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1 – 10 of 18
Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Gerard Cummins and Marc P.Y. Desmulliez

The purpose of this paper is to present an exhaustive review of research studies and activities in the inkjet printing of conductive materials.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an exhaustive review of research studies and activities in the inkjet printing of conductive materials.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper gives a detailed literature survey of research carried out in inkjet printing of conductive materials.

Findings

This article explains the inkjet printing process and the various types of conductive inks. It then examines the various factors that affect the quality of inkjet printed interconnects such as printing parameters, materials and substrate treatments. Methods of characterising both the inkjet printing process and the electrical properties of printed conductive materials are also presented. Finally relevant applications of this technology are described.

Originality/value

Inkjet printing is currently one of the cheapest direct write techniques for manufacturing. The use of this technique in electronic manufacturing, where interconnects and other conductive features are required is an area of increasing relevance to the fields of electronics manufacturing, packaging and assembly. This review paper would therefore be of great value and interest to this community.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Robert W. Kay, Gerard Cummins, Thomas Krebs, Richard Lathrop, Eitan Abraham and Marc Desmulliez

Wafer-level stencil printing of a type-6 Pb-free SAC solder paste was statistically evaluated at 200 and 150 μm pitch using three different stencil manufacturing technologies…

Abstract

Purpose

Wafer-level stencil printing of a type-6 Pb-free SAC solder paste was statistically evaluated at 200 and 150 μm pitch using three different stencil manufacturing technologies: laser cutting, DC electroforming and micro-engineered electroforming. This investigation looks at stencil differences in printability, pitch resolution, maximum achievable bump height, print co-planarity, paste release efficiency, and cleaning frequency. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors present a statistical evaluation of the impact of stencil technology on type-6 tin-silver-copper paste printing. The authors concentrate on performances at 200 and 150 μm pitch of full array patterns. Key evaluated criteria include achievable reflowed bump heights, deposit co-planarity, paste release efficiency, and frequency of stencil cleaning. Box plots were used to graphically view print performance over a range of aperture sizes for the three stencil types.

Findings

Fabrication technologies significantly affect print performance where the micro-engineered electroformed stencil produced the highest bump deposits and the lowest bump height deviation. Second in performance was the conventional electroformed, followed by the laser-cut stencil. Comparisons between the first and fifth consecutive print demonstrated no need for stencil cleaning in the case for the micro-engineered stencil for all but the smallest spacings between apertures. High paste transfer efficiencies, i.e. above 85 per cent, were achieved with the micro-engineered stencil using low aperture area ratios of 0.5.

Originality/value

Stencil technology influences the maximum reflowed solder bump heights achievable, and bump co-planarity. To date, no statistical analysis comparing the impact of stencil technology for wafer-level bumping has been carried out for pitches of 200 μm and below. This paper gives new insight into how stencil technology impacts the print performance for fine pitch stencil printing. The volume of data collected for this investigation enabled detailed insight into the limitations of the printing process and as a result for suitable design guidelines to be developed. The finding also shows that the accepted industry guidelines on stencil design developed by the surface mount industry can be broken if the correct stencil technology is selected, thereby increasing the potential application areas of stencil printing.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2012

Kathleen A.J. Mohr, Kathryn Dixon and Chase Young

Purpose – This chapter argues that classroom teachers need to be more effective and efficient in order to meet the needs of all students and support their grade-level achievement…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter argues that classroom teachers need to be more effective and efficient in order to meet the needs of all students and support their grade-level achievement. Given the challenges of contemporary schools – mandated curricula, intensive monitoring and intervention, high-stakes testing, and increased student diversity – teachers are expected to incorporate research-based practices in sophisticated ways. This chapter challenges teachers to assess and enhance their instructional effectiveness.

Approach – This chapter explores ways for teachers to make literacy assessment and instruction more appropriate, productive, and successful, which requires that teachers expand their repertoire of methods and consider ways to deliver instruction expeditiously.

Content – Examples of inefficient practices preface a discussion of some common hindrances to more streamlined instruction. The chapter demonstrates the use of literacy assessment to support more flexible instructional activities, focusing on literacy delivery modes that align with increasingly more difficult text. Subsequent discussion details numerous literacy experiences, including variations of teacher-led, collaborative, guided, partner, and student-led reading. Seven guidelines are presented. The conclusion summarizes an example of how a reading coach used assessment to synthesize an effective intervention to support the marked improvement of a third-grade reader.

Implications – The chapter's goal is that teachers consider ways to combine experiences that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and engagement. Readers can explore ways to use assessment to improve their instruction. Numerous suggestions and activities accompany the discussion.

Value – The chapter content challenges teachers to streamline and sophisticate their literacy instruction and demonstrates ways to combine literacy experiences that foster student achievement and engagement.

Details

Using Informative Assessments towards Effective Literacy Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-630-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2012

Doris Walker-Dalhouse and Victoria J. Risko

Purposes – To examine the literature on alternative assessments for evaluating student learning in practical classroom learning experiences. To recommend areas of literacy…

Abstract

Purposes – To examine the literature on alternative assessments for evaluating student learning in practical classroom learning experiences. To recommend areas of literacy development where additional assessment is needed.

Design – A review of literature on formative and performance assessment is provided and supplemented with samples of assessments recommended in the literature review.

Practical implications – Legislative and political mandates for accountability in student learning increase the need for teachers to understand and apply classroom screening, diagnostic, and progress-monitoring assessments. Teachers can use the information provided to think more carefully about the use of alternative assessments in their elementary and middle school classrooms.

Value – This chapter provides a frame of reference for informing teachers’ thinking about alternative assessments and suggests the need for classroom assessments to measure aspects of literacy development not frequently assessed.

Details

Using Informative Assessments towards Effective Literacy Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-630-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2015

Gerard McElwee and Robert Smith

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the topic and discuss the individual chapters in this volume as well as to provide an intellectual orientation which will hopefully…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the topic and discuss the individual chapters in this volume as well as to provide an intellectual orientation which will hopefully inspire casual readers to read further. The main thesis behind this volume is that entrepreneurial crime and illegal enterprise span two very distinct yet complimentary academic disciplines – namely Criminology and Entrepreneurial/Business Studies. And that we need to take cognisance of both instead of writing and publishing in disciplinary silos.

Methodology/approach

Our methodological approach in this volume is predominantly qualitative and in addition mainly review based. Our editorial approach is/was one of laissez-faire in that we did not want to stifle authorial creativity or impose order where there was none, or very little. The result is a very eclectic collection of interesting readings which we hope will challenge researchers interested in the topics to cross inter- and intra-disciplinary literature in search of new theoretical models.

Findings

Rather than findings we see the contribution of the volume as being an attempt to start conversations between disciplines. We appreciate that this is only a beginning. There are discoveries and perhaps a need to redraw boundaries. One surprising finding was how much the authors all drew on the seminal work of William Baumol to the extent that it has become a common framework for understanding the cross overs.

Research limitations/implications

There are many limitations to the chapters in this volume. The main one is that in any edited volume the editors are faced with a dilemma of allowing more voices to emerge or imposing a restrictive explanatory framework which in turn shoe horns the chapters into an over-arching sense-making architecture. The limitation of this volume is that it can only present a few of the voices and only begin a synthesis. Interested researchers must work hard to draw meaning from the eclectic voices.

Practical implications

The practical implications from this chapter and the edited chapters are manifold. The chapters deal with complex issues and we have opted to allow the authorial voice to be heard and to allow disciplinary writing styles to remain as they are. This allows a very practical understanding of everyday implications to emerge.

There are many policy implications which arise from this introductory chapter and the chapters in this volume but these will take time to manifest themselves. The main point to take away is that to understand and interdict crime and in particular entrepreneurial crime we must draw on inter-disciplinary knowledge and theories of entrepreneurship and business in a wider sense.

Originality/value

This chapter introduces a series of apparently separate yet interconnected chapters which explore the bounds and boundaries of illegal entrepreneurship and its originality lies in its approach.

Details

Exploring Criminal and Illegal Enterprise: New Perspectives on Research, Policy & Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-551-8

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2024

Hugo Perry and Gerard Dericks

In order to determine whether the factors affecting office worker well-being are location dependent, this exploratory study analyses the relative importance of different “building…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to determine whether the factors affecting office worker well-being are location dependent, this exploratory study analyses the relative importance of different “building well-being” factors for prime office workers in two leading but environmentally contrastive real estate markets: London and Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a mixed methods sequential explanatory design (follow-up explanations model), consisting of three phases: an exploratory phase to refine the building well-being factors, a quantitative phase utilising a questionnaire to assess the relative importance of these building well-being factors (N = 281: London = 171; Hong Kong = 110), followed by a final phase of follow-up interviews with respondents to explore the reasons behind the significant differences observed in the quantitative phase (N = 13: London = 7; Hong Kong = 6).

Findings

While London and Hong Kong share some highly-ranking factors in common, significant differences in importance are observed for 17 of the 31 identified factors as a result of contrasting physical, economic, and cultural environments.

Originality/value

Despite growing recognition of the importance of the built environment on well-being, to the authors’ knowledge there has been no previous research investigating how building well-being demands may vary systematically across geographies. Understanding these differences has important implications for interpreting building well-being research, effective business operations, real estate investment, building certification scheme design, and governance of the built environment.

Details

Property Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

David W. Taylor and Richard Thorpe

Applying social concepts to the social relations that the entrepreneur maintains, this research seeks to identify the impact of these relationships, and the learning that might…

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Abstract

Applying social concepts to the social relations that the entrepreneur maintains, this research seeks to identify the impact of these relationships, and the learning that might result from them, on the decision‐making process. A social and conversational model of experiential learning is put forward, where learning and influence are seen to emerge as part of an ongoing negotiated process. This argument complements Kolb's “fundamentally cognitive” theory of experiential learning, by challenging the view that the learner should be viewed as an “intellectual Robinson Crusoe”, and stating that even when an individual reflects and theorises their thoughts have a social character. Data were collected using critical incident technique through one‐to‐one in‐depth interviews over several weeks. The paper goes some way to confirm the importance of networks in the business development process, helping further to define how networks exist. The learning identified, is understood therefore as part of an ongoing negotiated process within a complex network of domestic, voluntary, commercial and professional relations.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

PAUL EMBRECHTS

This article discusses issues common to the pricing of both insurance and finance. These include increasing collaboration between insurance companies and banks, deregulation of…

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Abstract

This article discusses issues common to the pricing of both insurance and finance. These include increasing collaboration between insurance companies and banks, deregulation of various insurance and finance markets, integrated risk management, and the emergence of financial engineering as a new profession. Rather than attempting to give an exhaustive exposition of the issues at hand, the author highlights developments that, from a methodological point of view, offer new insight into the comparison of pricing mechanisms between insurance and finance.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 22 May 2015

Abstract

Details

Exploring Criminal and Illegal Enterprise: New Perspectives on Research, Policy & Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-551-8

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2023

Qaisar Iqbal and Katarzyna Piwowar-Sulej

This study examines how sustainable leadership influences organizational citizenship behavior toward the environment, directly and through a green organizational climate. This…

1015

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines how sustainable leadership influences organizational citizenship behavior toward the environment, directly and through a green organizational climate. This study also investigates the moderating effect of person-organization fit on the relationship between green organizational climate and employees' organizational citizenship behavior for the environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 241 employees of manufacturing firms in China with one month's lag. Statistical analyses were conducted with the use of PLS-SEM.

Findings

This study confirmed that sustainable leadership significantly influenced organizational citizenship behavior for the environment, both directly and indirectly through a green organizational climate. It also revealed that the relationship between green organizational climate and employees' organizational citizenship behavior for the environment was contingent on the person-organization fit.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to analyze how sustainable leadership reinforces employees' organizational citizenship behavior for the environment by providing insight into the mediating role of green organizational climate and person-organization fit as a moderator. Moreover, through a combination of three theoretical perspectives (social learning theory, social exchange theory and the theory of person-organization fit), this study advances the academic knowledge on how organizational citizenship behavior for the environment develops, thus providing a more complex explanation of the relationship between the examined variables.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

1 – 10 of 18