicate that the association between product nature and supply chain strategy as articulated in Fisher's model is not significant. A hybrid strategy (pursuing both efficiency and responsiveness) is found to be employed by most organisations irrespective of the nature of the primary product they supply.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis is based on survey responses gathered within the Australian manufacturing industry. The findings of the study have implications for understanding the drivers of supply chain strategy, and how other factors, in addition to product type, influence supply chain positioning.

Practical implications

The study identifies additional factors which might be influential in the determination of supply chain strategy. It provides practitioners with guidance in choosing an appropriate strategy to deal with supply chain partners.

Originality/value

The contribution of the study lies in extending the body of knowledge of supply chain strategy. It tests an existing framework which has only very limited empirical validation, and provides a broader understanding of the influence of product nature on the choice of supply chain strategy.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

Louise Teh, William W.L. Cheung, Andy Cornish, Clarus Chu and U. Rashid Sumaila

Hong Kong's largely unregulated fisheries are in a state of biological and economic decline. The government has proposed new fisheries management regulations which will…

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1159

Abstract

Purpose

Hong Kong's largely unregulated fisheries are in a state of biological and economic decline. The government has proposed new fisheries management regulations which will likely restrict fishing effort. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate: fishers' willingness and capacity to switch to alternative jobs or livelihoods; and the feasibility of the marine recreation sector to provide alternative employment options for fishers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted interviews to find out about perceptions and attitudes towards the proposed management regulations, and alternative livelihood options for fishers. They interviewed participants in the fisheries sector (mainly fishers) and the marine recreation sector. A questionnaire was also mailed or faxed to marine recreation businesses throughout Hong Kong.

Findings

It was found that up to 75 per cent of fishers interviewed were generally willing to leave the fishery if they were provided with adequate compensation, but they were not optimistic about finding suitable jobs due to their limited skills and education. About 55 per cent of marine recreation respondents said they would consider hiring fishers; however, there were unlikely to be sufficient jobs for all the potentially displaced fishers. Hence, fishers have to look outside the marine sector for alternative livelihoods.

Practical implications

The results highlight that a sizable portion of fishers are willing to depart from “their way of life” under the right conditions. This indicates that, the government can help restore Hong Kong's fisheries and fisher livelihoods by providing appropriate training and designing acceptable compensation packages for fishers.

Originality/value

The study reported in this paper is significant because it shows that fishing is no longer economically profitable for Hong Kong's fishers, a situation which can largely be attributed to the lack of fisheries management in Hong Kong, which has dissipated biological and economic productivity of the fisheries' resources.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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