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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2013

Jaanika Meriküll, Tairi Rõõm and Karsten Staehr

Purpose — The chapter assesses the linkages between unreported economic activities and different individualistic and non-individualistic motives as perceived by firm…

Abstract

Purpose — The chapter assesses the linkages between unreported economic activities and different individualistic and non-individualistic motives as perceived by firm management.Design/methodology/approach — The empirical research is based on a survey of the management of firms operating in the Baltic States. The survey contains information on the perceived extent of unreported activities and on a large number of firm-, sector-, and country-specific factors. A principal component analysis identifies clusters of motives for unreported activity. Regression analyses ascertain the importance of motives individually and as principal components on the extent of unreported activities.Findings — Both individualistic and non-individualistic motives are important for the prevalence of unreported activities. The individualist motives refer to the management being solely profit-oriented and self-interested. Among possible non-individualist motives, measures of government performance and perceptions of reciprocity towards the government appear to play important roles for the extent of unreported activities, but broader societal norms may also play a role.Research limitations/implications — The study considers the perceptions that managers have of unreported activities and other features. These perceptions are subjective and subject to substantial uncertainty. All results should be interpreted in light of the subjective nature of the survey answers.Social implications — Taken literally, the results suggest that stronger government performance is associated with a reduction in unreported activities, at least as perceived by the management. Broader societal developments may also be of importance.Originality/value — The inclusion of variables capturing individualistic as well as non-individualistic motives gives a comprehensive picture of factors behind unreported activities. We employ principal component analysis which allows us to cluster individual survey answers and to produce composite measures of different explanatory factors.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Michel Laroche, Maria Kalamas and Mark Cleveland

To examine the impact of culture on customer service expectations, specifically, how individualists and collectivists use internal and external sources of information to…

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the impact of culture on customer service expectations, specifically, how individualists and collectivists use internal and external sources of information to formulate their service expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

The context was the airline industry and the subject pool consisted of experienced consumers. A survey was employed to measure individualism/collectivism, various internal/external information sources, and the functional and technical dimensions of “should” and “will” service expectations. Hypothesized relationships were tested using a structural equations modeling approach.

Findings

Both individualists and collectivists relied more on external information sources in formulating their service expectations, gave variable weight to the functional and technical components, and used more realistic “will” expectations to judge service offerings. Internal (external) information sources were relatively more important in forming expectations for collectivists (individualists) than for individualists (collectivists), and “will” (“should”) expectations were more diagnostic for collectivists (individualists) than for individualists (collectivists).

Research limitations/implications

Generalizability of the findings is limited due to the specific industry under study (airlines), the sample (two geographically‐proximate sub‐cultures), and the scope of the cultural variables considered (individualism/collectivism).

Practical implications

Whether managers should leverage the functional and/or technical components of services depends in part on the cultural orientation of their customers. Managers should also recognize that customers’ usage of various information sources in forming service expectations is also, in part, culturally determined.

Originality/value

In this era of globalization, researchers and managers alike need to consider the subtle influences of culture on marketing theories and the formulation of service expectations respectively.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Tao Sun, Marty Horn and Dennis Merritt

Based on a multi‐national lifestyle survey, this study investigated consumer lifestyle differences between individualist cultures (Britain and the USA) and collectivist…

Abstract

Based on a multi‐national lifestyle survey, this study investigated consumer lifestyle differences between individualist cultures (Britain and the USA) and collectivist cultures (China and Japan). Congruent with previous findings on values and lifestyles differences between idiocentrics (individualists) and allocentrics (collectivists) at the emic level (USA), this etic‐level (cross‐cultural) study found that consumers in the individualist cultures, compared with those in the collectivist cultures, were more brand‐savvy, travel‐oriented, satisfied with their lives, financially satisfied and optimistic. They were also more likely to consider themselves better managers of finances. Findings that were incongruent with those at the emic level were also discussed (e.g. dressing behavior, opinion leadership and impulsive buying). Additional findings were provided as well (e.g. family orientation, gender roles, safety/security). The findings carry practical implications for international marketers whose products/services cut across both individualist and collectivist cultures.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Yuka Fujimoto and Charmine E.J. Härtel

The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with…

Abstract

The authors propose that the nature of prejudice differs across cultures. A model is introduced that proposes that the interpersonal perspective associated with individualist cultures (Westerners) leads to interpersonal prejudices, whereas the intergroup perspective associated with collectivist cultures (Easterners) leads to intergroup prejudices. These prejudices, in turn, are argued to impact on the outcomes of individuals working in intercultural teams. An organisational diversity climate of openness fostered by diversity oriented HRM and the combined use of individualist and collectivist HRM policies and practices is proposed to minimize the negative effects of such prejudices can be minimized.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Yuka Fujimoto and Charmine E.J. Härtel

Increasingly, organizations in the Asia‐Pacific region are recognizing the importance of cross‐cultural management to the sustainability of their competitive edge…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasingly, organizations in the Asia‐Pacific region are recognizing the importance of cross‐cultural management to the sustainability of their competitive edge. Although the literature is replete with cross‐cultural studies of individualism and collectivism, little information is available on the factors that foster effective individualist–collectivist interaction (ICI) within organizations. This paper attempts to provide a theoretical description of individualists and collectivists at the individual level of analysis, which offers specific testable hypotheses about the effect of self‐representation on prejudice between individualists and collectivists (ICs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a theoretical model is presented in which intergroup prejudices and interpersonal prejudices mediate the effects of ICI and bicultural orientation toward cross‐cultural experiences and, in which, the dissimilarity openness of the climate moderates the level and outcome of prejudices flowing from ICI.

Findings

The model depicts that the outcomes of ICI are mediated by the intergroup prejudices of collectivists and the interpersonal prejudices of individualists, which are moderated by the extent of diversity‐oriented HRM policies and practices and individuals’ orientation to cross‐cultural experiences. When workforces become culturally diverse, organizations should modify HRM practices to enable the full use of the range of skills and talents available from the diversity, and to ensure affective and behavioral costs are minimized. As globalization and international competition will continue to increase, organizations including those in the Asia‐Pacific region, should seriously re‐evaluate their HRM policies to adapt and take advantage of an increasingly culturally diverse workforce.

Originality/value

The model provides a useful basis upon which organization researchers and practitioners can base their respective agendas.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Vidar Schei and Jørn K. Rognes

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of motivational orientations on negotiation outcomes in unstable negotiation contexts. Instability was created by…

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of motivational orientations on negotiation outcomes in unstable negotiation contexts. Instability was created by pitting individualists against cooperators (mixed dyads), and by giving only one of the parties information about the other party's orientation. A total of 162 subjects participated in negotiation simulations, where orientation and information were manipulated through instructions from management. The cooperative dyads got better outcomes than did the individualistic dyads. The mixed dyads did as well as the cooperative dyads when the cooperators had information, but did as badly as the individualistic dyads when the individualists had information. The process analyses indicated that the dyads with high outcomes achieved their results because the integrative activities increased over time. In the mixed dyads with informed individualists, the individualists reached higher individual outcome than their cooperative (uninformed) opponents. Thus, naive cooperators can easily be exploited.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2009

Kyle Irwin

Why do strangers in collectivist societies act prosocially? Previous work indicates that generalized trust (trust in strangers) is necessary for prosocial behavior;…

Abstract

Why do strangers in collectivist societies act prosocially? Previous work indicates that generalized trust (trust in strangers) is necessary for prosocial behavior; however, generalized trust exists at low levels in collectivist societies. Researchers have also argued that without trust among strangers, social order is threatened. Yet, collectivist societies are not characterized by social disorder; therefore, individuals must be acting prosocially. Without generalized trust, how is this possible? In this work I argue that institutional trust (a belief that institutions induce others to act in a trustworthy manner) is responsible for prosociality in collectivist societies, not generalized trust. Does a similar relationship hold in individualist societies? Although some evidence suggests that prosocial behavior is predicated by generalized trust, other evidence indicates that the stronger predictor is institutional trust. All arguments are tested with data from the World Values Survey (WVS) with data from 14 countries. Results from regression analyses are reported. The chapter concludes with implications and directions for future work.

Details

Altruism and Prosocial Behavior in Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-573-0

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Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

JungHwa (Jenny) Hong and Kyung-Ah (Kay) Byun

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of culture and future orientation in lenders’ prosocial microlending behaviors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of culture and future orientation in lenders’ prosocial microlending behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments examine how different cultural backgrounds, either individualistic or collectivistic, influenced microlenders’ prosocial behaviors, including the amount of microlending, the willingness to help and the length of commitment. Further, the moderating role of future orientation among individualists is investigated.

Findings

Results indicate that cultural differences influence prosocial microlending differently such that individualists give less to people in need compared to collectivists. Further, the author found that future orientation helps lenders in individualistic culture to improve prosocial microlending behaviors.

Originality/value

This paper emphasizes the role of cultural background and future orientation in promoting lenders’ prosocial giving in the context of microlending. The results assist social marketers to understand how to motivate giving behaviors via microlending among lenders in different cultures depending on future orientation.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Nazim N. Habibov

Low‐income transitional countries in the region of the Caucasus and Central Asia lack the existence of a solid assessment of public perceptions regarding the causes of…

Abstract

Purpose

Low‐income transitional countries in the region of the Caucasus and Central Asia lack the existence of a solid assessment of public perceptions regarding the causes of poverty during transition. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap in the existing literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the secondary analysis of a recent cross‐sectional multinational survey to shed light on public beliefs of the causes of poverty in seven countries of the region – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. In addition, Russia and Ukraine are used as a comparison point. The theoretical framework for this study is that the subjective beliefs regarding the explanations of poverty can be classified into three broad groups: individualistic, fatalistic, and structural. Hence, regression coefficients and marginal effects of the multinomial logit regression model (MNLM) are estimated to associate the set of various individual, households, and community characteristics selected in the conceptual framework with the likelihood of choosing one of the three afore‐mentioned explanations of poverty.

Findings

The results of cross‐tabulation reveal that in a majority of the countries studied, the predominant explanation for poverty is structural, with the exception of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, where predominant explanations are, respectively, fatalistic and individualistic. The results of MNLM show that most individual, household, and community characteristics possess the expected direction and are in line with previous findings. However, some of the characteristics have a similar significant effect across several countries, while other characteristics are significant for a single country only.

Social implications

These findings demonstrate that despite the dominant post‐socialist ideology which favors individualistic and fatalistic explanations of poverty based on the economic rationality of market capitalism, the efforts of the elites in promoting and imposing these ideologies has not been fully successful. Nevertheless, no single unified model of the determinants of beliefs regarding the causes of poverty in the countries of the region is observed.

Originality/value

This is one of the very few papers aimed at assessing public perceptions regarding the causes of poverty in transitional countries of the Caucasus and Central Asia.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 31 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Edward Shih-Tse Wang

The commitment of service employees to an organization is a critical concern that affects the success of an organization. The purpose of this paper is to investigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The commitment of service employees to an organization is a critical concern that affects the success of an organization. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the social bonds between the supervisor and the employee, and among employees, foster organizational commitment in employees. The study subsequently explored the moderating role of work status (full-time vs parttime) and employee individualistic values in the relationship between social bonding and commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

Empirical data were collected from the frontline employees of restaurants in Taiwan (n=395). Hierarchical moderated regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between social bonds and relationship commitment and the moderating effect of work status and individualistic values on the social bonding-commitment relationship.

Findings

The results show that social bonding is an antecedent to organizational commitment, and work status and individualistic values moderate the social bonding-commitment relationship. The effect of social bonding on organizational commitment is stronger for full-time and less individualistic employees than for part-time and more individualistic employees.

Originality/value

This research contributes to knowledge of the effect of social bonding on employee organizational commitment, and provides evidence showing that work status and employee values affect the social bonding-commitment relationship.

Details

Managing Service Quality, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

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