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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Edwina Pio, Shailendra Vyakarnam, Shima Barakat and Margaret McCammon

The purpose of this study is to discuss how ethnicity and gender influence high-tech entrepreneurship in the Cambridge cluster emphasizing homophily and how and why…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to discuss how ethnicity and gender influence high-tech entrepreneurship in the Cambridge cluster emphasizing homophily and how and why bridging and bonding ties are created in moving individuals from the periphery to cross the threshold into acceptance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors present findings on the micro-dynamics of ethnicity and gender in high-tech entrepreneurship underpinned by homophily. The authors discuss how ethnicity and gender influence who enters and stays in high-tech entrepreneurship university spinouts. Through an entrepreneurial narrative qualitative approach, the authors explore how and why bridging and bonding ties may be created and the challenges for those at the periphery to cross the threshold into acceptance. The study adopts an entrepreneurial narrative qualitative approach using interviews with individuals associated with the Cambridge cluster.

Findings

The authors add to the entrepreneurship literature by responding to the call for multiplexity within homophily, and the research indicates that homophily strongly influences who enters and who leaves the cluster based on bridging and bonding ties. The findings address the need for more focused understanding of entrepreneurial clusters and how mechanisms can be developed to create an environment to nurture both bridging and bonding ties. It is possible for an entrepreneurial cluster to be perceived as attractive and thriving while being homophilous. Ethnic individuals and women continue to struggle to gain acceptance in the Cambridge cluster.

Research limitations/implications

Interviews were conducted by one person – an ethnic minority female – for continuity of all interviews. Yet as many of the participants were not minorities, it is possible that an interviewer who was not an ethnic minority may have elicited different narratives.

Originality/value

The study adds to the entrepreneurship literature by focusing on multiplexity within homophily in examining the dynamics of homophily in the context of the Cambridge cluster and the significance of nurturing bridging and bonding ties. The research comments on implications for practice among three interlinked but autonomous groups: first, the individual entrepreneurs; second, the networks she/he belongs to; third, the university as both fertile ground for entrepreneurship and an educational institution where entrepreneurship education is engaged in for encouraging and supporting spinouts.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2022

Pranjal Gupta, Jennifer L. Burton and Letícia Costa Barros

The purpose of this research is to extend theoretical knowledge of key variables and their interactions that impact the persuasiveness of online influencers. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to extend theoretical knowledge of key variables and their interactions that impact the persuasiveness of online influencers. The study explores the interactions between influencer gender, follower gender, influencer physical attractiveness, influencer product-match and influencer-follower homophily on persuasiveness of influencer product promotions. Although the extant literature shows the persuasive impact of attractiveness, product-match, gender and homophily, less is known about the interactions of these variables with each other and the gender of the influencer and his or her followers. These gaps in the literature are explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is a scenario-based experiment where respondents were randomly assigned to cells where influencer attractiveness and product-match were manipulated. The variables of homophily and respondent gender were measured and recorded, respectively. The data were collected through an online survey done through Qualtrics.

Findings

The findings show that for female influencers, homophily felt by their followers is a dominant persuasive factor, which tends to supersede the variables of attractiveness and product-match. For male influencers, homophily is an incremental persuasive variable. That is, homophily, attractiveness and product-match interact such that persuasiveness is highest when all three variables are strong.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations are that the authors used a student sample and a hypothetical scenario-based experiment. Theoretical implications are interesting in that the authors have results which add to theory on the factors that make an online influencer more persuasive. Specifically, the authors contribute by extending theoretical knowledge about the interactions of key variables that influence the impact of online influencers.

Practical implications

For a manager marketing products using influencers, it is very important to stress homophily cues for female influencers more than other variables. However, for male influencers, product knowledge or match, homophily and attractiveness all need to work simultaneously to maximize influencer persuasiveness.

Social implications

One needs to understand that physical attractiveness and perceived homophily with the influencer have significant influence and persuasiveness, regardless of product or service. Hence, there needs to be social responsibility in what is advertised and promoted, given that followers may be persuaded by influencers no matter what the product or service is.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that explores the persuasiveness of online influencers from the perspective of the variable interactions described above.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Louis Yi-Shih Lo and Sheng-Wei Lin

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that reference prices and associated information sources (websites that consumers use to explore and their friends who…

1561

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that reference prices and associated information sources (websites that consumers use to explore and their friends who have similar perspectives on value) have on deal evaluation and intention to disseminate electronic word of mouth (eWOM).

Design/methodology/approach

A stratified survey is conducted to empirically test the relations between reference prices, associated information sources (the top five Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) websites and top five Facebook friends with similar perspectives and values on consumption), deal evaluation, and eWOM intention. The study uses a Facebook API to help participants pick five Facebook friends to act as their favorite sources for advice on shopping.

Findings

The results suggest that consumers’ deal evaluations (as shaped by the recency effects of previous exposure to prices and the influence of Facebook friends and C2C websites) have carry-over effects on their eWOM intentions. The influence of Facebook friends and C2C websites on deal evaluation is as powerful as that of reference price, especially concerning the mean and the lowest prices.

Practical implications

The findings encourage marketers to invest their resources in targeting online groups, and suggest that C2C website marketers should set their offer prices between the mean and the lowest prices.

Originality/value

This study extends prior research on the motives for eWOM dissemination and elaborates an approach to initiate eWOM intention through deal evaluation.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Mariela Golik and Maria Rita Blanco

This empirical study aims to analyse the talent spotters' perception of their tendency to be homophilic in the talent identification process and their stance on it…

Abstract

Purpose

This empirical study aims to analyse the talent spotters' perception of their tendency to be homophilic in the talent identification process and their stance on it. Besides, this article examines the type of homophily and the homophily attributes involved.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a qualitative design, 37 middle and senior line managers, working for two Argentine conglomerates in six Latin American countries, participated in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews.

Findings

Homophily was perceived by most of talent spotters, who judged it as natural, while it was not perceived by a small group of the interviewees. In addition, among those who recognized its presence, another group advocated the homophilic advantages, while a final one admitted the presence of homophily and its negative implications. In addition, a variety of homophily attributes were identified; most of them within the value category. We posit that if homophily attributes are, at the same time, components of high potential models, homophily will constitute a functional bias to the talent identification process.

Originality/value

This is the first study that explores the talent spotters' perception of their homophily bias as well as the diversity of homophily attributes present in the talent identification process. This research highlights the relevance of the homophily attributes' analysis, taking into account its alignment to the potential model in order to improve the talent identification process.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2019

Henning Ahlf, Sven Horak, Andreas Klein and Sung-Won Yoon

The purpose of this study is to understand how employees of an organization build and maintain successful business relationships by analyzing major antecedents of…

1130

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to understand how employees of an organization build and maintain successful business relationships by analyzing major antecedents of relationship quality and relationship commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors develop a conceptual framework and formulate hypotheses regarding the relationships between demographic homophily, interpersonal communication, trust and dependent variables of perceived relationship quality and relationship commitment. This paper tests hypotheses presented in this study with the help of a structural equation model, based on a data sample from South Korea.

Findings

Unlike common thinking, demographic homophily does not directly increase the perceived relationship quality. The authors find a significant direct effect of interpersonal communication on relationship commitment but no effect of commitment on perceived relationship quality. Both seem to play independent roles but are positively influenced through the emergence of trust.

Research limitations/implications

By applying demographic homophily and interpersonal communication as antecedents and trust as mediator and main driver, the authors research effects on perceived intra-organizational relationship commitment and perceived relationship quality. In detail, the authors confirm the hypothesized centrality of trust in intra-organizational relationships between demographic homophily, interpersonal communication and dependent variables of perceived relationship quality and relationship commitment. Nevertheless, the authors surprisingly find neither significant evidence that demographic homophily increases the perceived quality of a relationship, nor does it lead to higher communication intensity directly, even in an environment (i.e. Korea), where it would be expected.

Practical implications

Based on the findings of this study, there are several practical implications. Understanding the interpersonal relationship characteristics in an intra-organizational setting enables managers to optimize organizational efficiency and effectiveness. Intra-organizational relationships between employees’ are highly dependent on mutual trust as an indicator for relationship quality and relationship commitment. Organizations can also benefit from the understanding of the mechanisms of demographic homophily and interpersonal communication for the establishment of interpersonal trust as well.

Originality/value

Research about the effect of demographic homophily and interpersonal communication and the central role of trust in an intra-organizational approach to business relationships on perceived relationship quality and relationship commitment is scarce. The mutual testing of the effects and interaction of established constructs like demographic homophily, interpersonal communication and trust on perceived relationship quality and commitment constitutes the main contribution of this study to the literature on management and business relationships. The insights of this study about interpersonal bonding help companies to establish long-term business relationships.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2018

Todd Pezzuti, Meghan E. Pierce and James M. Leonhardt

This paper investigates how language homophily between service providers and migrant consumers affects migrant consumers’ intentions to engage with financial and medical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates how language homophily between service providers and migrant consumers affects migrant consumers’ intentions to engage with financial and medical service providers.

Design/methodology/approach

Three empirical studies were conducted with migrant consumers living in Chile, England and the USA. Participants were presented information on service providers, and language homophily was manipulated between subjects. In the high (low) language homophily condition, service providers were described as having (not having) the ability to speak the native language of the migrant consumer.

Findings

Language homophily was found to increase migrant consumers’ expectation of control over a service encounter and, in turn, increase their intention to use a provider’s services. Collectivism was identified as a boundary condition. Among high collectivist consumers, language homophily did not affect service usage intentions; however, language homophily did positively affect service usage intentions among low collectivist consumers.

Originality/value

This work extends prior research on service provider language by finding a positive effect of language homophily on service usage intentions and by identifying mediating (i.e. expected control over the outcome of the service encounter) and moderating (i.e. collectivism) mechanisms for this effect.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Kamal Badar, Terrill L. Frantz and Munazza Jabeen

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the relationship between a scholar’s research performance (using weighted journal-impact factor average) and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of the relationship between a scholar’s research performance (using weighted journal-impact factor average) and their degree centrality; the impact of author-homophily (in terms of gender, institutional sector, academic age, academic ranks, province and city) on this relationship is investigated as well.

Design/methodology/approach

Using scientific publishing data and journal-impact factors from Thomson Reuters’ ISI Web of Science (SCI) and Journal Citation Reports, respectively, the domestic co-authorship network of chemistry researchers in Pakistan during 2002-2009 was constructed then modeled via ordinary least squares regression.

Findings

Results show that the personal characteristics of a researcher do not necessarily lead to high degree centrality, i.e. attributes may not be causal to co-author relationships. Instead, high degree centrality is more so a function of the forerunning research performance of the researcher: those whom publish more in terms of impact factor, attract more co-authors (high degree centrality). Moreover, the relationship between research performance and degree centrality is positively moderated by age and province homophily and negatively moderated by city homophily.

Research limitations/implications

Data are sourced wholly from the Pakistani chemistry research community; results many not be generalizable to other sub-populations or the wider research community.

Practical implications

The findings provide insights to performance-seeking authors: knowing that their research performance enhances their centrality, which in-turn may lead to increased research performance and various other desirable professional outcomes. In addition, researchers can look toward establishing similar (homophilous) or dissimilar (heterophilous) ties knowing that the relationship between research performance and centrality will likely be stronger when similarity or dissimilarity exists.

Social implications

This study supports the idea that high research performance attracts more potential co-authors, which in-turn may lead to ever greater research performance, which suggests that the research community will be fragmented between high- and low-performing researchers. Also researcher will have similar or dissimilar ties in terms of various characteristics which in turn moderate the research performance centrality relationship.

Originality/value

This paper counteracts the empirical belief that researchers are attractive as potential co-authors according to their personal and professional characteristics. It is actually their research performance and homophily or heterophily of their ties which matters.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 68 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2020

Sasithorn Suwandee, Aurathai Lertwannawit, Olimpia C. Racela and Pattana Boonchoo

This study applies social network theory to examine the moderating effects of two online social media network characteristics, namely homophily and consensus, on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study applies social network theory to examine the moderating effects of two online social media network characteristics, namely homophily and consensus, on the influence of negative electronic word of mouth (NeWOM) and of firm crisis response on consumer attitude toward a company.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested using a mixed-model experimental design of three between-subjects factors, including manipulations of homophily (high vs low), consensus (high vs low), and firm crisis response (accommodative vs defensive), and one repeated measure within-subjects factor of attitude toward the company at three different points in time (A0, A1, A2). Data were collected from 328 Thai participants who were randomly assigned to one of the eight experimental conditions.

Findings

High homophily and high consensus online social media network conditions worsen the negative impact of NeWOM on consumer attitudes. However, high homophily and high consensus strengthen the positive influence of an accommodative response in regaining favorable attitude toward the company. Low homophily and low consensus negate the impact of the firm's defensive response, preventing any further deterioration of attitude toward the company.

Practical implications

Marketers need to understand the relational patterns among members of online social media networks in order to assess the extent to which consumers are influenced by others in the network. In doing so, the firm can better anticipate and manage the impact of NeWOM and can launch an appropriate response strategy that optimizes the recovery, or minimizes the deterioration, of lost company image and reputation.

Originality/value

This study provides a dynamic view of consumer attitudes and highlights the substantial impact that others in the online social media network have on consumers' evaluation of NeWOM and of firm recovery efforts.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Sasithorn Suwandee, Jiraporn Surachartkumtonkun and Aurathai Lertwannawit

This study aims to examine the influence of homophily in an online community and the effect of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) consensus on young consumers’ attitudes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the influence of homophily in an online community and the effect of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) consensus on young consumers’ attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

This study implemented an experimental research design using a two (low/high homophily) × two (low/high eWOM consensus) mixed factorial design. This study explores young consumers’ changes in brand attitude after encountering negative eWOM.

Findings

The results indicate that a high consensus of negative eWOM among online community members leads to significant changes in attitude, while a low consensus of negative eWOM does not produce such an effect. Negative eWOM from either high or low homophilous sources produces significant changes in attitude. There are significant attitude changes when a strong consensus of negative eWOM is received from a source with a high level of homophily.

Research limitations/implications

Service failures in offline service settings lead to the dissemination of negative eWOM on social media. To handle and prevent social media crises, researchers should understand online crises antecedents relating to information characteristics i.e. eWOM consensus and characteristics of online community members to evaluate the crises impact. Brands should monitor tone and dialogue of online community member on social media to remedy and diminish any damage done to their brand image from negative eWOM.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the application of social network theory by understanding the role of nodes on negative eWOM effect in social media.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2021

Zbigniew Karpiński, John Skvoretz, Adam Kęska and Dariusz Przybysz

Purpose: This chapter aims: (a) to extend biased net models of homophily to complete networks; (b) to extend the scope of application of these models to processes of…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter aims: (a) to extend biased net models of homophily to complete networks; (b) to extend the scope of application of these models to processes of social exchange in a small-group laboratory setting; and (c) to link the theoretical model of attraction and repulsion with a standard statistical model of logistic regression as a way of estimating and evaluating the model.

Methods: We discuss the logic of biased net theory and show how it leads to formal mathematical models of tie formation and tie renewal under mechanisms of attraction and repulsion. We then estimate key theoretical parameters in the models by means of logistic regression.

Findings: The estimated effects of homophily in our models are moderate in strength, weaker than corresponding reciprocity effect, and processes of tie formation and tie renewal are driven more by considerations of direct reciprocity than group membership. Under attraction, homophily effects are stronger for tie renewal than tie formation. Under repulsion, the opposite holds.

Limitations: Participants in our study are divided into two groups based on a criterion that is likely to have been too weak to induce strong group identity. Measures that enhance the sense of group identity need to be introduced in future studies.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-677-3

Keywords

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