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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Katherine W. Phillips and Evan P. Apfelbaum

Purpose – To motivate diversity researchers to reconsider prior findings that use homogeneity as the standard to which diverse teams are compared. To recognize that…

Abstract

Purpose – To motivate diversity researchers to reconsider prior findings that use homogeneity as the standard to which diverse teams are compared. To recognize that homogeneity may be just as (if not more) influential than diversity in shaping group processes.

Design/approach – We selectively review the diversity literature and develop a conceptual reinterpretation of prior research. We challenge the general orientation in the literature to treat homogeneity as a baseline to which the effects of diversity are compared. We develop propositions that use diversity as the baseline for homogeneity and provide directions for future research.

Findings – We redigest evidence relating to five core areas in which researchers have identified differences between diverse and homogeneous groups, indicating that homogeneity may lead to (1) an avoidance of disagreement, (2) less use of unique information, (3) overconfidence about performance, (4) more social focus, and (5) less sensitivity to relationship conflict than might be warranted. Based on this reinterpretation of prior literature, we propose that homogeneous teams are prone to delusions, assuming they share similar values, opinions, knowledge, and preferences that make their world seem more homogeneous and comfortable than it may actually be.

Originality/value – We attempt to spur greater understanding of how diversity and homogeneity affect group functioning. We stress the independent effects of homogeneity in shaping group outcomes, an underexplored perspective in the diversity literature.

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Looking Back, Moving Forward: A Review of Group and Team-Based Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-030-7

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Ian Blount and Delmonize Smith

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of employee homogeneity on the financial performance of minority business enterprises (MBEs). It is widely…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of employee homogeneity on the financial performance of minority business enterprises (MBEs). It is widely postulated that MBEs tend to hire minorities that resemble the ethnicity of the founder(s) and that this is beneficial by helping to decrease minority unemployment rates as well as providing new opportunities to minorities that they might not otherwise receive at White-owned firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used hierarchical linear regression on archival data of 271 MBEs to determine if employee homogeneity will be a factor in understanding their financial performance. The authors also conducted exploratory interviews with a convenience sample of MBEs to gain insight into the concept of employee homophily.

Findings

The research uncovered that as homogeneity increases, MBE financial performance decreases, and this effect is more pronounced the longer the MBE is in business.

Research limitations/implications

The data set is cross-sectional in nature and lack the perspective and clarity of time. The paper only contains a small set of exploratory interviews. The most significant implication from the study is that a lack of diversity decreases the long-term financial viability of MBEs which is to counter mainstream arguments that speak only to the positive aspects of MBEs hiring their own.

Originality/value

The research builds on the scant literature on the impact of diversity within MBEs. It also provides guidance to MBEs by suggesting they be strategic in diversifying their employee base in order to improve performance.

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Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2007

Nanda K. Viswanathan and Peter R. Dickson

To examine issues of standardization and adaptation in global marketing strategy and to explain the dynamics of standardization.

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Abstract

Purpose

To examine issues of standardization and adaptation in global marketing strategy and to explain the dynamics of standardization.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual research paper that has been developed based on gaps in prior frameworks of standardization/adaptation. A three‐factor model of standardization/adaptation of global marketing strategy was developed. The three factors include homogeneity of customer response to the marketing mix, transferability of competitive advantage, and similarities in the degree of economic freedom.

Findings

The model through the use of feedback effects explains the dynamics of standardization.

Research limitations/implications

Future research needs to empirically test the model. To enable empirical validation, reliable and valid measures of the three factors proposed in the model need to be developed. Additionally, the model may be used in future research to delineate the impact a variable may have on the ability of a firm to follow a standardized global marketing strategy.

Practical implications

The three‐factor model aids decisions relating to standardization in a global marketing context.

Originality/value

The paper furthers the discussion on the issue of standardization. Through the identification of three factors that impact standardization/adaptation decisions, and the consideration of feedback effects, the paper provides a foundation for future research addressing the issue.

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International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2009

Karl Henrik Sivesind and Per Selle

Social origins theory proposes that countries cluster around different models according to how public welfare spending affects nonprofit sector scale (Anheier & Salamon…

Abstract

Social origins theory proposes that countries cluster around different models according to how public welfare spending affects nonprofit sector scale (Anheier & Salamon, 2006; Salamon & Anheier, 1998). This article confronts these assumptions about a liberal, corporatist, and social democratic model with results from a comparative analysis of highly industrialized countries with extensive welfare arrangements. We focus on nonprofit sector employment in relation to total employment in the welfare field, including education and research, health, and social services. Explanatory factors are public welfare spending, share of income from donations, and religious homogeneity. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) (Ragin, 2000) is applied to sort countries in types. The results show that the consequences of public sector welfare spending on nonprofit welfare employment vary depending on other social conditions. In liberal countries, low public sector welfare spending results in a small nonprofit share of employment. The preconditions are low religious homogeneity and large shares of nonprofit income from donations. In other Western European countries, the size of public sector welfare spending is inversely proportional with the size of the nonprofit share of employment, depending on religious homogeneity. The Nordic countries have the highest religious homogeneity, and largest public welfare costs, and accordingly, the smallest share of nonprofit welfare services. However, a similar “crowding out” pattern can be found in the presumably corporatist countries such as France, Austria, and also to some extent in Germany and Italy. In the other end of the line, we find the Netherlands, which is the clearest example of the presumed corporatist pattern in this sample. Religious homogeneity comes into play in both the liberal and the Western European causal constellation in accordance with Weisbrod's theory of government failure/market failure (Weisbrod, 1977), which indicates that this factor is more important for nonprofit welfare regimes than previously thought.

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Civil Society in Comparative Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-608-3

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Patricia Doyle Corner and Angelo J. Kinicki

The article applies upper echelon theory to explain variation in parent firms’ post-acquisition financial performance. We develop and test a latent variable model…

Abstract

The article applies upper echelon theory to explain variation in parent firms’ post-acquisition financial performance. We develop and test a latent variable model hypothesizing that top management team (TMT) demographic diversity affects financial outcomes through teams’ collective beliefs. In so doing we identify three constructs which potentially underlie classic TMT demographic diversity measures. Also, we propose two fundamental structural properties of team beliefs extrapolated from individual level cognitive complexity theory. Results show both positive and negative effects on financial outcomes from the TMT demographic diversity constructs through the belief constructs. We discuss the importance of including mediating constructs when attempting to unravel TMT diversity’s effects on firm level outcomes.

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Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-172-9

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Jeroen van der Heijden and Ellen van Bueren

The purpose of this paper is first, to gain insight into how the European member states have addressed the concept of sustainability in their building regulatory…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is first, to gain insight into how the European member states have addressed the concept of sustainability in their building regulatory frameworks; and second, to gain insight in the effects of harmonization attempts of these frameworks by the European Commission (EC).

Design/methodology/approach

Data on the member states' building regulatory regimes were gathered using a survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire addressed over 60 different aspects of sustainable construction that may, in various ways, be regulated by the member states.

Findings

The data obtained show mixed results. Some aspects of sustainable construction show far‐reaching homogeneity, whilst others do not. It appears that current EC directives have a positive effect on homogeneity of sustainable construction regulation throughout Europe. However, this does not provide a firm base to advise more directives, as these often appear a too resource‐intensive tool to achieve sustainable construction in a timely fashion. Additional and complementary approaches to such directives are proposed.

Originality/value

The paper presents an overview of how European member states have addressed various aspects of sustainable construction in their construction regulatory frameworks. This provides valuable insights for further studies on regulatory change, regulatory convergence and divergence, and policy outcomes related to sustainable construction in the European Union. Also, the study presents a number of approaches to achieve homogeneity that may complement earlier approaches taken by the EC.

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International Journal of Law in the Built Environment, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1450

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2006

Filippo C. Wezel and Arjen van Witteloostuijn

This paper extends organizational ecology by making an attempt to disentangle the consequences of scale and scope economies for organizational survival under different…

Abstract

This paper extends organizational ecology by making an attempt to disentangle the consequences of scale and scope economies for organizational survival under different product market configurations. We test our hypotheses by analyzing the mortality rates of 643 UK motorcycle producers during the 1899–1993 period. The findings obtained offer two specific contributions. First, by separating the performance impact of scale from scope economies we clarify the complex mechanisms behind the survival consequences of different organizational strategies. Second, we show how the intensity of both scale and scope forces is relative to the aggregate market-level product configuration. The implications of these findings for organizational ecology and strategic management, and their cross-fertilization, are further discussed.

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Ecology and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-435-5

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Katarina Juselius

Abstract

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New Directions in Macromodelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-830-8

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2014

David Melamed, Hyomin Park, Jingwen Zhong and Yue Liu

This study examines how the structure of referent networks, or the social network defined by knowing others’ reward levels, affects perceptions of distributive justice…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how the structure of referent networks, or the social network defined by knowing others’ reward levels, affects perceptions of distributive justice. The homogeneity of rewards in the referent network, the amount of inequality in the referent network, and an individual’s reward level are all associated with distributive justice perceptions. Several moderating relationships are also examined.

Methodology/Approach

We relied on data from a controlled laboratory experiment to test a series of theoretically derived hypotheses.

Findings

The study shows that several aspects about the structure of the referent network are important for shaping perceptions of distributive justice. Specifically, the reward heterogeneity and amount of inequality in the network are found to be negatively associated with distributive justice, while reward levels are found to be positively associated with distributive justice. Furthermore, the effect of reward levels on distributive justice is moderated by both (i) the presence of a referential standard for rewards and (ii) the amount of inequality in the network.

Research Limitations/Implications

While being among the first studies to demonstrate effects of referent networks on perceptions of fairness, it is unclear how group memberships combine with referent network effects and which factors may blur these relationships in uncontrolled environments. Subsequent scholarship on the effect of referent networks on justice perceptions should leverage multiple data sources.

Originality/Value of Chapter

Research on the effects of referents on justice perceptions has focused on particular referent individuals. We recast this issue in terms of referent networks, which highlights the empirical reality that individuals have a variety of sources or alters which could operate as referents.

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Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-078-0

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Abstract

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Functional Structure Inference
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44453-061-5

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