Search results

1 – 10 of over 4000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2008

Khalil M. Dirani

The aim of this chapter is to study individualism and collectivism as two construct indicators of social patterns in Lebanon using Triandis's (1995) framework of…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to study individualism and collectivism as two construct indicators of social patterns in Lebanon using Triandis's (1995) framework of individualism and collectivism. This study explores the Lebanese autostereotypes and views of their extreme individualism and collectivism compared to the common opinion held by cross-cultural research. The study sheds light on how social patterns of different Lebanese individuals are distributed across four “cultural syndromes,” namely vertical and horizontal collectivism and vertical and horizontal individualism. These four social patterns will be tested against various contextual factors such as age, gender, and education. The results may provide a better idea for managers and human resources practitioners of how to prepare training and evaluation programs for their employees. Findings from 161 respondents showed that the subjects tested tended to be individualistic in their choices, and this suggests that the classification in the literature of the Lebanese as collectivists was based on the fact that there was no evidence to the contrary. Also, results showed a positive correlation between sociodemographic measures (gender, age, education, income, occupation, and location) and individualism. The author argues that these findings might have been the result of the evolution of the Lebanese family in the past 25 years. Suggestions for the use of these results in management and human resources practices and theory are given.

Details

The Global Diffusion of Human Resource Practices: Institutional and Cultural Limits
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1401-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Fauziah Noordin and Kamaruzaman Jusoff

One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the main issues that many organizations will face in the coming years is the management of increasing diversity in the workforce. The purpose of this paper is to examine the levels of individualism and collectivism of managers in two different cultural environments, that is, Malaysia and Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected by questionnaire from middle managers in a total of 18 organisations in Malaysia and ten organisations in Australia. Individualismcollectivism was measured using Singelis et al.'s 32‐item scale. The items in the scale are designed to measure the horizontal and vertical aspects of individualismcollectivism. The items were answered on seven‐point scale where 1 indicates strong disagreement and 7 indicates strong agreement. In addition, the seven‐item job satisfaction measure, which is part of the Survey of Organizations questionnaire developed by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, was used.

Findings

The study reveals the existence of differences between Malaysian and Australian managers on the level of vertical individualism, horizontal collectivism, and vertical collectivism. In addition, the Australian managers appear to have a significantly higher level of job satisfaction than their counterpart in Malaysia.

Research limitations/implications

Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that there have been significant shifts in value classifications in Malaysia since Hofstede conducted his original study. This finding underscores the fact that, although a nation's work‐related values and attitudes are deep‐seated preferences for certain end states; they are subject to change over the years as external environmental changes shape a society. Therefore, researchers and practitioners should use caution before attempting to use work‐related values and attitudes to understand human behaviours in organizations.

Practical implications

The results of this study may be of interest and assistance to managers of multinational and international organizations who need to manage in global contexts and, therefore, need to understand cultural‐driven differences in personal and interpersonal work‐related conditions between and across nations.

Originality/value

The results of this study provide empirical corroboration of the theoretical perspectives of Singelis et al. on individualismcollectivism and horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism respectively. In addition, they may be of interest and assistance to managers of multinational and international organizations who need to manage in global contexts and, therefore, need to understand cultural‐driven differences in work attitudes of employees between and across nations. Finally, the study's findings contribute to a growing body of research that illustrates the need to take a multidimensional approach to the study on individualismcollectivism.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Meera Komarraju, Stephen J. Dollinger and Jennifer L. Lovell

This study aims to examine the role of horizontal and vertical individualismcollectivism in explaining conflict management styles. Design/methodology/approach – A total…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of horizontal and vertical individualismcollectivism in explaining conflict management styles. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 640 respondents completed the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory‐II (ROCI‐II, Form C) designed to assess five conflict management styles and the individualismcollectivism (I‐C) scale designed to assess the vertical and horizontal aspects of individualismcollectivism. Findings – Correlation and regression analyses provide support for a conceptual fit between cultural dimensions and conflict management styles. Horizontal and vertical aspects of individualismcollectivism explained 5‐20 percent of the variance in the various conflict management styles. Specifically, individuals displaying an individualist orientation (horizontal and vertical) tended to give greater importance to satisfying personal needs and preferred a dominating style, rather than an obliging or avoiding style. In contrast, collectivists (horizontal and vertical) seemed more likely to sacrifice personal needs for the sake of the group and preferred an integrating style. Further, horizontal collectivists were more likely to prefer an obliging style and vertical collectivists an avoiding style of conflict management. Research limitations/implications – Generalization is limited to college student samples from the USA. Practical implications – Organizations could provide training programs to sensitize employees to their specific cultural orientations and their preferred conflict management styles. In addition, employees could learn to switch between styles depending on the situation, issue, or relationship within which the conflict is taking place. Originality/value – Highlights the importance of sensitizing employees to their cultural orientation and preferred conflict management style; raises the possibility of training them to develop alternate styles.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Rachid Zeffane

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between individualism/collectivism (as personal traits) and individuals’ potential to become an entrepreneur.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationships between individualism/collectivism (as personal traits) and individuals’ potential to become an entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on a sample of 503 students enrolled in business courses at a university in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It focusses on the concept of Entrepreneurial Potential (EP) as a measure of “desirability and inclination” to start a business. The paper tests the hypothesis that the concepts of individualism and collectivism are not necessarily polar ends of the same continuum and examine their impacts on EP, controlling for age and gender as main demographic characteristics. Four main hypotheses are explored.

Findings

Statistical analysis confirms the two main hypotheses. They reveal that: first, concomitant with the dominant collectivist values at national level, potential future entrepreneurs evolving in the Middle East/Gulf region endorse personal traits of a predominantly collectivist nature; second, contrary to popular assumptions individualism does not have a strong impact on youth EP. In the context of this study, the impact of collectivism on EP is most significant. The paper also found that gender had no significant impact on EP

Research limitations/implications

The use of personality traits alone, as a basis for understanding predictors of EP may not be sufficient. A number of contextual variables (such the socio-cultural and economic context) may also have a strong influence. Unfortunately, it is not possible to test for these effects with the data available in this study. Future research may consider these.

Practical implications

Despite its limited scope (limited sample-size and target population), the findings of this study are useful to both practitioners and policy makers. Management practitioners interested in entrepreneurial behaviors need to take stock of the fact that future entrepreneurs can (and perhaps should be able to) blend their competitive entrepreneurial drive with the spirit of collectivism. This is particularly relevant in selection processes using personality tests for the purpose of extracting the most likely candidates for entrepreneurial ventures involving youth.

Originality/value

The findings of this study do not support the general assumption that individualism and entrepreneurship ties necessarily go hand in hand. They clearly indicate that collectivism has more explanatory power in this regard, though this may be contextual. These findings may be explained by the context of the study (UAE/Middle East). The overwhelming majority of the respondents are from the Middle East and gulf region, where collectivist aspirations are predominant. Yet, the economies of countries in those regions are fuelled by an increasing number of advanced and quite daring entrepreneurial projects, as exemplified by the modernist business ventures in Dubai, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Ana Azevedo, Ellen A. Drost and Michael R. Mullen

Examines critically the bulk of cross‐cultural research involving the constructs of individualism and collectivism. Highlights some of the main conceptual and

Abstract

Examines critically the bulk of cross‐cultural research involving the constructs of individualism and collectivism. Highlights some of the main conceptual and methodological shortcomings in the use of these constructs and the need for refinement and synthesis in definition and measurement. Suggests a research strategy that integrates previous empirical findings in a theory‐driven approach. Proposes multiple group confirmatory factor analysis as a technique for confirming a 2‐2 factor structure for individualism and collectivism and for testing the equivalence of their measures across culturally diverse groups.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 December 2019

Sang Soo Kim

This study aims to pay attention to the role of social contexts, including perceived relationship conflict and coworker support in creating an individualistic or…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to pay attention to the role of social contexts, including perceived relationship conflict and coworker support in creating an individualistic or collectivistic disposition, and how organization members differently behave to share knowledge depending on their personal dispositions.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model was set and PLS-SEM was used to validate the proposed eight hypotheses. A total of 462 survey data were collected from workers in Korea to test the model.

Findings

The findings revealed that both perceived relationship conflict and coworker support positively influence knowledge sharing intention by facilitating formation of individualism and collectivism orientation. In other words, individualism and collectivism are motivated by different factors, which applies equally to knowledge sharing.

Originality/value

This study makes an initial step to explain the relationship between knowledge sharing behavior and individualismcollectivism orientation by using social contexts as a potential antecedent. Especially, along with perceived co-worker support, perceived relationship conflict was also found to have a positive impact on knowledge sharing intention through individualism orientation, which is a significant contribution to the field of knowledge management.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Rebecca Abraham

Presents a study which derives relationships between the personality/cultural variables of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism, on the one hand, and the…

Abstract

Presents a study which derives relationships between the personality/cultural variables of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism, on the one hand, and the organizational criteria of intrapreneurship and organizational commitment on the other. Suggests that horizontal individualism may explain intrapreneurship jointly with a supportive organizational climate. Vertical collectivism demonstrates a direct positive relationship with organizational commitment. Horizontal collectivism varies jointly with work‐group and supervisor commitments in a negative relationship with organizational commitment, indicating a perception of conflict between work‐group and supervisor goals on the one hand and organizational goals on the other. Concludes that, while the basis of the vertical collectivist’s commitment seems unclear, horizontal collectivists base their commitment on compliance or rewards. Discusses theoretical and a few practical implications.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Rebecca Abraham

This study is an extension of an etic‐emic analysis of the individualismcollectivism construct at the sociopsychological level to an organizational context. At the first…

Abstract

This study is an extension of an etic‐emic analysis of the individualismcollectivism construct at the sociopsychological level to an organizational context. At the first level of comparison, strong and weak etics were extracted to permit comparability of values. At the second level, emic elements were produced to provide a basis of intercultural comparisons. Purely individualistic, purely collectivist and multidimensional factors emerged for the ten nations under consideration.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Mi Yu

The paper aims to explore the impact of personal cultural orientation (individualism and collectivism) on knowledge sharing intention (KSI), and to test the moderating…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to explore the impact of personal cultural orientation (individualism and collectivism) on knowledge sharing intention (KSI), and to test the moderating effect of tacit knowledge (AK) on the main causal relationships. It proposes modeling the knowledge-sharing process and outlining why and how AK is important throughout the process.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an empirical study using the approach of survey, by sending 400 questionnaires to the employees selected under the branches of the First Automobile Workshop (FAW) in Changchun, who are the major force in direct contact with dissemination of knowledge in the enterprises. A regression analysis was used.

Findings

Individualism and collectivism orientations both have significantly positive impacts on KSI; the employees who are more collectivism-orientated are more willing to share knowledge than those who are more individualism-orientated; the higher degree is the AK, the weaker is the relationship between individualism and KSI and the stronger is the relationship between collectivism and KSI.

Practical implications

The practical implication of our findings is that when designing human resource development (HRD) strategies to enhance employees’ KSI, the factors of cultural values and the knowledge attribute need to be taken into consideration.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the personal cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism have positive impacts on the KSI. AK makes different effects on the two relationships by weakening the relationship between individualism and KSI and by strengthening the relationship between collectivism and KSI.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Dayne Frost, Sigi Goode and Dennis Hart

This study aims to explore whether collectivistic and individualistic users exhibit different e‐commerce loyalty and purchase intentions.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore whether collectivistic and individualistic users exhibit different e‐commerce loyalty and purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper operationalises Triandis' individuality and collectivism typology. Empirical data were gathered using face‐to‐face questionnaire instruments with 140 respondents, comprising undergraduate students and government employees.

Findings

Online shoppers are more individualistic than those who have not shopped online, while individualism and collectivism do not influence online loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

As firms compete for online custom, it would be useful to gain some understanding of the possible effects of individual and collective behaviour on purchasing behaviour.

Practical implications

Instead of competing for existing online users, online stores could expand their market by appealing to offline shoppers using collective techniques.

Originality/value

Online loyalty has been an important focus of prior work and, while there has been significant focus on communities, Internet use remains a very personal activity. The paper provides new evidence that offline shoppers are more collectivistic than online shoppers.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 4000