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Article

Chen Zhao, Zhonghua Gao and Yonghong Liu

The purpose of this paper is to examine how relative abusive supervision (i.e. team member’s perceived abusive supervision as compared with the team mean) influences team…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how relative abusive supervision (i.e. team member’s perceived abusive supervision as compared with the team mean) influences team member’s job attitudes through the mediating role of relative leader–member exchange. This study also explores the cross-level moderating roles of team-level abusive supervision and team-level leader–member exchange (LMX) in the process.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used two-wave data from 1,479 employees in 145 work teams, and tested a cross-level moderated mediation model using multilevel structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results demonstrate that the negative indirect effects of relative abusive supervision on job satisfaction and team affective commitment through relative LMX are stronger when team-level abusive supervision is low rather than high.

Originality/value

Integrating LMX theory with a relative deprivation perspective, this study conceptualizes and operationalizes relative abusive supervision, develops an individual-within-group model of abusive supervision’s consequences in teams and demonstrates a cross-level moderating effect of team-level abusive supervision in buffering relative abusive supervision’s negative consequences.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article

Mahn Hee Yoon and David J. Yoon

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the mediating roles of self-efficacy and team commitment in linking service employees’ relative leader-member exchange (RLMX) with customer service behaviors and also the moderating roles of team-level differentiations in leader-member exchange (LMX) and team-member exchange (TMX) in influencing these mediation processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 467 customer-contact employees working in hotel restaurants. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis was used to test the mediation hypotheses, and moderated path was used to assess the moderated mediation.

Findings

Self-efficacy and team-commitment both mediated the relationship between RLMX and customer service behaviors. The differentiations in LMX and TMX significantly interacted with RLMX in predicting self-efficacy and team commitment and also moderated the indirect effects of RLMX on customer service behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies need to incorporate customers’ or immediate supervisors’ ratings of subordinates’ customer service behaviors and replicate the findings in different countries and work settings.

Practical implications

Hospitality managers should foster a work environment wherein they develop equal quality relationships with their subordinates in a workgroup and promote high-quality relationships among subordinates in the workgroup to improve subordinates’ self-efficacy, team commitment and, subsequently, their customer service behaviors.

Originality/value

This study incorporates both self-efficacy and team commitment as motivation-based and social exchange-based mediators, respectively, in predicting customer service behavior. It also extends the boundary condition for the mediations by considering the team-level differentiations in both vertical exchange (LMX) and horizontal exchange (TMX).

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article

Gregory A. Aarons, Kate L. Conover, Mark G. Ehrhart, Elisa M. Torres and Kendal Reeder

Clinician turnover in mental health settings impacts service quality, including availability and delivery of evidence-based practices. Leadership is associated with…

Abstract

Purpose

Clinician turnover in mental health settings impacts service quality, including availability and delivery of evidence-based practices. Leadership is associated with organizational climate, team functioning and clinician turnover intentions (TI). This study examines leader–member exchange (LMX), reflecting the relationship between a supervisor and each supervisee, using mean team LMX, dispersion of individual clinician ratings compared to team members (i.e. relative LMX) and team level variability (i.e. LMX differentiation), in relation to organizational climate and clinician TI.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 363 clinicians, nested in children's mental health agency workgroups, providing county-contracted outpatient services to youth and families. A moderated mediation path analysis examined cross-level associations of leader–member exchange with organizational climate and turnover intentions.

Findings

Lower relative LMX and greater LMX differentiation were associated with higher clinician TI. Higher team-level demoralizing climate also predicted higher TI. These findings indicate that poorer LMX and more variability in LMX at the team level are related to clinician TI.

Originality/value

This study describes both team- and clinician-level factors on clinician TI. Few studies have examined LMX in mental health, and fewer still have examined relative LMX and LMX differentiation associations with organizational climate and TI. These findings highlight the importance of leader–follower relationships and organizational climate and their associations with clinician TIs. Mental health service systems and organizations can address these issues through fostering more positive supervisor–supervisee relationships.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article

Shaun Pichler, Beth Livingston, Andrew Yu, Arup Varma, Pawan Budhwar and Arti Shukla

The diversity literature has yet to investigate relationships between diversity and leader–member exchanges (LMX) at multiple levels of analysis. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The diversity literature has yet to investigate relationships between diversity and leader–member exchanges (LMX) at multiple levels of analysis. The purpose of this paper is to test a multilevel model of nationality diversity and LMX. In doing so, the authors investigate the role of surface- and deep-level diversity as related to leader–member exchange differentiation (LMXD) and relative LMX (RLMX), and hence to subordinate job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors test a multilevel model of diversity and LMX using multisource survey data from subordinates nesting within supervisors. The authors do so in a context where diversity in nationality is pervasive and plays a key role in LMXs, i.e., a multinational organization in Dubai. The authors tested the cross-level moderated model using MPlus.

Findings

The results suggest surface-level similarity is more important to RLMX than deep-level similarity. The relationship between surface-level similarity and RLMX is moderated by workgroup nationality diversity. When workgroups are more diverse, there is a positive relationship between dyadic nationality similarity and RLMX; when workgroups are less diverse, similarity in nationality matters less. Moreover, LMXD at the workgroup level moderates the relationship between RLMX and performance at the individual level.

Originality/value

This study is one of very few to examine both diversity and LMX at multiple levels of analysis. This is the first study to test the workgroup diversity as a cross-level moderator of the relationship between deep-level similarity and LMX. The results challenge the prevailing notion that that deep-level similarity is more strongly related to LMX than surface-level diversity.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article

Hassan Abu Bakar and Leah M. Omilion-Hodges

Although the importance of group leader and group member dyadic relationships has been increasingly emphasized, only few studies have focused on the dyadic level analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the importance of group leader and group member dyadic relationships has been increasingly emphasized, only few studies have focused on the dyadic level analysis of leader–member relationships. By integrating theories of relational leadership and relational dyadic communication among workgroups, the purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model that links relative leader–member exchange quality (RLMX) and relative leader–member conversation quality (RLMCQ) to group performance, as mediated by group cooperation.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was tested in a field study with multiple sources, including 232 leader–member dyads and 407 workgroup peer dyads among 70 intact workgroups. Data were collected on-site during paid working hours from four training sessions. Group members were surveyed four times (Time 1, Time 2 and Time 3) and group leaders were surveyed once (Time 4) to minimize common method bias. The hierarchical linear modeling and polynomial regression approach were used to determine the mediating effects of the group cooperation.

Findings

In this study, the authors found support for indirect effects of relative RLMX and RLMCQ on group performance through the mediating role of group cooperation.

Research limitations/implications

The cross-sectional design of the current study is to be interpreted with caution, concerning any conclusions about the causal ordering of the variables in the model.

Practical implications

In organizational situations with group leaders and group members already in high-quality relationships and conversation, management should endeavor to facilitate opportunities for cooperation among group members and a means to also enhance team–member exchange.

Originality/value

By introducing LMCQ and group member cooperative behavior in workgroups, this study actively respond to the scholars’ warnings that ignoring the workgroup context may hamper the progress in understanding the factors that will inhibit or enhance workgroup behavior.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article

Birgit Schyns, Marc van Veldhoven and Stephen Wood

Organizational climate has been shown to predict job satisfaction and other employee attitudes. Using the concept of organizational climate, strength has shown mixed…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational climate has been shown to predict job satisfaction and other employee attitudes. Using the concept of organizational climate, strength has shown mixed success. However, diversity in psychological climate at the individual level has not been explored. The paper aims to introduce a new individual‐level concept: relative psychological climate paper.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the example of supportive leadership climate, the significance of this concept for predicting job satisfaction is assessed. Data from a large national British survey (the Workplace Employment Relations Survey of 2004) of 19,993 employees within 1,593 workplaces are used.

Findings

Workplace supportive leadership climate quality, climate strength and individual relative leadership climate position are shown to be significantly associated with job satisfaction. So is the interaction of climate quality and climate strength. When all three variables are assessed simultaneously, only the individual relative position and the climate quality are substantially related to job satisfaction.

Originality/value

Individual relative climate is introduced and the shows that this new concept is related to job satisfaction, thereby demonstrating its usefulness in climate research.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article

Gul Afshan and Carolina Serrano-Archimi

Drawing on the self-consistency theory and temporal comparison theory, this study hypothesize that relative perceived supervisor support may positively affect voice…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the self-consistency theory and temporal comparison theory, this study hypothesize that relative perceived supervisor support may positively affect voice behaviour and negatively affect relationship conflict with a supervisor. This relationship happens through the underlying process of supervisor-based self-esteem acts as an underlying mechanism. But, such a relationship would be constrained by the value of temporal perceived supervisor support with high temporal perceived supervisor support strengthen this relationship as compared to low temporal perceived supervisor support.

Design/methodology/approach

Dyad data from 338 samples of employees nested within 50 supervisor workgroups from non-profit firms operating in three different cities in Sindh Pakistan were taken.

Findings

Data analysis showed that employees with a high perception of relative perceived supervisor support engaged in voice behaviour and restrain themselves from the relationship conflict. The supervisor-based self-esteem derived from supervisor support played the role of mediating this relationship. Moreover, temporal perceived supervisor support not only moderated the path between relative perceived supervisor support and supervisor-based self-esteem also the mediational strength of supervisor-based self-esteem in relative perceived supervisor support and voice behaviour and relationship conflict.

Practical implications

It is crucial to integrate social comparison in organizational support theory to view the supervisor–subordinate relationship beyond dyad. Managers should understand social comparison processes in which employees engage in to know how it affects various work attitudes and behaviours.

Originality/value

Given the importance of supervisor–subordinate relationships, the authors extend and build on the concept of social and temporal organizational support to supervisor support. The study is novel in studying such relationship and contribute to the supervisory support relationship literature beyond dyadic level.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article

Pascale Benoliel, Haim Shaked, Nehama Nadav and Chen Schechter

Relying on information processing and attribution theories, which relate to the formation of leadership perceptions and attributes, the current study seeks to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

Relying on information processing and attribution theories, which relate to the formation of leadership perceptions and attributes, the current study seeks to examine the relationship between demographic variables and principals' systems thinking (PST) in an integrated model. The present study purpose was threefold: first, the study seeks to examine whether attributions middle leaders make about PST may show substantial and systematic variance in a management team. Second, the study seeks to investigate the influence of principal–middle leaders’ relational demography variables (gender, education and tenure) (dis)similarity on middle leaders’ PST attribute. Finally, the study seeks to explore the moderating role of duration of principal- principal–middle leader acquaintance in the relationship of demographic (dis)similarity to PST.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 305 dyads (middle leaders and their principals) from 101 schools. MANOVA analysis and hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis.

Findings

Findings showed that it is both appropriate and important to examine group-level effects when studying PST effects. Also, PST levels were higher in gender-similar relationships than in gender-dissimilar ones. Finally, duration of acquaintance was found to moderate the relationship between principal–middle leaders’ gender (dis)similarity and PST appraisal.

Originality/value

Focusing on principal–middle leader relationships, which are explicitly relational, with a consideration for level relationships may potentially highlight the need to consider multiple levels of analysis in order to understand how PST attribution occurs. This focus can help us to capture the core of PST social dynamics among the dyad, as well as highlighting the distinction, if any, between in-groups and out-groups. Acknowledging that school faculty are motivated by their interpersonal relationships with their principals and how such relationships are contingent upon demography (dis)similarity and the duration of acquaintance between dyads may help to broaden the understanding regarding potential antecedents of middle leaders' PST attribution and its implication for school organizations.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 59 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Man-Ling Chang and Cheng-Feng Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mediation model for understanding how favoritism, in the context of the leader–member exchange (LMX) theory, influences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a mediation model for understanding how favoritism, in the context of the leader–member exchange (LMX) theory, influences subordinate-rated LMX via the subordinates’ perception of organizational justice.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample comprised 39 managers and 159 employees working in local branches of banks in Taiwan. While the managers were asked to rate their LMX scores with all employees, three to five employees were randomly selected to participate in a survey which included two phases with a time lag of three months. Given the nested structure of the data, hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the mediation model.

Findings

The findings support the mediation model, indicating that LMX favoritism can significantly influence subordinate-rated LMX by enhancing subordinates’ justice perception.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the existing LMX research by showing that a superior’s LMX favoritism may change subordinate-rated LMX over time.

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Article

Jie Li, Stacie Furst-Holloway, Suzanne S. Masterson, Larry M. Gales and Brian D. Blume

The purpose of this paper is to compare and integrate leader-member exchange (LMX) and leader identification (LID) as concurrently functioning mediators between three…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and integrate leader-member exchange (LMX) and leader identification (LID) as concurrently functioning mediators between three leadership styles (individual-focused transformational, contingent reward, and benevolent paternalistic) and two citizenship behaviors (helping and taking charge).

Design/methodology/approach

Data included 395 stable, independent leader-follower dyads from numerous Chinese organizations. Partial least squares structural equation modeling and relative weight analysis were used in data analyses.

Findings

In established, steady-state leader-member alliances, LMX was the dominant explanation between various leadership styles and helping; whereas LID explained leadership effects on taking charge. Three-stage indirect effects of leadership-LMX-LID-taking charge were found. Also, LMX and LID related to the three focal leadership styles in distinct ways.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include cross-sectional data. Strengths include a large, multi-source field sample. Implications include that LMX and LID provide different prosocial motivations; LMX indirectly engenders stronger other-orientation through LID; and the nature of indirect leadership effects via LID is more sensitive to the nature of the focal leadership styles. LMX and LID together provide a package of prosocial motivations.

Practical implications

Leaders interested in increasing employees’ helping vs taking charge behaviors can be more effective by understanding the different motivational potentials of LMX vs LID. Leaders also need to choose appropriate behavioral styles when they activate LMX vis-à-vis LID.

Originality/value

This study integrates multiple leadership theories to provide a nuanced account of how social exchange and self-concept explain leadership at the interpersonal level when leadership styles, LMX, and LID are stable.

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