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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Elyas Mohammadi-Gouraji, Mahmoud Sheikh-Zeinoddin and Sabihe Soleimanian-Zad

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the protective effects of Persian gum and gum Arabic on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum PTCC 1896…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the protective effects of Persian gum and gum Arabic on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum PTCC 1896, Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas axonopodis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during freeze drying.

Design/methodology/approach

Cultures were harvested from the early stationary phase and enumerated after dilution according to the Milse Misra method. Bacterial suspensions were mixed with protective agents and frozen at –80°C before drying in a freeze dryer. Survival rates were determined both immediately during freeze drying and after 14 days of cold storage (at 4°C).

Findings

Compared to gum Arabic 5 and 10 percent (W/V) or skim milk 10 percent (W/V), Persian gum 1 percent (W/V) showed no significantly different effects on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum PTCC 1896 (p<0.05). Similarly, no significant differences (p<0.05) were observed between Persian gum 6 percent (W/V), gum Arabic 6 percent (W/V), the combination of Persian gum 3 percent (W/V) and gum Arabic 3 percent (W/V), and skim milk 10 percent (W/V) in terms of their effects on the survival of Escherichia coli. Skim milk 10 percent (W/V) was, however, found to have significant (p<0.05) effects on the survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Statistically significant (p<0.05) effects were observed after 14 days of cold storage (4°C) by Persian gum 6 percent (W/V) on the survival of Escherichia coli and by gum Arabic 6 percent (W/V) on the survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was concluded that protective agents could be replaced by Persian gum for its effect on the survival rate of Escherichia coli and by skim milk for its effects on the survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Persian gum 6 percent (W/V) seemed to be the best protective agent for Escherichia coli during 14 days of its storage as gum Arabic 6 percent (W/V) seemed to have the same performance for Xanthomonas axonopodis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Persian gum 1 percent (W/V) was also found an alternative protective agent for the freeze drying of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum PTCC 1896.

Originality/value

As Iranian Persian gum is cheap due to its wide availability and seems to have effects similar to those of gum Arabic and skim milk at low concentrations, it may be considered a good candidate for industrial applications.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Douglas Anderson

The objectives of specifications published by the Joint FAO/WHOExpert Committee on Food Additives are examined, and an explanation isgiven of the justification for a…

Abstract

The objectives of specifications published by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives are examined, and an explanation is given of the justification for a recent revision of the specification for gum arabic (Acacia senegal). Differences from the earlier version are summarised. The Revised Specification is a considerable improvement in chemical terms and offers increased protection for importers, deemed to be the manufacturers of consignments from the producing countries, and for food processors responsible for making labelling declarations. Unfortunately the maximum degree of safety assurance for consumers, which they are entitled to expect, is still not guaranteed. The revised specification remains inadequate to ensure that gum arabic in foodstuffs originates from the specified source, or complies in terms of identity, composition and quality with that of the test article selected for the toxicological evaluations that led to its classification as “ADI not specified” in 1983. The loopholes available to companies which may not be prepared voluntarily to accept the principles of good manufacturing practice are indicated.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 93 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Elhachmi Guettaf Temam, Aidaoui Elkhanssa, Hachemi Ben Temam, Fouad Kermiche and Hamza Bentrah

Because of its wide applications in the industry, the electrodeposition of Ni/Mo as corrosion barrier and decorative coating took the attention of numerous researchers…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of its wide applications in the industry, the electrodeposition of Ni/Mo as corrosion barrier and decorative coating took the attention of numerous researchers. This paper aims to study the effect of electroplating current density on different characteristics of Ni/Mo alloy coatings, especially on the morphology and electrochemical comportment in 3.5 per cent NaCl corrosion medium.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors have used electrodeposition technique to codeposite molybdenum particles in nickel matrix as protective coating against corrosion attacks, in addition to test the intensification of hydrogen reaction of this alloy coatings using EIS technique.

Findings

Ni-Mo alloy coating is well adherent to the substrate. The deposited Ni-Mo was observed to be fissured and porous in morphology. The main phases identified in different exposed coatings are MoNi4, Ni3Mo and Mo1.24Ni0.76. The effect of applied current density on electrochemical properties was studied. Inhibitory efficiency of gum arabic was controlled by the electroplating current density.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors report on the presence of Mo particles in Ni matrix also the effect of electroplating current density on different properties of alloy coatings Ni/Mo. This is significant because it reports on the effect of current density on Ni/Mo electrodeposited at economic conditions like low temperature and moderate pH. Moreover, this paper gives a solution to the corrosion of crude oil desalter by using Ni-Mo coatings and then injecting a small amount of gum arabic in the oil pipeline before dissalement which gives long life to the reactor.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Nnabuk Okon Eddy, Inemesit Udofia and Adamu Uzairu

– The purpose of this study is to determine the physicochemical and rheological parameters of Albizia lebbeck gum.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the physicochemical and rheological parameters of Albizia lebbeck gum.

Design/methodology/approach

Physicochemical analysis was carried out using recommended methods. Gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer and Fourier transformed infra red (FTIR) analyses were carried out using their respective spectrophotometer. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out using scanning electron microscope, while rheological measurements were carried out using Ubbelohde capillary viscometer, digital Brookfield DV 1 viscometer and a rheometer.

Findings

Albizia zygia gum is an ionic gum with unique physical and chemical properties. Scanning electron micrograph revealed that the internal structure of the gum is porous with irregular molecular arrangement. Thermodynamic parameters of viscous flow indicated the existence of few inter- and intra-molecular interactions, and the attainment of transition state was linked to bond breaking. Coil overlap transition studies revealed the existence of dilute and concentrated regimes. The viscosity of the gum was also found to decrease with decrease in the charge of cation (such that Al3+ > Ca2+ > K+) and with increase in ionic strength.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provided information on physicochemical and rheological characteristics/behaviour of Albizia zygia gum, of Nigerian origin. From this information, possible application of this gum in the food and pharmaceutical industries can be deduced.

Originality/value

The paper is original since information concerning Albizia zygia gum of Nigerian origin are not well documented as established in the work. It also adds values on the use of Albizia zygia gum, either on its own or in combination with other gums for industrial purpose.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

Nishant Kumar and Neeraj

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of functional properties of the polysaccharide-based component and their application in developing edible film and…

1513

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of functional properties of the polysaccharide-based component and their application in developing edible film and coating for the food processing sector.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review study, approximately 271 research and review articles focusing on studies related to polysaccharide-based components and their film-forming properties. This article also focused on the application of polysaccharide-based edible film in the food sector.

Findings

From the literature reviewed, polysaccharide components and components-based edible film/coating is the biodegradable and eco-friendly packaging of the materials and directly consumed by the consumer with food. It has been reported that the polysaccharide components have excellent properties such as being nontoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal and with good nutrients. The polysaccharide-based edible film has lipid and gas barrier properties with excellent transparency and mechanical strength. In various studies, researchers worked on the development of polysaccharide-based edible film and coating by incorporating plant based natural antioxidants. This was primarily done for obtaining improved physical and chemical properties of the edible film and coating. In future, the technology of developing polysaccharide-based edible film and coating could be used for extending the shelf life and preserving the quality of fruits and vegetables at a commercial level. There is more need to understand the role of edible packaging and sustainability in the food and environment sector.

Originality/value

Through this review paper, possible applications of polysaccharide-based components and their function property in the formation of the edible film and their effect on fruits, vegetables and other food products are discussed after detailed studies of literature from thesis and journal article.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Safa Abd El kader Mohamed Hamed and Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan

This paper aims to investigate the effect of acidity on the morphology of archeological paper, especially in the presence of colors and whether natural pigments play a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of acidity on the morphology of archeological paper, especially in the presence of colors and whether natural pigments play a role in the process of degradation.

Design/methodology/approach

The morphological changes in the cellulosic fibers of the manuscripts because of acidity were investigated using environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Ten historical samples were collected from different manuscripts suffering from acidity. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the inks and pigments that were used in some samples. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared microscopy was used to identify the binding medium.

Findings

The results confirmed that carbon ink, ultramarine, cinnabar and gold pigments were applied to some manuscripts with Arabic gum. As for ESEM investigation, the results proved that acidity badly affected the integrity of the cellulosic fibers resulting in their embrittlement. The micrographs showed differences in fiber degradation according to pH value. The presence of inks and pigments increased the degradation extent resulting from acidity.

Originality/value

This paper addresses a specific need to study the behavior of degradation in paper manuscripts, thus helping the conservators find solutions to the phenomenon.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2022

Deena El-Mahdy, Hisham S. Gabr and Sherif Abdelmohsen

Despite the dramatic increase in construction toward additive manufacturing, several challenges are faced using natural materials such as Earth and salt compared to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the dramatic increase in construction toward additive manufacturing, several challenges are faced using natural materials such as Earth and salt compared to the most market-useable materials in 3D printing as concrete which consumes high carbon emission.

Design/methodology/approach

Characterization and mechanical tests were conducted on 19 samples for three natural binders in dry and wet tests to mimic the additive manufacturing process in order to reach an efficient extrudable and printable mixture that fits the 3D printer.

Findings

Upon testing compressive strength against grain size, compaction, cohesion, shape, heat and water content, X-Salt was shown to record high compressive strength of 9.5 MPa. This is equivalent to old Karshif and fire bricks and surpasses both rammed Earth and new Karshif. Material flow analysis for X-Salt assessing energy usage showed that only 10% recycled waste was produced by the end of the life cycle compared to salt.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are expected to upscale the use of 3D salt printing in on-site and off-site architectural applications.

Practical implications

Findings contribute to attempts to resolve challenges related to vernacular architecture using 3D salt printing with sufficient stability.

Social implications

Benefits include recyclability and minimum environmental impact. Social aspects related to technology integration remain however for further research.

Originality/value

This paper expands the use of Karshif, a salt-based traditional building material in Egypt's desert by using X-Salt, a salt-base and natural adhesive, and investigating its printability by testing its mechanical properties to reach a cleaner and low-cost sustainable 3D printed mixture.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1988

Christophoros P. Pappas

Differences in the laws and regulations with respect to basic materials, optional ingredients and food additives authorised in ice‐cream manufacture in the EC members…

Abstract

Differences in the laws and regulations with respect to basic materials, optional ingredients and food additives authorised in ice‐cream manufacture in the EC members states were studied. No substantial differences exist regarding most of the basic materials. However, there are differences in certain of these materials, e.g. non‐milk fats, skimmed milk powder or sweetners other than sucrose. More differences exist among the optional ingredients and food additives. Most of the food additives authorised by each state ae in the list of additives approved by the EC Council. Compositional requirements for different ice‐cream types were also studied.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 90 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2022

Mukaddes Karataş, Ercan Aydoğmuş and Hasan Arslanoğlu

This paper aims to investigate the effect of shear rate, concentration (4–20 kg/m3) and temperature (20°C–60 °C) on the apparent viscosity of apricot gum solutions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of shear rate, concentration (4–20 kg/m3) and temperature (20°C–60 °C) on the apparent viscosity of apricot gum solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Apparent viscosity has been measured using a rotational viscometer.

Findings

It has been observed that the shear stress and apparent viscosity values increase at high concentrations in the prepared apricot gum solutions. However, it is understood that the higher the temperature in the operation conditions, the lower the apparent viscosity results. Power-law is found the best-fitting model to illustrate the changes in temperature and concentration. According to the consistency coefficient and flow behavior indices, the apricot gum displayed shear-thinning behavior (pseudoplastic). The apricot gum is a polysaccharide with amino and uronic acids, according to Fouirer Transform Infrared Spektrofotometre spectra.

Practical implications

The results suggest that power-law model can be used to estimate the viscosity of apricot gum solutions at different temperatures and concentrations for applications for which flow behavior should be taken into account.

Originality/value

Exudate gums have good rheological properties and, therefore, are widely used in the food industry. Apricot gum is a biodegradable and abundant polysaccharide that enhances viscosity, stabilizes suspension or emulsion and improves the flow properties of foods. Different rheological models are used to investigate rheological properties. However, those models are time-independent to fit the experimental data.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Hala A.M. Afifi, Heba Sayed Galal and Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan

The purpose of this paper is to identify the pigments, mediums and ground layer used during the late era of ancient Egyptian civilization through the analysis of mummy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the pigments, mediums and ground layer used during the late era of ancient Egyptian civilization through the analysis of mummy Cartonnage based on the use of multiple analysis, such as electron microscopy, X-rays, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR).

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzed some fragments from a painted cartonnage of a mummy date back to the late period. Light microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, FTIR analysis and investigation of the surface morphology by SEM were used to identify the chemical and anatomical structure of cartonnage.

Findings

The results clearly showed use of copper and extracted gold from the veins of the quartz to get the golden pigment, but it is full of voids which were a major cause of the degradation.

Originality/value

The study is the first of its kind on the components of this cartonnage in Saqqara stores.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

1 – 10 of 147