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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Toshiya Chichibu and Toshiyuki Kihara

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the lesson study (LS) processes and evaluate their effectiveness in Japanese elementary and secondary (middle and high) schools…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the lesson study (LS) processes and evaluate their effectiveness in Japanese elementary and secondary (middle and high) schools, through a school survey by the National Institute for Educational Policy Research of Japan (NIER).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors randomly selected 1,000 elementary schools and 1,000 middle schools and 500 high schools in Japan. Survey items are methods of LS, and indicators of building professional learning communities (PLC) through LSs, close communication between teachers, high quality instruction by teachers, and test scores of students of the school.

Findings

Based on the school survey in elementary and middle schools, almost all schools set up a school‐wide committee, a research theme, and a schedule for LS, and LSs were implemented as part of a school‐wide lesson study from which an action research report is produced. On the other hand, in high schools, almost all the schools implemented LSs, but each LS is independent and implemented specifically for the professional development of the individual teacher who undertakes the research lesson. The authors consider LS as a way to facilitate a PLC in the school. There are correlations between the methods of LS and the indicators of a PLC in elementary and middle schools. However, the effectiveness of LS differs between elementary and middle schools. With respect to the research theme and the organization and discussion of lesson plans, LS methods in middle schools are developed into LS methods in elementary schools. The LS methods may be developed gradually both in elementary and middle schools.

Originality/value

Statistical data of LS in Japanese elementary and secondary schools are presented for the first time, demonstrating the effectiveness of LS.

Details

International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-8253

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Jo‐Ann Harrison

Based on the structural theory of tensions between bureaucratic and professional control, many analyses of recent educational reforms argue that teachers and…

Abstract

Based on the structural theory of tensions between bureaucratic and professional control, many analyses of recent educational reforms argue that teachers and administrators typically adhere to divergent views of governance. Others argue that conflict between administrators and teachers is not inevitable. The degree of competition among professions is affected by the nature of institutional and occupational differentiation and by particular cultural and historical forces in different societies. This study examines the way teachers and principals in a representative sample of Israeli schools view current and preferred control over school curricula in the wake of a decade and a half of decentralization reforms. Our findings show institutional variation in the degree of conflict between the perceptions and preferences of teachers and principals in secondary and elementary schools and major differences in perceptions and preferences by school level. These findings reflect the interplay of occupational segmentation, the functional differentiation of educational institutions, and government policies in Israeli society.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Miki Kuwabara, Koji Oba, Nao Takano, Noritoshi Nagamine, Yoko Maruyama, Nobuhiro Ito, Izumi Watanabe, Chikako Ikeda and Junichi Sakamoto

Occupational stress-relating overwork among teachers predispose to mental disorders and eventually lead to long leave from work. Although some studies have been conducted…

Abstract

Purpose

Occupational stress-relating overwork among teachers predispose to mental disorders and eventually lead to long leave from work. Although some studies have been conducted to assess these problems among elementary and junior high school teachers, a quantitative investigation has been limited to date. In this study, the authors sought to explore the association between overwork and mental stress among Japanese elementary and junior high school teachers.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out on 294 Japanese elementary and junior high school teachers. The respondents filled a questionnaire on personal data, and occupational stress reaction was evaluated by Japanese version of Brief Job Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association between overwork information and psychological and physical stress.

Findings

Working during holidays was significantly likely to increase psychological and physical stress reactions among elementary school teachers (adjusted mean difference = −1.67, 95% CI: −2.81 to −0.54) and junior high school teachers (adjusted mean difference = −5.24, 95% CI: −9.60 to −0.87). A weakly positive association was found between high risk of psychological and physical stress and marital status (p = 0.005), teacher in charge of class (p = 0.015) among elementary school teachers.

Originality/value

This study indicated an association between working during holidays and psychological and physical stress reactions among elementary and junior high school teachers after adjusting for sociodemographic and work-related status. Further study for the confirmation of this finding is warranted.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Sohyun An

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which an intervention lesson could help with elementary pre-service teachers’ critical racial knowledge around school…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which an intervention lesson could help with elementary pre-service teachers’ critical racial knowledge around school segregation.

Design/methodology/approach

The author, an Elementary Social Studies Methods Instructor, developed and modeled lessons of “doing race” in social studies as one of the ways to assist elementary pre-service teachers with critical racial knowledge and commitment to do race in their future classrooms. This paper focuses on one of the modeled lessons, which centered on the topic of school segregation.

Findings

Based on the analysis of class discussion and student work, the author documented the ways in which the modeled lesson engaged pre-service teachers in disrupting the dominant discourses and teaching practices on the topic of school segregation and developing the critical understandings needed to successfully teach about race and racism in elementary classrooms.

Originality/value

The paper details actions meant to demonstrate to elementary pre-service teachers the benefits of an elementary social studies topic viewed and taught through a critical race lens. In doing so, it calls attention to the possibilities and limitations of a single lesson that targets antiracist practices.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2012

Ann LeSage

Elementary teachers' understanding of mathematics is a significant contributor to student success with mathematics. Consequently, teacher educators are frequently charged…

Abstract

Purpose

Elementary teachers' understanding of mathematics is a significant contributor to student success with mathematics. Consequently, teacher educators are frequently charged with the responsibility of supporting the development of prospective elementary teachers' mathematics content knowledge as they re‐learn concepts in ways they are required to teach. The purpose of this paper is to describe one teacher educator's efforts to support prospective elementary teachers' tenuous understanding of rational numbers.

Design/methodology/approach

Given the variety of factors influencing the development of teacher knowledge, a mixed method research design was utilized. Research participants were prospective elementary teachers enrolled in a nine‐week elective course who agreed to participate in the study (n=40); while the control group were prospective elementary teachers not enrolled in the elective course (n=35).

Findings

The results of this study indicate that it may be possible to improve prospective teachers' conceptual understanding of mathematics by providing additional short‐term support, such as an elective course and/or web‐based video clips. However, the program intervention can only build upon the existing knowledge that prospective teachers bring when they begin their Bachelor of Education programs.

Originality/value

For prospective teachers with a limited foundation in mathematics (e.g. less than four secondary school mathematics courses), short‐term support may be insufficient to compensate for their nebulous understanding of rational numbers. Based on this finding, one‐year Bachelor of Education programs might consider, either: including Grade 12 mathematics as a pre‐requisite for elementary teacher applicants; or mandating enrolment in a full‐year math content course similar to the elective course described in this paper.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Deborah Lynn Morowski and Theresa M. McCormick

During field experiences, preservice teachers often are asked plan and teach a lesson and then to reflect on their teaching. The purpose of this paper is to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

During field experiences, preservice teachers often are asked plan and teach a lesson and then to reflect on their teaching. The purpose of this paper is to examine the guided reflections of 66 preservice teachers after they planned and implemented a primary source-based lesson in an elementary classroom. The project occurred during the preservice teachers’ enrollment in a social studies methods course.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study utilized a fieldwork approach as the methodological framework. This approach provided data that allowed the researchers to develop a deeper understanding of the preservice teachers’ experiences. Data were analyzed using Bogdan and Biklen’s (1998) content unit of analysis. Descriptive and interpretive coding schemes were used to analyze data using a priori categories of successes and challenges.

Findings

The preservice teachers were able to engage in technical and practical reflection, considering strategies used in the classroom and their effects on student learning, but they were unable to reflect at the critical level, thinking about moral and ethical decisions. The themes and subthemes that many of the preservice teachers identified as successes, others identified as challenges.

Originality/value

This study highlights the importance of preservice teachers engaging with primary sources, as well as with frequent, meaningful, and ongoing field experiences. Teacher educators need to provide multiple opportunities for teacher candidates to reflect broadly and deeply on their teaching practice and student learning. Additional research needs to be conducted to assess the impact of preservice teachers use of primary sources in the elementary classroom.

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Drew Polly, Robert Algozzine, Christie Sullivan Martin and Maryann Mraz

In the USA, school districts are funding mathematics coaching positions to provide school-level support to teachers. The purpose of this paper is to survey school…

Abstract

Purpose

In the USA, school districts are funding mathematics coaching positions to provide school-level support to teachers. The purpose of this paper is to survey school personnel whose job responsibilities included mathematics coaching in order to examine their job responsibilities and what they felt that their job responsibilities should be.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 67 elementary school mathematics coaches completed a survey that included 30 aspects of the job of elementary school mathematics leaders.

Findings

Quantitative analyses indicated that there were statistically significant differences between their actual roles and their preferred roles on 24 of the 30 items. This means that coaches reported that the aspects of their current role did not align to what they thought their job should be.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate a need to collect further information in a longitudinal study, potentially from a combination of surveys, interviews, and observations, about elementary mathematics coaches’ job responsibilities and the impact that coaches have on both teachers and students.

Practical implications

The findings indicate a need for school leaders, mathematics leaders (coaches), and classroom teachers to work together to utilize mathematics leaders more effectively so as to best support teachers’ instruction and students’ learning.

Originality/value

While some research has been published on literacy coaching, the research base on mathematics coaching is scant. This study contributes to the knowledge base about the roles and duties of coaches in elementary school settings.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Sandra K Abell and Katherine S Cennamo

This chapter details our story of developing and using a series of videocases in elementary science teacher preparation. The Reflecting on Elementary Science videocases…

Abstract

This chapter details our story of developing and using a series of videocases in elementary science teacher preparation. The Reflecting on Elementary Science videocases provide models of best practices in reform-based elementary science teaching. They reduce the complexity of teaching into a manageable story situated in a specific context, so that preservice teachers can uncover and reflect upon their theories about science learning and teaching. Through an accompanying research program, we have found that the videocases perturb student thinking and catalyze them to think like a teacher as they refine their science education theories.

Details

Using Video in Teacher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-232-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

WAYNE K. HOY and BONNIE LEVERETTE BROWN

Effective administrative authority involves willing rather than forced compliance; hence, a major concern of school principals should be to find strategies to increase the…

Abstract

Effective administrative authority involves willing rather than forced compliance; hence, a major concern of school principals should be to find strategies to increase the zone of acceptance among teachers. This research investigates the leadership behavior of principals and the personal characteristics of teachers as both are related to elementary teachers' professional zone of acceptance. Data from 46 elementary schools support the hypothesis that a large professional zone of acceptance for elementary teachers is nurtured by a principal's leadership style that combines both structure and consideration. The personal characteristics of individual teachers, however, were not as strongly related to zone of acceptance as predicted.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Sharon Conley and Sherry A. Woosley

Educational researchers have long been concerned with role stress among teachers. In education, research on the consequences of such role stress for teachers has largely…

Abstract

Educational researchers have long been concerned with role stress among teachers. In education, research on the consequences of such role stress for teachers has largely concerned outcomes valued by individuals such as job satisfaction and reduced stress. Less research has focused on examining the effects of role stress on outcomes valued by the organization, such as employee commitment and employee retention. In examining the role stress‐outcome relationship, research suggests the importance of taking into consideration the work orientations of individuals as possible moderators of the role stress‐outcome relationship. Using a sample of elementary and secondary teachers, this study empirically examined, first whether three role stresses – role ambiguity, role conflict, and role overload – are related to two individually and two organizationally valued states and second, whether teachers’ higher‐order need strength moderates these role stress‐outcome relationships. The study found that role stresses relate to individually‐ and organizationally‐valued outcomes among both elementary and secondary teachers.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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