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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2018

Melissa Kempf Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the microgeneration between Generation X and the Millennial generation. The research question addressed was “What makes the…

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5984

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the microgeneration between Generation X and the Millennial generation. The research question addressed was “What makes the Xennial generation unique and how might the knowledge of these differences be beneficial to organizations?”

Design/methodology/approach

The research question was analyzed by a review of literature through the lens of generational theory. This study reviewed current literature on generational theory, years encompassing specific generations, and differences between recent generations in the workplace.

Findings

It was discovered the exact years distinguishing generations were unclear because generations fade into one another without a distinct starting and stopping point. This overlap creates a cusp generation or microgeneration. The presented findings suggest microgeneration employees could aid in reducing workplace generational tensions.

Practical implications

Organizations can benefit from creating flexible workplaces accommodating the desires of multi-generational employees while still meeting the goals of the organization as a whole. It is important managers approach generational differences with a clear perspective of what information is valid and what may simply be popular. It is crucial to remember employees are individuals who never completely fit a stereotype, generational, or otherwise.

Originality/value

Very few academic articles on generational differences mention cusp generations and none address their unique opportunities for organizations in the workplace. Members of microgenerations between major generational cohorts may be a key to reducing workplace friction between employees of different generations.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Liz Thach, Sam Riewe and Angelo Camillo

The purpose of this paper is to identify the wine consumption preferences and behavior of Gen Z wine consumers in the USA and to determine if and how Gen Z differ from…

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1254

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the wine consumption preferences and behavior of Gen Z wine consumers in the USA and to determine if and how Gen Z differ from other major generational cohorts in the USA. This study applies the concepts of generational cohort theory to the US wine market to examine similarities and differences between age cohorts and their potential impact on future wine sales.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey was conducted with a quota sample of 1,136 US wine consumers located in all 50 states. Data analysis included one-way ANOVA analysis to test the null hypothesis that the generational cohort means are equal. If the test detected at least one mean difference across cohorts, then pairwise comparisons were performed to identify, which groups differed. The Tukey–Kramer method was used for all post hoc tests. Basic descriptive statistics were also calculated.

Findings

The results show some parallels in terms of similar consumption levels and a higher preference for red wine across all cohorts. However, on the majority of other common wine consumer research topics, Gen Z shows significant differences. Of specific interest, Gen Z consumers report higher levels of preference for sparkling wine than other cohorts; prefers to drink in social situations; are much more interested in labels and package; make decisions based on varietal and alcohol level and are much more engaged on Instagram and Snapchat social media platforms – all pointed to new marketing tactics needed to reach this new consumer segment.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical wine research study to explore the wine preferences and behaviors of Gen Z in the US market. This is valuable because Gen Z is a very large population of consumers, comprising 32% of the world population (Miller and Wei, 2018) and already represent more than $143bn in buying power (Dill, 2015). They are expected to have a huge impact on consumer products, not only in the USA but also on a global basis. Given that the USA is currently the largest wine market in the world in both volume and value (Wine Institute, 2019; VinExpo, 2018), it is important that research is conducted on this new and powerful generation.

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International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Nitya Rani and Anand Samuel

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into differences in work values and Person–Organisation (P–O) fit of Baby Boomers, Gen X and Gen Y in India and to…

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6102

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into differences in work values and Person–Organisation (P–O) fit of Baby Boomers, Gen X and Gen Y in India and to understand the relationship between (P–O) fit values and turnover intention of Generation Y employees.

Design/methodology/approach

The work values were measured using an adapted version of Lyons Work Values scale. The generational differences in work values and P–O fit were studied using multivariate analysis of variance and relationship between P–O fit values and turnover intention of Gen Y employees was studied using polynomial regression and response surface methodology.

Findings

Significant differences in work values were observed between Generation Y and older generations. Generation Y also reported significantly higher discrepancy in P–O fit values than Generation X and Baby Boomers. This had an effect on their turnover intention.

Research limitations/implications

A cross-sectional design was used to study the generational differences in work values where the generation effects may have been confounded with age effects.

Practical implications

The differences in work values and P–O fit values of Generation Y and older generations provide input into designing organisation systems and structures more suitable for younger generations to manage the high turnover among Generation Y in India.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies on generational differences in work values and P–O fit in the Indian context. It is also one of the first to investigate relationship between P–O fit and turnover intention of Generation Y in India.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Helen C. Salvosa and Maria Regina M. Hechanova

This study examined generational differences in traits and desired schemas of leaders among Filipino workers using the lens of the generational cohort theory.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined generational differences in traits and desired schemas of leaders among Filipino workers using the lens of the generational cohort theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized a sequential exploratory mixed-method approach. Phase One of the study utilized a qualitative approach in eliciting perceived characteristics and leadership schemas. Phase Two utilized a quantitative approach utilizing a survey to test generational differences.

Findings

Cluster analysis of survey responses of 341 Filipino workers showed two generation cohorts – the political and technological generation. Respondents from the political generation characterized themselves as being work-centered, family-oriented, traditional, seasoned, decisive and multi-tasking. The political generation also believes that an ideal leader is someone who cares about people's welfare, delegates, and is able to control others. On the other hand, the technology generation described themselves as being tech-savvy, carefree, laid-back, proud, individualistic, self-centered, arrogant, energetic and adventurous. The technological generation views an ideal leader as someone who is responsible, provides clear instructions, listens, and recognizes people.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on Filipino workers and more studies in other countries are needed to establish generational differences in schemas.

Practical implications

The results have implications on the way that leaders are selected and developed especially in an increasingly diverse workforce.

Social implications

The results highlight the role of political, sociocultural events and technological trends that shape the traits and schemas of workers.

Originality/value

The study contributes to both generational studies as well as implicit leadership literature. The study highlights the value of examining the intersection of both culture and generation in the context of leadership.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Carolina Herrando, Julio Jimenez-Martinez and M.J. Martin-De Hoyos

The proliferation of social commerce websites has allowed consumers to share and exchange information, experiences, advice and opinions. Recently, information provided by…

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2434

Abstract

Purpose

The proliferation of social commerce websites has allowed consumers to share and exchange information, experiences, advice and opinions. Recently, information provided by users has been considered more trustworthy than the information shared by companies. However, the way in which users interact with technology can vary with age, and generational cohorts show different shopping behaviors, interests and attitudes. Hence, the way users process information (user-generated vs company-generated) can affect trust differently. Drawing on the trust transfer theory and the generational cohort theory, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects on user- and company-generated information in boosting trust of three different cohorts (Generation X, Y and Z).

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected through an online survey. The sample comprised 715 users of social commerce websites, aged between 16 and 55 years old. The study was analyzed using partial least squares with the statistical software Smart PLS 3.

Findings

The empirical results show that generational cohorts show different patterns. Generation X transfers trust to social commerce websites mainly from trust in information generated by companies, while Generation Z transfers trust mainly from information generated by users. Finally, Generation Y, in contrast to previous findings about millennials, develops trust based on company-generated information to an even greater extent than does Generation X.

Originality/value

The originality of this study lies in its analysis of generational differences when it comes to trusting one type of information over another. This study contributes to the idea that users cannot be considered as a whole but must be segmented into generational cohorts.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Sarah Gardiner, Debra Grace and Ceridwyn King

The purpose of this paper is to explore congruency between the self-identity of Baby Boomer, Generation X and Generation Y consumers with the generational label and…

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2913

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore congruency between the self-identity of Baby Boomer, Generation X and Generation Y consumers with the generational label and popularised identity of each generational cohort.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a mixed methods approach of focus groups (n=49) followed by an online survey (n=627) of Baby Boomer, Generation X and Generation Y consumers. Focus group data were thematically analysed. Descriptive, ANOVA and factor analysis was conducted on the survey data.

Findings

The results show that most consumers only have a vague association with their generational label and profile and find it easier to characterise generations that are different to their own. Generation self-identity congruency is greater among members of the Baby Boomer cohort compared to the younger generations. Yet, even in the Baby Boomer cohort, generational identity is not homogenous among its members.

Practical implications

The results challenge the explicit use of generational labels and stereotypes in marketing strategy.

Originality/value

Given the immense interest and application of generational cohort segmentation, understanding whether and why consumers identify with cohort labels and profiles is critical. The paper questions the longevity of generational cohort analysis given the limited understanding and relevance of this concept to consumers.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 23 December 2019

Matthew J. Bauman, Natalia Velikova, Tim Dodd and Trey Blankenship

The purpose of this study is to examine generational differences in consumer Web 2.0 information source adoption for wine purchasing decisions, particularly social media…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine generational differences in consumer Web 2.0 information source adoption for wine purchasing decisions, particularly social media and internet-based sources.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey resulted in 276 responses from wine consumers residing in Texas, USA. Information source usage was tested in two common purchasing situations: for casual and formal consumption. Chi-square analyses and ANOVA were used to examine differences among the generational cohorts in their use of information sources, levels of objective and subjective wine knowledge, wine involvement and risk perception for the two purchasing situations.

Findings

Younger consumers were found to be significantly more inclined to use Web 2.0 information sources, such as wine blogs, wine applications, their contacts’ recommendations on social media and wine experts on social media. Older consumers were more likely to use their own wine knowledge. Of greater interest is that in terms of their reliance on various wine information sources, Generation X behaves as the bridge between Generation Y and Baby Boomers. Generational differences regarding wine involvement, wine knowledge and risk perception also support this notion.

Practical implications

The results of this study reinforce the need for wineries to adopt or create strategic initiatives using Web 2.0 elements. This study also suggests that depending on the purchasing context, consumers use certain information sources more than others.

Originality/value

This research extends the understanding of the information acquisition process by expanding the types of information sources, and also yields valuable insights for consumers’ off-premise wine purchasing decisions.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2009

Eric Lamm and Michael D. Meeks

This paper aims to investigate how generational differences moderate the relationship between workplace fun and individual workplace outcomes.

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13085

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how generational differences moderate the relationship between workplace fun and individual workplace outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review and integrate the literatures on workplace fun and generational theory and empirically test the interaction effects of generation membership and workplace fun with job satisfaction, task performance, and OCB using a sample of 701 workers.

Findings

The findings suggest that not only do members of different generational cohorts respond differently to workplace fun, but cohort membership moderates the relationship between workplace fun and some individual workplace outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Snowball sampling and cross‐sectional data limit the generalisability of the study's findings.

Practical implications

The authors provide managerial implications for promoting workplace fun.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the workplace fun conversation by addressing the overlooked question of “fun for whom?”.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Corrie Stone-Johnson

The purpose of this paper is to describe how teachers’ generational interpretative frameworks influence their career experiences and to demonstrate how these generational

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how teachers’ generational interpretative frameworks influence their career experiences and to demonstrate how these generational differences impact the power of professional capital to improve teaching and learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes data from a multi-year, mixed methods study of mid-career teachers in Massachusetts. Data in this paper come from semi-structured interviews with 12 Generation X teachers (born 1961-1980).

Findings

Generation X teachers have a unique self-image, self-esteem, task perception, job motivation, and future perspective that form their generational interpretative framework. This framework is different from that of the prior generation.

Originality/value

These generational differences have implications for how Generation X teachers view professionalism and autonomy and how they see their careers over time. Drawing upon Hargreaves and Fullan’s (2012) suggestions for school leaders, three implications are highlighted. First, a model of professional capital that incorporates teachers’ generational differences must be aware of how teachers view their work before engaging in changing it. This implication ties directly into the second, which is that leaders must know their teachers and understand the culture in which they work. Together, these two implications suggest that implementing a model of professional capital is not enough; it must begin with deliberate thought as to who the teachers are who are being asked to change. Finally, to secure leadership stability and sustainability, leaders must respect generational differences that influence teachers’ desires to move, or not move, into formal leadership roles.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Violet Lazarevic

The purpose of this paper is to argue that marketers need to create a relationship between their brand and generation Y consumers through various steps in order to…

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19005

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that marketers need to create a relationship between their brand and generation Y consumers through various steps in order to increase brand loyalty of this notoriously disloyal segment.

Design/methodology/approach

A cohesive review of generation Y consumer literature forms the basis of theoretical propositions and a conceptual model which suggests ways to increase generation Y brand loyalty.

Findings

Findings suggest that existing marketing tools such as integrated marketing communications and branding can be used in new ways to increase the perceived congruence between the generation Y consumer and the brand. This is necessary for creating a relationship with the brand leading to increased brand loyalty.

Practical implications

The paper is important for marketers by indicating key focus areas for influencing brand loyalty of generation Y consumers, and tailoring loyalty programs. In addition, this paper gives marketers insight into how congruency between their brand and generation Y consumers can be created to develop a relationship between the brand and the customer and positively influence brand loyalty.

Originality/value

This paper fills gaps in the literature regarding how to influence brand loyalty from fickle generation Y consumers. Furthermore, the paper highlights the importance of integrated marketing communications theory, branding and celebrity endorsement and how it can be manipulated to increase the perceptions of congruence and build a relationship between the generation Y consumer and the brand, leading to increased brand loyalty.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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