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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Gui-sheng Gan, Liujie Jiang, Shiqi Chen, Yongqiang Deng, Donghua Yang, Zhaoqi Jiang, Huadong Cao, Mizhe Tian, Qianzhu Xu and Xin Liu

Low-Ag SAC solder will lead to a series of problems, such as increased the melting range and declined the solderability and so on. These research studies do not have too…

Abstract

Purpose

Low-Ag SAC solder will lead to a series of problems, such as increased the melting range and declined the solderability and so on. These research studies do not have too much impact on the improvement of solders’ performance but were difficult to achieve satisfactory results. It is urgent to develop new soldering technology to avoid the bottleneck of lead-free solder. low-temperature-stirring soldering and ultrasonic-assisted soldering was developed in the authors’ early work, but slag inclusion and pore would gather and grow up to lead decreasing of the shear strength. In this paper, Cu/SAC0307 +Zn power/Cu joints with ultrasonic-assisted at low-temperature was successfully achieved.

Design/methodology/approach

45um Zn-powder and SAC0307 No.4 solder powder were mixed to fill the Cu-Cu joint, and the content of Zn-powder were 0 and 5%, 7.5% and 10%, 12.5% and 15% respectively. During the soldering process under ambient atmosphere %252C the heating platform provided a constant 220%253 F and the ultrasonic vibrator applied a constant pressure of 4 MPa to the copper substrate. The soldering process was completed after holding 70 s at 300 W.

Findings

The Zn particles made the IMC at the joint interface and in the soldering seam from scallop-type Cu6Sn5 to flat-type Cu5Zn8. The shear strength of joints without Zn was only 12.43 MPa, the shear strength of joints with 10% Zn reached a peak of 34.25 MPa, and the shear strength of joints containing 10% Zn was 63.71% higher than that of joints without zinc particles, and then the shear strength decreased. In addition, with the increase of zinc content, the fracture mode of the joint changed from the brittle fracture of the original layered tears to the mixed tough and brittle fracture.

Originality/value

A new method that Zn micron-size powders and SAC0307 micron-size powders was mixed to fill the joint, and successfully achieved micro-joining of Cu/Cu under ultrasonic-assisted without flux at low-temperature.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

N. Brady and T.J. Ennis

Tensile pull strength tests were used to study the strength of solder joints of 25 mil gull wing leads on 132 pin quad flat pack components. The authors generated…

Abstract

Tensile pull strength tests were used to study the strength of solder joints of 25 mil gull wing leads on 132 pin quad flat pack components. The authors generated quadratic and linear models which can be used to predict the pull strength of a solder joint given its geometry. The shape parameters studied were stand‐off height between the lead and substrate, height of heel fillet, radius of curvature of heel fillet, length of heel fillet, height of solder at toe region, and thickness of solder on the lead. The most significant parameters in determining the tensile pull strength of the solder joint are the height and length of the heel fillet. A study was performed to quantify the effect of lead finish on the accuracy of these models. The lead finish was found to have a significant effect on the solder joint strength. The effect of lateral misregistration on the tensile pull strength of solder joints was also investigated. No correlation between the extent of lateral misregistration and joint pull strength has been found.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

M. Kitano, S. Kawai and I. Shimizu

Long‐term fatigue life estimation for solder joints of surface mount IC packages is studied through elasto‐plastic stress analysis and temperature cycling tests. Strain on…

Abstract

Long‐term fatigue life estimation for solder joints of surface mount IC packages is studied through elasto‐plastic stress analysis and temperature cycling tests. Strain on the solder joint induced by thermal expansion mismatch between package and substrate has been analysed by considering elasto‐plastic behaviour of the solder and by treating leads as rigid frames. Validity of the analysis has been confirmed by stiffness measurement of the soldered leads. Dynamic shear stress‐strain relationships of type 60Sn/40Pb solder are obtained as a function of temperature and frequency using hollow solder specimens of 15 mm in diameter and hollow solder joint specimens with the same diameter in the temperature range of −60°C to 150°C with frequencies of 0.01 Hz and 0.3 Hz. Fatigue tests are carried out for the solder specimens and the solder joint specimens under shear strain control and for the solder joints of the real IC packages under displacement control. All fatigue tests are conducted at room temperature with a frequency of 1 Hz. Fatigue test data of solder, solder joint and the solder joints of real IC packages fall in the same scatter band in the stra'un‐cycles to failure diagram. A fatigue life estimation model for solder joints of surface mount IC packages is proposed, which is derived by combining the strain calculated by the elasto‐plastic analysis and the fatigue data. To apply the proposed model to IC packages, the temperature cycling test between −55°C and +150°C is performed for two IC packages with different lead designs mounted on two different substrates (ceramics and glass‐epoxy). It is found that the fatigue life of solder joints by the temperature cycling test can be estimated by the proposed fatigue life estimation model. The proposed method is viable because it has sufficient accuracy with a cost of less than 1/100 when compared with the finite element method.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

O. Nousiainen, T. Kangasvieri, R. Rautioaho and J. Vähäkangas

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel Sn7In4.1Ag0.5Cu/Plastic Core Solder Ball/Sn4Ag0.5Cu composite solder joint configuration for second‐level ball grid array…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel Sn7In4.1Ag0.5Cu/Plastic Core Solder Ball/Sn4Ag0.5Cu composite solder joint configuration for second‐level ball grid array (BGA) interconnections of low temperature co‐fired ceramic (LTCC) modules and the thermal fatigue durability of the configuration. The purpose of using the Sn7In4.1Ag0.5Cu solder was to increase the creep/fatigue resistance of critical regions on the LTCC side of the joint.

Design/methodology/approach

Test LTCC module/printed wiring board (PWB) assemblies were fabricated and exposed into temperature cycling tests over the 0 to 100°C and −40 to 125°C temperature ranges. The characteristic lifetimes of these assemblies were determined using DC resistance measurements. The failure mechanisms of the test assemblies were verified using scanning acoustic microscopy, FE‐SEM, and SEM investigation.

Findings

The test assemblies were exposed to thermal cycling tests (TCT) over test ranges of 0 to 100°C and −40 to 125°C, and characteristic lifetimes of over 5,500 and 1,400 cycles, respectively, were achieved. Compared with Sn4Ag0.5Cu/plastic‐core solder balls (PCSB)/Sn4Ag0.5Cu joints, the characteristic lifetime of the SAC‐In/PCSB/SAC joints increased over 55 per cent in the harsh (−40 to 125°C) TCT conditions. In the milder test conditions (0 to 100°C), the characteristic lifetime of the SAC‐In/PCSB/SAC joints increased 30 per cent compared with the SAC/PCSB/SAC joints.

Originality/value

The results proved that the enhanced creep/fatigue properties of the solder matrix resulted in satisfactory lifetime durations in the present lead‐free composite solder joints and, consequently, different primary failure mechanisms on the LTCC side due to the use of indium alloyed solder. Thus, the present joint configuration is assumed to be a promising solution for the further design of a reliable second‐level solder interconnection in LTCC/PWB assemblies with a high‐global thermal mismatch.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

F. Guo, J. Lee and K.N. Subramanian

In an attempt to improve service life of lead‐free Sn‐based electronic solder joints, compatible reinforcements were introduced by in‐situ and mechanical mixing methods…

Abstract

In an attempt to improve service life of lead‐free Sn‐based electronic solder joints, compatible reinforcements were introduced by in‐situ and mechanical mixing methods. The reinforcements affect the steady‐state creep rate and the strain for the onset of tertiary creep of the solder joints. However, neither of these parameters, when considered alone, can be used for evaluating the reliability of solder joints. The Larson‐Miller parameter, and a new parameter proposed in the paper, can incorporate test parameters to arrive at a reliability prediction methodology. The role of these reinforcements in homogenising creep strain within the joint is analysed. The observed creep behaviour of these composite solders is discussed on the basis of interfacial bonding strength between the reinforcement and the solder matrix.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Peng Xue, Song‐bai Xue, Liang Zhang, Yi‐fu Shen, Li‐li Gao, Sheng‐lin Yu, Hong Zhu, Zongjie Han and Yan Chen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the laser soldering of fine pitch quad flat package (QFP) devices using lead‐free solders and solder joint reliability during…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the laser soldering of fine pitch quad flat package (QFP) devices using lead‐free solders and solder joint reliability during thermal cycling.

Design/methodology/approach

QFP devices were selected as the test vehicles and were soldered with four alloy types, Sn37Pb, Sn3.5Ag, Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu and Sn3.8Ag0.7Cu0.03Ce. The experimental samples were QFP‐256 devices with lead‐free solder paste on the printed circuit boards. The packages were dried for 24 h at 125°C prior to reflow soldering. Soldering experiments on the QFP devices were carried out with an infrared (IR) reflow soldering oven and a diode laser (DL) soldering system. Reflow soldering was performed at peak temperatures of 210°C (SnPb), 240°C (SnAgCu and SnAgCuCe) and 250°C (SnAg), as determined on the boards. Pull testing was adopted to evaluate the tensile strength of the four solders using an STR–1000 micro‐joint strength tester.

Findings

The tensile force of the QFP micro‐joints increased as laser intensity increased when it was less than an “optimal” value. The maximum tensile force of the QFP micro‐joints was gained when the laser intensity had increased to 2,165, 2,127, 2,165 and 2,064 W/cm2, depending on the alloy used. The thermal fatigue performance of three lead‐free solder joints, SnAgCuCe, SnAgCu and SnAg, was determined to be superior to that of the eutectic SnPb alloy. After soldering without thermal cycling tests, the fracture morphology of soldered joints exhibited characteristic toughness fracture with both of the soldering methods. After 700 thermal cycles, the fracture mechanism was also toughness fracture, nevertheless, the dimples became large. The fracture morphology of the soldered joints subjected to 1,500 thermal cycles indicated brittle intergranular fracture on the fracture surface and no intense plastic deformation appeared before fracture with IR soldering. For DL soldering, the pull fracture model of the SnAgCuCe was completely ductile in the soldered joint with 1,500 thermal cycles.

Originality/value

The paper usefully investigates the influence of laser intensity on the tensile strength of different soldered joints and the solder joint reliability during thermal cycling.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Wei Liu, Yanhong Tian, Lei Yang, Chunqing Wang and Lining Sun

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of laser reflowed (LR) micro‐solder joints when different protective atmospheres were applied.

Design/methodology/approach

A N2 atmosphere at room temperature, 60°C, 100°C and 130°C, or an air atmosphere at room temperature were utilized in this study. The solder balls were composed of Sn‐2.0Ag‐0.75Cu‐3.0Bi, and 120 μm in diameter. The surface finish of one pad of the joints was 4.0 μm Au/0.1 μm NiFe/0.01 μm Ta, another pad was made of Cu plated with 3.0 μm Au. The laser reflow process time was controlled to within 10 ms. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to identify the oxidation condition of LR solder joints with or without protection from a N2 atmosphere at room temperature. The appearance and cross‐sections of the joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at different temperatures were evaluated using SEM analysis.

Findings

Oxidation of LR solder joints from an air atmosphere was extremely severe, and the surfaces of solder were rough as compared with joints protected by a N2 atmosphere. Au‐rich phases and needle‐like AuSn4 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interfaces of the solder and the pads. As the temperature of the N2 atmosphere was increased above 100°C, almost all of the Au‐rich phases disappeared. More needle‐like AuSn4 IMCs formed at the interfaces, as compared with that in joints protected by a N2 atmosphere at room temperature and 60°C. In addition, the orientation of the IMCs had clearly changed.

Originality/value

The results may provide a guide for controlling oxidation and the Au‐Sn reaction of micro‐solder joints during the LR process, and improving the properties of joints between solder and pads with Au surface finishes, by regulating the protective atmosphere.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Wei Liu, Rong An, Chunqing Wang and Yanhong Tian

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of typical morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs (intermetallic compounds) at the interfaces of solder and pads on shear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of typical morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs (intermetallic compounds) at the interfaces of solder and pads on shear properties of laser reflowed micro-solder joints.

Design/methodology/approach

Sn-2.0Ag-0.75Cu-3.0Bi (SnAgCuBi) solder balls (120 μm in diameter), pads with 0.1, 0.5, 0.9 or 4.0 μm thickness of Au surface finish, and different laser input energies were utilized to fabricate micro-solder joints with Au-Sn IMCs having different typical morphologies. The joints were performed by a shear test through a DAGE bond test system. Fracture surfaces of the joints were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry to identify fracture modes and locations.

Findings

Morphologies of Au-Sn IMCs would affect shear properties of the joints remarkably. When needle-like AuSn4 IMCs formed at the interfaces of solder and pads, almost entire surfaces presented the manner of ductile fracture. Moreover, shear forces of this kind of solder joints were higher than those of joints without Au-Sn IMCs or with a nearly continuous/continuous Au-Sn IMCs layer. The reason was that the shear performance of the solder joints with needle-like AuSn4 IMCs was enhanced by an interlocking effect between solder and needle-like AuSn4 IMCs. As a nearly continuous or continuous Au-Sn IMCs layer formed, the fracture surfaces presented more character of brittle than ductile fracture. However, if an Au layer still remained under Au-Sn IMCs, the shear performance of the joints would be enhanced.

Originality/value

The results in this study can be used to optimize microstructures and shear properties of laser reflowed micro-solder joints.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

T.J. Ennis, N. Brady, B. Keane and A. Donnelly

The effects of varying reflow profiles on the tensile pull strength and structure of solder joints of components with tin plated and nickel‐palladium plated leads were…

Abstract

The effects of varying reflow profiles on the tensile pull strength and structure of solder joints of components with tin plated and nickel‐palladium plated leads were studied. It was found that, in the case of tin plated leads, the structure and the tensile pull strength of the resultant solder joints were not significantly affected by varying the reflow conditions from Profile 1 (peak temperature range: 174°C to 195°C, reflow time 24 seconds) and Profile 2 (peak temperature range: 198°C to 218°C, reflow time 30 seconds). On the other hand, the mean pull strength of solder joints of nickel‐palladium plated lead was found to be significantly higher for joints reflowed with profile 2 than that of joints reflowed with Profile 1. Also, for both reflow profiles, the pull strengths of joints of nickel‐palladium plated leads were significantly higher than those of tin plated leads. This higher average pull strength may be due to the dissolution of palladium in the solder and/or the increased density of intermetallic precipitates in the solder fillet, and the increased intermetallic layer thickness at the lead/solder interface.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

Meng‐Kuang Huang, Chiapyng Lee, Pei‐Lin Wu and Shyh‐Rong Tzan

The effects of thermal fatigue and printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish on the pull strength, failure modes and reliability of chip scale package (CSP) solder joints

Abstract

Purpose

The effects of thermal fatigue and printed circuit board (PCB) surface finish on the pull strength, failure modes and reliability of chip scale package (CSP) solder joints were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Mechanical pull test, metallographic examination and electrical measurement were used. Tin lead (Sn‐Pb) and lead free (Sn‐Ag‐Cu) alloys were used with Au/Ni and organic solderability preservative (OSP) surface finishes.

Findings

The experimental results showed that the pull strength of the Sn‐Ag‐Cu/(Au/Ni) solder joint did not change noticeably with an increasing number of thermal cycles. However, the pull strength of the Sn‐Pb/(Au/Ni) solder joints drastically degraded and that of the Sn‐Ag‐Cu/OSP and Sn‐Pb/OSP solder joints slightly decreased during thermal cycling. For both Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Pb alloys, the solder joint fracture of as‐soldered samples was the main failure mode when an Au/Ni surface finish was used. For the Sn‐Ag‐Cu/(Au/Ni) and Sn‐Ag‐Cu/OSP solder joints, the proportion of component trace tearing considerably decreased, whereas that of PCB trace tearing considerably increased, during thermal cycling. The Weibull lifetimes of the solder joints were increasingly longer in the order of Sn‐Pb/(Au/Ni), Sn‐Pb/OSP, Sn‐Ag‐Cu/OSP, and Sn‐Ag‐Cu/(Au/Ni).

Research limitations/implications

This was not an exhaustive study and all of the findings are for lead free and tin lead CSP solder joints, which perhaps limits the usefulness of the results elsewhere.

Practical implications

A very useful source of information and impartial advice for engineers planning to conduct a switch from tin lead to lead free technology in their production lines.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified information/resources need and offers practical help to an engineer starting out on an engineering development.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000