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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2022

Samar Batool Shah, Gul Afshan, Manzoor Ali Mirani and Rukhman Solangi

By applying displaced aggression and conservation of resource theory, this paper aims to investigate the effect of supervisors’ workplace stress over subordinates' unethical…

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Abstract

Purpose

By applying displaced aggression and conservation of resource theory, this paper aims to investigate the effect of supervisors’ workplace stress over subordinates' unethical behavior through displaced aggression as an underlying mechanism. Moreover, it tests the moderating effect of despotic leadership between supervisors’ workplace stress and displaced aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

The data consists of three hierarchy levels: despotic leadership (top manager), supervisor’s (immediate supervisor/middle manager) workplace stress and displaced aggression and subordinates’ unethical behavior. The data was collected from 80 managers about their workplace stress and displaced aggression besides perceived unethical behavior of their 240 subordinates.

Findings

The data analysis of 80 bank managers of Pakistan about their perception of top managers’ despotic behavior and unethical behavior of their 240 subordinates shows the support for all hypothesized relationships. Supervisors’ workplace stress positively affected their displaced aggression over their subordinates, which motivated subordinates to engage in unethical behavior. Moreover, the findings supported the moderating effect of despotic leadership in the relationship between supervisors’ workplace stress and displaced aggression.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the limited studies on the trickledown displaced aggression phenomenon in the service (banking) sector. Moreover, the manager’s despotic leadership role as a higher-level negative supervisory behavior in increasing the supervisors’ displaced aggression shows the critical aspect in such a stressful workplace situation.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2022

Gul Afshan, Carolina Serrano-Archimi and Zubair Akram

The paper examines the effect of relative leader-member exchange (LMX) on follower's in-role performance, citizenship behaviour and cynicism via relational identification…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the effect of relative leader-member exchange (LMX) on follower's in-role performance, citizenship behaviour and cynicism via relational identification. Moreover, LMXSC (LMXSC) moderates the direct and mediating relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on multi-level (individual and group level) model, dyadic data were collected from 298 employees working under 47 group managers in the banking sector in Pakistan.

Findings

The multi-level moderated mediation model tested in Mplus and HLM software showed the full support for direct, mediating and moderating hypothesized relationships; however, the moderated mediation hypothesis was partially supported. It reveals that relative LMX standing of followers predicted in-role performance, organizational citizenship behaviour at an individual level (OCB-individual) and cynicism. Relational identification with the leader mediated the relationship. Moreover, at high LMXSC, the relationship between relative LMX and relational identification and consequently the outcomes were stronger.

Originality/value

LMX has widely been studied at dyadic level, despite the suggested high and low LMX quality relationships that exist in a workgroup. This study not only investigates the role of relative LMX on employee performance through relational identification but also reports that subjective evaluation of LMXSC plays a major role in promoting employee performance.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 December 2023

Fatima Shaikh, Gul Afshan and Khalil Ahmed Channa

This study aims to investigate the efforts and role of technology leaders in achieving organizational commitment to sustainability through mediating the role of green HRM…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the efforts and role of technology leaders in achieving organizational commitment to sustainability through mediating the role of green HRM practices and moderating the role of green knowledge sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical research study is based on two theories: upper echelon theory and social capital theory, in which data were collected from 284 permanent faculty employees belonging to the government, semi-government and private HEIs recognized universities of Pakistan.

Findings

The results confirm that the technology leadership style has a significant impact on organizational commitment to sustainability. Whereas green HRM practices as a mediator and green knowledge-sharing behavior as a moderator have also significant impacts on the organizational commitment to sustainability.

Originality/value

This study integrates the concept of technology leadership as a strategy and green HRM practices as a process that jointly impacts organizational commitment to sustainability.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2021

Gul Afshan, Umar Farooq Sahibzada, Hira Rani, Yasir Hayat Mughal and Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

Past studies have largely focused on leaders' influence on employees' attitudes and behaviors, largely ignoring the followership and its consequences. This study investigates the…

Abstract

Purpose

Past studies have largely focused on leaders' influence on employees' attitudes and behaviors, largely ignoring the followership and its consequences. This study investigates the social impact that followers induce on leaders through their intentions and actions. Following social impact theory (SIT), this study contributes to the growing research on supervisory knowledge hiding (KH) and related positive consequences beyond the traditional leader-centered approach. This paper investigates the serial mediation link between supervisory KH and supervisory knowledge-based trust (KBT) via perceived prosocial impact and supervisor directed citizenship behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Time-lagged dyadic data of 348 employees working in a bank under 54 supervisors were collected from Saudi Arabia.

Findings

The findings suggest that supervisory KH entails a potential prosocial impact on employees to engage in supervisor-directed citizenship behavior that builds the KBT in supervisors about subordinates. The empirical support provides an understanding of the social impact of subordinates' influence on supervisors above and beyond traditional leadership literature by depicting the active role of followers in influencing leaders' behavior in building trust in knowledge management. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are also discussed.

Originality/value

By studying the followership effect on leadership, this study extends the social impact process beyond a social phenomenon to the workplace in a supervisor–subordinate relationship. Moreover, examining the positive framing of a leader's KH to transform such behaviors through active followership role provides a new insight into positive consequences of supervisory behavior through social impact.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2021

Zubaida Ashraf, Gul Afshan and Umar Farooq Sahibzada

An increasing number of organizations focus on creating value in economics and growing their aspect, encompassing human, social and environmental perspectives. Traditionally…

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Abstract

Purpose

An increasing number of organizations focus on creating value in economics and growing their aspect, encompassing human, social and environmental perspectives. Traditionally, organizations mostly contained corporate social responsibility (CSR) as their actions only in an economically favorable situation. However, CSR can also be used in an unfavorable time as a strategic process to recover and sustain the organization during a crisis. The purpose of this study is to review six years (2015-2021) articles published on strategic CSR.

Design/methodology/approach

The literature review of the current study examines through source data and combination findings the role of strategic CSR during a time of crisis. The search was conducted using Google Scholars, Psych Info, Emerald Insight, Science Direct and ProQuest. The study reviewed six years of articles on strategic CSR (2015–2021).

Findings

The paper concludes by suggesting propositions and a model that indicated that effective communication encourages employees and external stakeholders to participate and enhance their contribution during the crisis and help gain a competitive advantage.

Research limitations/implications

The present review demonstrated managing crisis by incorporating strategic CSR initiatives. The role of communication is important for understanding the crisis, which builds a trust-based relationship with employees and external stakeholders and enhances their participation and engagement that can help sustain during the crisis. This study will help the organizations during the time of crisis because strategic CSR initiatives reduce the negative effect of the crisis and help achieve organizational competitive advantages.

Originality/value

The present review bridges the gap in strategic CSR during the COVID-19 crisis interface. This review aims to understand the role of strategic CSR during the time COVID-19 of crisis. This study contributes to the strategic CSR research by giving clarity regarding the managing crises of organizations.

Article
Publication date: 25 December 2020

Gul Afshan and Carolina Serrano-Archimi

Drawing on the self-consistency theory and temporal comparison theory, this study hypothesize that relative perceived supervisor support may positively affect voice behaviour and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the self-consistency theory and temporal comparison theory, this study hypothesize that relative perceived supervisor support may positively affect voice behaviour and negatively affect relationship conflict with a supervisor. This relationship happens through the underlying process of supervisor-based self-esteem acts as an underlying mechanism. But, such a relationship would be constrained by the value of temporal perceived supervisor support with high temporal perceived supervisor support strengthen this relationship as compared to low temporal perceived supervisor support.

Design/methodology/approach

Dyad data from 338 samples of employees nested within 50 supervisor workgroups from non-profit firms operating in three different cities in Sindh Pakistan were taken.

Findings

Data analysis showed that employees with a high perception of relative perceived supervisor support engaged in voice behaviour and restrain themselves from the relationship conflict. The supervisor-based self-esteem derived from supervisor support played the role of mediating this relationship. Moreover, temporal perceived supervisor support not only moderated the path between relative perceived supervisor support and supervisor-based self-esteem also the mediational strength of supervisor-based self-esteem in relative perceived supervisor support and voice behaviour and relationship conflict.

Practical implications

It is crucial to integrate social comparison in organizational support theory to view the supervisor–subordinate relationship beyond dyad. Managers should understand social comparison processes in which employees engage in to know how it affects various work attitudes and behaviours.

Originality/value

Given the importance of supervisor–subordinate relationships, the authors extend and build on the concept of social and temporal organizational support to supervisor support. The study is novel in studying such relationship and contribute to the supervisory support relationship literature beyond dyadic level.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Gul Afshan, Muhammad Kashif, Firdous Khanum, Mansoor Ahmed Khuhro and Umair Akram

Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study aims to investigate high involvement work practices (HIWP) as an antecedent to burnout with a mediating role of perceived…

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Abstract

Purpose

Based on the conservation of resources theory, this study aims to investigate high involvement work practices (HIWP) as an antecedent to burnout with a mediating role of perceived work–family (WF) imbalance. Moreover, this study examines whether humble leadership moderates the relationship between HIWP and WF imbalance.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a time-lagged survey approach, data are collected from 200 employees working in the Indian services sector organizations.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that HIWP has a direct negative effect on burnout and an indirect effect via WF imbalance. Also, humble leadership moderates the relationship between HIWP and WF imbalance.

Originality/value

By studying the pessimistic view of HIWP in the Indian context, this study contributes to the scant studies available on its effect on burnout in collectivistic societies. Furthermore, humble leadership's moderating role in the relationship between HIWP and WF imbalance is unique to this study.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 May 2022

Gul Afshan, Carolina Serrano-Archimi, Amir Riaz, Muhammad Kashif and Mansoor Ahmed Khuhro

Building on social exchange and deontic justice theory, this study aims to examine the relationship between supervisory justice (i.e. interactional, procedural and distributive…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on social exchange and deontic justice theory, this study aims to examine the relationship between supervisory justice (i.e. interactional, procedural and distributive) and conflict (i.e. relationship, process and task) through subordinates’ perceptions of psychological safety. Moreover, the authors hypothesize that interactional justice differentiation (IJD) within a workgroup at the group level interacts with supervisory justice at the individual level, affecting subordinates’ psychological safety and conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a survey conducted among 378 service sector (banks, hospitals and universities) employees working under 54 supervisors.

Findings

Multi-level data analysis demonstrates that supervisory justice positively influences psychological safety, negatively affecting conflict. Moreover, psychological safety mediates the supervisory justice–conflict relationship. A cross-level interaction partially supports the conditional indirect effect of IJD in the supervisory justice–conflict relationship via psychological safety.

Originality/value

Following moral principles based on a deontic perspective, this study stretches the understanding of how to treat employees in a workgroup while creating a healthier working environment to minimize conflict fairly. This study extends the limited research on supervisory justice by conceptualizing employees’ perceptions of justice beyond an individual-level analysis.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Gul Afshan, Muhammad Kashif, Damrong Sattayawaksakul, Pimpa Cheewaprakobkit and Shanika Wijenayake

Drawing on the social exchange theory, this study aims to investigate the destructive impact of abusive supervision and supervisor undermining on quiescent silence and turnover…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the social exchange theory, this study aims to investigate the destructive impact of abusive supervision and supervisor undermining on quiescent silence and turnover intentions among frontline employees. Whether quiescent silence and the desire to seek revenge mediate the path from aggressive supervisory behaviors to turnover intentions is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a time-lagged design, the authors collected data from 350 frontline banking officers in Thailand by a survey. For data analysis purposes, structural equation modeling procedures are used through Smart partial least square version 3.2.0.

Findings

Uniquely, findings suggest that abusive supervision does not result in any form of retaliation. Supervisor undermining has a trickle-down effect on the desire to revenge, quiescent silence and turnover intentions. For supervisor undermining, the direct path, as well as mediating roles are supported by data.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggests organizational systems should discourage supervisors from undermining the subordinates. There is a need to offer regular training to supervisors. Furthermore, employees should be provided some platforms and the freedom to positively speak at work. Above all, supervisors should be more inspiring which can dilute negative perceptions of abuse.

Originality/value

The proposed mediation of desire to revenge and quiescent silence is unique to this study. Moreover, the challenge to the traditional trickle-down effects of abusive supervision is a unique intervention in the organizational behavior literature.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 45 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Gul Afshan, Subhan Shahid and Muhammad Nawaz Tunio

COVID-19 pandemic triggered unexpected crises, which were beyond the imaginations of a common man. It changed the order of routine life and the business world. In this challenging…

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Abstract

Purpose

COVID-19 pandemic triggered unexpected crises, which were beyond the imaginations of a common man. It changed the order of routine life and the business world. In this challenging condition, the survival of the small business was at high risk. Following experiential learning theory, the purpose of this paper is to explore women's entrepreneurial learning obtained during the COVID-19 pandemic, the challenges experienced by them and strategies undertaken to transform businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore Pakistani women entrepreneurs' lived experiences and learning during the COVID-19, researchers used a qualitative interview design. The interviewees reported their experiences about the effects of COVID-19 on their business and entrepreneurial learning from such a crisis.

Findings

The findings of the study indicate new fractions of knowledge from the novel learning of the female entrepreneurs throughout the experience of the COVID-19. The transformation from manual business dealings and financial transactions to virtual dealing and the online transaction was the addition of novel learning. Furthermore, the analysis provides insights into the challenges experienced by women entrepreneurs, strategies undertaken and lessons learned from COVID-19. The life lessons learned showed the importance of technical skills and their business operations during the crisis.

Research limitations/implications

This study is very specific in its context and limitations of this study offers new avenue for research to extend study in different perspectives. First, interviews were conducted from women entrepreneurs running businesses in sub-urban cities of Pakistan, where study can be extended to include both male and female in a comparative study which can expose new dimensions. Second, this study is conducted in the sub-urban areas of the Sindh province of Pakistan, which can be extended to other areas of the country because Pakistan is multicultural and multilingual, which offer different gender specific factors for entrepreneurial activities in general terms but in case of the Covid-19 situation, there exists great variations and social stratifications. Third, this study can be extended to other developing or developed countries or comparative study can provide a new flavor of knowledge.

Practical implications

The study's finding offers few implications for the entrepreneurs, societies and government at large. Although the pandemic crisis has had devastating effects on health and lifestyle activities, there is always a ray of coming to innovative approaches to fulfill the entrepreneurial desires and serve the community. Thus, entrepreneurs are encouraged to contribute to the economy as a part of society through their sustainable products and services for the greater good. There is also a need for some social policies to find entrepreneurial ways to deal with the COVID-19 crisis that integrates value co-creation for society (Ratten, 2020b). Government and society should also intervene and play their role to encourage women entrepreneurs to feel a sense of empowerment, contribute to family income, alleviate poverty, create jobs and help in economic growth.

Originality/value

This study's unique contribution and origin are to explore the COVID-19-related entrepreneurial learning experiences of women entrepreneurs in a developing country (Pakistan). Moreover, this study theoretically contributes to the development of experiential learning theory by expanding its insights during COVID-19.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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