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Purpose – The chapter provides the reader with an overview of the UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy that includes a year-round reading clinic with undergraduate and…
Purpose – The chapter provides the reader with an overview of the UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy that includes a year-round reading clinic with undergraduate and graduate students serving as clinicians and a summer Digital Storytelling Camp. The focus of the chapter is on the development and evolution of these programs, with an emphasis on the role of coaching in the clinic process.
Methodology/approach – The authors describe how they used Bean's Levels of Coaching Complexity (2004), adapting it to their clinical setting, to meet the current high demand for reading coaches in schools, and to strengthen their reading program courses and practicum experiences.
Practical implications – In addition to providing a comprehensive overview of the UCF Enrichment Programs in Literacy, this chapter includes the nuts and bolts of how the authors “coach for success” in the reading clinic. This involves coaching for success during data collection, in the analysis and decision-making process, in the delivery of tutoring, and beyond the clinic setting. Along with the tutoring process, specific teaching tools (including student samples) and photographs are shared in order to allow for replication by educators who read this chapter.
Social implications – This chapter suggests how reading programs in colleges of education can reexamine their existing field experiences to develop a more deliberate model intended to (1) extend clinician skills in reading assessment, diagnosis, and instructional delivery; (2) promote self-reflection and collaborative professional learning; and (3) provide mentoring experiences that can be replicated in school and district settings by graduate student clinicians as they acquire new leadership roles and responsibilities. This chapter proposes programs that offer consistent, affordable instructional support in literacy for children and families in the surrounding community.
This article presents a case study of Kelly, a third-grade teacher enrolled in a literacy leadership course within a Master of Reading program. In this course, practicing…
This article presents a case study of Kelly, a third-grade teacher enrolled in a literacy leadership course within a Master of Reading program. In this course, practicing teachers completed an assignment in which they implemented a literacy coaching cycle with a colleague, video-recorded their interaction, and conducted critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the interaction. The authors explore how engaging in CDA influenced Kelly's enactment of professional identities as she prepared to be a literacy leader.
Data presented in this article are taken from a larger study of four white, middle-class teachers enrolled in the course. Data sources included the students' final paper and semistructured interviews. The researchers used qualitative coding methods to analyze all data sources, identify prominent themes, and select Kelly as a focal participant for further analysis.
Findings indicate that Kelly's confidence as a literacy leader grew after participating in the coaching cycle and conducting CDA. Through CDA, Kelly explored how prominent discourses of teaching and learning, particularly those relating to novice and expert status, influenced Kelly in-the-moment coaching interactions.
Previous literacy coaching research suggests that literacy coaches need professional learning opportunities that support a deep understanding of coaching stances and discursive moves to effectively support teachers. The current study suggests that CDA may be one promising method for engaging literacy coaches in such work because it allows coaches to gain understandings about how discourses of teaching and learning function within coaching interactions.
Purpose – To provide a model for mentoring teachers through the process of improving instruction and intervention.Design/methodology/approach – The chapter describes the…
Purpose – To provide a model for mentoring teachers through the process of improving instruction and intervention.
Design/methodology/approach – The chapter describes the Gradual Increase of Responsibility model for coaching, an adaptation of Pearson and Gallagher's (1983) Gradual Release of Responsibility model that can be used by coaches as they support teachers in a clinic or school setting.
Findings – Content describes stages of the coaching model that provide less scaffolding as teachers gain confidence and competence. These stages include modeling, recommending, questioning, affirming, and praising.
Research limitations/implications – The Gradual Increase of Responsibility (GIR) model provides a process that coaches can follow to support instructional improvement. GIR requires that coaches have instructional expertise; it provides them with a guide for their work with teachers to incorporate effective practices.
Practical implications – The GIR model can be applied by coaches in both clinical and school settings, with teachers who instruct students at both elementary and secondary levels.
Originality/value of paper – This chapter provides examples for each stage of the GIR process, clearing indicating how coaches can guide teachers to take on increased responsibility for strong, intentional instruction and intervention.
Purpose – This chapter argues that classroom teachers need to be more effective and efficient in order to meet the needs of all students and support their grade-level…
Purpose – This chapter argues that classroom teachers need to be more effective and efficient in order to meet the needs of all students and support their grade-level achievement. Given the challenges of contemporary schools – mandated curricula, intensive monitoring and intervention, high-stakes testing, and increased student diversity – teachers are expected to incorporate research-based practices in sophisticated ways. This chapter challenges teachers to assess and enhance their instructional effectiveness.
Approach – This chapter explores ways for teachers to make literacy assessment and instruction more appropriate, productive, and successful, which requires that teachers expand their repertoire of methods and consider ways to deliver instruction expeditiously.
Content – Examples of inefficient practices preface a discussion of some common hindrances to more streamlined instruction. The chapter demonstrates the use of literacy assessment to support more flexible instructional activities, focusing on literacy delivery modes that align with increasingly more difficult text. Subsequent discussion details numerous literacy experiences, including variations of teacher-led, collaborative, guided, partner, and student-led reading. Seven guidelines are presented. The conclusion summarizes an example of how a reading coach used assessment to synthesize an effective intervention to support the marked improvement of a third-grade reader.
Implications – The chapter's goal is that teachers consider ways to combine experiences that increase effectiveness, efficiency, and engagement. Readers can explore ways to use assessment to improve their instruction. Numerous suggestions and activities accompany the discussion.
Value – The chapter content challenges teachers to streamline and sophisticate their literacy instruction and demonstrates ways to combine literacy experiences that foster student achievement and engagement.
Literacy coaches can play a valuable role in the improvement of student learning outcomes. The authors’ purpose is to describe their time use, student learning, and…
Literacy coaches can play a valuable role in the improvement of student learning outcomes. The authors’ purpose is to describe their time use, student learning, and principals’ understanding leading to advocacy for development of literacy coach effectiveness measures.
By analyzing four related studies, the authors use quantitative and qualitative methods to develop five themes and the need for measures of effectiveness. Areas of role and use of time, principals’ understanding, and need for empirical, rather than perceptual research are explored.
Findings on the relationship of use of time and student reading outcomes, and perceptions of impediments and enhancements to impact on effectiveness are discussed and lead to the identification of the need for effectiveness measures.
Limitations include the singular US region where the four studies were conducted and the small samples. The four studies did not use precisely the same methods so this is an additional limitation. Further research in various regions and with larger samples are needed to draw definitive conclusions.
Greater understanding of the context of literacy coaches, including understanding by principals, may lead to measurement. This measurement will inform principals and school directors on literacy coaches’ roles which may increase fidelity of the implementation of the position with the original intent. There has not been an accountability system for literacy coaches related to improved student learning, making this concept important to professionalization of literacy coach position.
Given that available research on the value of literacy coach positions is perceptual, rather than based on student outcome data, the need for development of effectiveness measures may result in greater fidelity of implementation of the position. Resulting role clarification and the extent to which implementation of literacy coaches can be expected to improve student achievement is a contribution.
This collective case study investigated the ways in which coaching supports teacher change. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to consider what types of feedback…
This collective case study investigated the ways in which coaching supports teacher change. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to consider what types of feedback are best at what times in the coaching process and how coaching supports teachers’ application of learning to differing contexts.
The study was conducted over an 18-month period in three settings: a university reading clinic and two schools. Participants were a coach and two in-service teachers enrolled in a literacy specialist master’s degree program. This qualitative study included observational field notes, interviews, lesson plans, and teacher reflections as primary data sources.
Findings suggest a model for coaching that acknowledges the learner’s previous knowledge and experience and continuously gauges support to stay within the ever-escalating zone of proximal development. Specific coaching moves that vary by degree of scaffolding are identified, namely: modeling, recommending, asking questions, affirming, and praising.
This study clarifies the varying roles that coaches may play and how these roles change over time. Additionally, the model has implications for how coaching might change based on variability among those being coached.
The Gradual Increase of Responsibility Model has potential to guide coaches as they engage with mentees to improve instruction.
Purpose – To identify effective literacy instructional strategies and methods based on assessment. Also, to provide information on literacy experts that teachers may seek…
Purpose – To identify effective literacy instructional strategies and methods based on assessment. Also, to provide information on literacy experts that teachers may seek advice from as they work with striving readers.
Approach – A review of literature and the research on teaching striving readers were examined.
Practical implications – Reading is an important determining factor in efficacious learning and overall literacy; students must possess the necessary literacy skills to become successful and productive citizens in an information age. Throughout the chapter, a striving reader is presented while offering the reader an authentic example of a striving reader. The strategies, methods, and experts offer best practices; these will enhance the student(s) literacy skills.
Originality/value of paper – Educators utilizing the information provided in this chapter will be enhanced in their ability to effectively teach their students.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the coaching element that was included in an existing graduate literacy course and to describe the responses of…
The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the coaching element that was included in an existing graduate literacy course and to describe the responses of experienced and less‐experienced teachers as they began to add collaborative peer coaching to their teaching identities.
Data collected included teachers’ coaching logs and written reflections on the coaching experience, and field notes taken by a professor. Data were analysed qualitatively through open coding. Initially, the authors read data individually and coded them by what they perceived to be the teachers’ coaching moves. Separately, they developed lists of codes and then reviewed coding lists to work through idiosyncratic data, collapse codes, align their language.
The authors identified three overarching and multi‐faceted moves that the coaching teachers made as they worked with partner teachers. They found that the teachers: used restraint; focused on partner teacher's needs; and provided opportunities for classroom observations and demonstrations.
Due to budget cuts, district coaching initiatives are being down‐sized. With fewer literacy coaches available, the authors believe that classroom teachers would benefit from learning about how to support each another as peer coaches.
Teachers’ coaching moves, along with the curricular conversations engendered by them, created a culture of learning based on reflection and dialogue between coaching and partner teachers.
Very few studies have been conducted on peer coaching or have addressed the process by which teachers enrolled in graduate programs learned how to engage in collaborative peer coaching.
This ECEPD project implemented a professional development (PD) protocol within a large public school system. The PD was designed to provide support for both teachers and…
This ECEPD project implemented a professional development (PD) protocol within a large public school system. The PD was designed to provide support for both teachers and their instructional partners in implementation of two curricula designed to foster children's language, literacy, math competencies, and overall cognitive development. The specifics of the PD are outlined including its development, coaching strategies, training approaches, and coursework components.
Results of the evaluation of the project are also highlighted and discussed. Analyses indicated that teachers showed significant growth in relation to the implementation of the curriculums and the PD efforts of both the district and the intervention, with less-experienced teachers showing the highest levels of growth. In addition, results indicated a significant difference between the intervention and the control group teachers in their developmentally appropriate beliefs and practices, with intervention teachers indicating higher levels of developmentally appropriate beliefs and practices. The challenges to field work in a large and ever-changing school system are discussed, and recommendations for further PD are made.
The purpose of this paper is to draw on the concepts of social capital in order to reveal the organizational conditions, including structural and relational factors…
The purpose of this paper is to draw on the concepts of social capital in order to reveal the organizational conditions, including structural and relational factors, associated with reform-oriented instructional coaching (ROIC) in an urban school district.
An interpretivist approach was used to analyze organizational conditions enabling ROIC. Interview, observation and document data collected focused on coaching, leadership, and school-level organizational conditions. Qualitative data analyses, including coding and memoing, were used to summarize key information and quotes across data sources; this was followed by qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to identify combinations of factors associated with reform-oriented coaching.
The findings identified particular structures, systems, and activities enabling ROIC at the school level, with social capital playing a role in facilitating or impeding implementation of such work. That is, relationships, routines, norms, and webs of interaction enabled coaching. Principals’ prioritization of coaching as an improvement lever and their persuasive framing of coaching, coupled with principal-coach collaboration, fostered a positive culture for ROIC.
This paper points to the vital role of collaboration amongst administrators, coaches, and teachers. Principals play a significant role in defining coaching, setting up structures, and creating conditions supportive of the implementation of ROIC. By managing structures and routines, principals can encourage coaching aligned with reform efforts to yield positive outcomes.
This research advances the field’s understanding of organizational factors influencing the enactment of ROIC. It uses QCA to reveal the value of leadership in shaping structural and relational conditions in a school site.