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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2020

Eran Ketter

Millennials travel more than any other generation and they account now for some 40 percent of Europe’s outbound travel. As Millennials travel peaks, the purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

Millennials travel more than any other generation and they account now for some 40 percent of Europe’s outbound travel. As Millennials travel peaks, the purpose of this paper is to shed light on European Millennials, their characteristics and travel behaviors, and how their travel trends are shaping the present – and future – of the tourism industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study is based on content analysis of up-to-date academic publications and tourism industry reports.

Findings

The common characteristics and travel behaviors of Millennials drive four key tourism micro-trends: creative tourism, off-the-beaten-track tourism, alternative accommodation and fully digital tourism. Based on the growing importance of Millennials in global travel, these micro-trends are re-shaping supply and demand and transform the tourism and hospitality industries.

Originality/value

The study provides a novel understanding of Millennial travel, their characteristics and travel behaviors. The micro-trends identified are affecting destinations, hotels, attractions and other tourism businesses, as they re-define what tourists want and how they want it. Furthermore, these change drivers are expected to increase as Millennial travel continues to grow.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Sameeullah Khan, Asif Iqbal Fazili and Irfan Bashir

This paper aims to theorize counterfeit luxury consumption among millennials from a generational identity perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to theorize counterfeit luxury consumption among millennials from a generational identity perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes and tests a model of counterfeit buying behavior using an online survey of 467 millennial respondents. The study uses multi-item measures from the extant literature and uses the structural equation modeling technique to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The findings reveal when millennials have a self-defining relationship with their generation, they tend to internalize the generational norm pertaining to counterfeit luxury consumption. Millennials’ counterfeit related values: market mavenism, postmodernism, schadenfreude and public self-consciousness contribute to their generational identity. Moreover, market mavenism, cool consumption and public self-consciousness establish counterfeit luxury consumption as a generational norm.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper suggest that the expertise and influence of market mavens can be used to deter counterfeit consumption. Moreover, luxury brands must communicate a cool image to offset the rebellious image of counterfeits. Further, from a standardization versus adaption standpoint, the generational perspective allows for the standardization of anti-counterfeiting campaigns.

Originality/value

The paper makes a novel contribution to the counterfeiting literature by demonstrating that millennials pursue counterfeit luxury brands when they pledge cognitive allegiance to their generation. The paper, thus, extends the identity perspective of counterfeit luxury consumption to group contexts. The authors also test and validate the role of descriptive norms in group contexts by introducing the construct generational norm to counterfeiting literature.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2021

Siti Khadijah Zainal Badri, Wai Meng Yap and Hazel Melanie Ramos

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gratitude and workplace friendship with affective well-being (AWB) at work amongst millennial employees…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gratitude and workplace friendship with affective well-being (AWB) at work amongst millennial employees. Specifically, it details the mediating effect of workplace friendship in explaining the linkages between gratitude and AWB at work.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a sample of 272 millennial workers in this study. A survey invitation was sent out to all of the respondents through email. A 20-item job-related AWB (Van Katwyk et al., 2000) scale was used to measure AWB. Workplace friendship was measured using six-items of the workplace friendship scale (Nielsen et al., 2000) and gratitude was measured using McCullough et al.’s (2002) six-item gratitude questionnaire (GQ-6).

Findings

The study found that gratitude and workplace friendship enhanced workplace AWB among millennial workers. Workplace friendship functioned as a mediator, which delivered the effect from gratitude towards workplace AWB. Gratitude was found to positively predict workplace friendship and subsequently workplace friendship positively predicted workplace AWB.

Practical implications

Nurturing positive feelings at work through excellent psychosocial resources and healthy work friendships would improve millennial workers well-being. Henceforth, encouraging millennial employees to cultivate workplace friendships, can help the manager to enhance millennial employees’ feeling of belongingness, and thus, promote better AWB.

Originality/value

Investment on employee’s human capital and values can be valuable resources to increase millennial employees’ performance at work. Millennial workers are a unique generation that put emphasis on the subjective experience. Hence, capitalising on their subjective experience can be one of the keys to better increase their well-being and performance at work.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2021

Blaine J. Branchik, Tilottama Ghosh Chowdhury and Jennifer Schenk Sacco

This study aims to examine different consumption attitudes between two age-based cohorts of female consumers as it relates to the processing of marketing communications.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine different consumption attitudes between two age-based cohorts of female consumers as it relates to the processing of marketing communications.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies use 10 iterations of an ad for an alcoholic beverage. Ads vary in the number of models, age of those models and ad value message. Cohorts are divided into pre-millennial (35 and older) and millennial (18–34) age groups. Subjects respond to a variety of statements associated with the ads. ANOVAs are run to determine significant differences or similarities between cohorts.

Findings

Women of different ages have different value systems. Pre-millennials prefer ads featuring other-focused value messages and containing multiple female models. That preference is moderated for those who feel a strong closeness to other women. They prefer ads featuring single female models with other-focused messages. Millennials express no preference for the number of models or value messages. Those with high perceptions of closeness to women, however, express a preference for ads featuring multiple models, irrespective of value message. Further, perceived age similarity between consumers and models moderates the pre-millennial’s versus millennial’s attitude toward ads featuring mature female models and single versus multiple models.

Research limitations/implications

Only American women were surveyed for this research. Further, only one product was used to assess attitudes.

Practical implications

Advertisers must be cognizant of the age of targeted consumers. Further, any cultural values expressed in ads have different impacts depending on consumer age. Finally, the number of models can have an impact on consumer attitude depending on viewers’ age and preference.

Originality/value

This research fills an existing lacuna in studies involving female consumers by exploring and testing significant differences among women of different ages and value systems and their attitudes toward marketing communications.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2021

Mas Wahyu Wibowo, Auditia Lintang Sari Putri, Ali Hanafiah, Dudi Permana and Fauziah Sh Ahmad

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate Indonesian Muslim millennials’ decision-making process in purchasing halal food by introducing knowledge variable into the theory…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate Indonesian Muslim millennials’ decision-making process in purchasing halal food by introducing knowledge variable into the theory of planned behavior framework and education level (EL; i.e. low vs high) as the moderating variable.

Design/methodology/approach

There were 400 questionnaires that were distributed to obtain responses from Indonesian Muslim millennials consumers. SmartPLS was used as the structural equation modeling approach to perform the multi-group analysis.

Findings

EL plays an important role that determines Indonesian Muslim millennials’ decision-making process to purchase halal food.

Research limitations/implications

The EL was distinguished based on the Indonesian formal education system, which excluded the religious education system from the analysis.

Practical implications

The information conveyance of halal food product attributes should be conducted gradually according to the millennial consumers’ EL. Millennial consumers with higher EL are more likely to internalize the credence attributes of halal food compared to the lower EL counterpart.

Originality/value

This study found the significant differences in terms of halal food purchase decision-making between the two groups of lower EL and higher EL.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Min Zhang and Yixuan Zhao

Based on previous research on millennial employee management in China, this study aims to extend the understanding of the underlining mechanisms and boundary conditions…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on previous research on millennial employee management in China, this study aims to extend the understanding of the underlining mechanisms and boundary conditions between job characteristics and millennial employee creative performance. Drawing on the self-determination theory and the theory of situation interaction, this study proposes hedonic and eudaimonic well-being as dual mediators, to explain the positive effect of job characteristics on millennial employees’ creative performance. Further, the study proposes that inclusive leadership and achieving styles could separately moderate these two mediation paths.

Design/methodology/approach

The data comprises information on 288 millennial employees in China.

Findings

The results show that both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being mediate the positive effect of job characteristics on millennial employees’ creative performance. The positive effect of job characteristics on millennial employees’ hedonic well-being is stronger when inclusive leadership is stronger; and the positive effect of millennial employees’ hedonic well-being on creative performance is stronger when direct achieving style and instrumental achieving style are stronger. There was no significant moderating effect of inclusive leadership on the relationship between job characteristics and millennial employees’ eudaimonic well-being, and no significant moderating effect of achieving style on the relationship between millennial employees’ eudaimonic well-being and creative performance. Job characteristics exerted a positive indirect effect on employees’ creative performance through employees’ hedonic well-being and that this cascading effect was moderated by inclusive leadership, direct achieving style and instrumental achieving style.

Practical implications

The findings have important implications for both job design practices and employee performance research. Organizations should pay more attention to improving the creative performance of millennials employees through innovative job design or other organizational level motivational drivers. At the same time, the findings in this study align with the findings in Sheldon et al. (2018) study where extrinsic values rather than toward intrinsic values will bring improved hedonic well-being to the individual in the short term. One further practical implication is that if organizations need a short-term boost of creative performance from their millennial employees, organizations can provide more extrinsic motivators. When organizations want to see more long-term creative performance results, intrinsic motivators should be established.

Originality/value

As part of a series of research on Chinese millennial employee management, this paper extends existing research results. First, the authors verify the main effect relationship between job characteristics and employee creative performance. Second, based on the self-determination theory, this study constructs a dual mediation model and tests the mediating effect of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being between job characteristics and employee creative performance. Third, considering the situational characteristics of the study, the authors propose the boundary conditions of the relationship between job characteristics and creative performance from two levels of individual characteristics and leadership types, namely, inclusive leadership and achieving style.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Linzi J. Kemp and Linda McLoughlin

The study aims to discover influences on the career intentions of millennials in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to discover influences on the career intentions of millennials in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data about career intentions were collected from a sample group (#50) of students at an international university in the UAE. Participant's responses were recorded in five groups, composed of undergraduates, males and females, expatriates and citizens. Transcripts were formed of these data, which were thematically analysed to identify influences on career intentions.

Findings

Four emergent themes were identified of influences on career intentions: (1) influenced by societal obligations, (2) influenced by a traditional approach to career plans; (3) influenced by own aspirations; (4) influenced by country considerations. Findings recognised career intentions for this sample group resulted from cultural orientation and millennial's characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited by the one country/one university context and a direction is to replicate for an expanded sample group and/or to extend this research scope to other countries.

Practical implications

These findings have implications for university career advising, and the recruitment and retention of millennials in the UAE by international companies.

Originality/value

This is an original study in its exploration of influences on millennial's career intentions in the UAE. Research value lies in the addition of academic knowledge about those millennials' future career intentions.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Iris Kollinger and Riina Koris

The purpose of this study is to identify what (de)motivates millennial students from undertaking mobility upon graduation and whether this depends on gender, region of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify what (de)motivates millennial students from undertaking mobility upon graduation and whether this depends on gender, region of origin, prior work experience, level of studies, or international mindset and how. The paper provides insights on the preferred length of mobility and the most (un)attractive regions.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample consists of 1,001 millennial students from 77 countries. Data from a quantitative self-reported survey were analysed employing exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory data analyses.

Findings

Factors that motivate mobility are personal development, learning about foreign cultures and the opportunity to travel and those that demotivate are a preference for short-term assignments, unwillingness of family to move and disruption of home country life. Factors differ by region, gender, level of current studies and the student's international mindset.

Research limitations/implications

The cohort included only students pursuing a business or technical education. A willingness to accept an international assignment may not necessarily translate into accepting an international assignment due to the effect of the attitude–behaviour gap. The authors do not aim to generalise on the basis of the results since the sample was fairly disproportionate in terms of world regions. We do, however, invite further studies to treat ours as potential input for new and emerging studies of either a quantitative or qualitative nature.

Practical implications

Due to a strong attachment to home, short-term assignments are preferred. Salary and financial benefits remain hygienic factors and motivating factors remain on the “soft” side. Motivating millennials to engage in mobility requires an individualised approach, dependent on region of origin, gender, the level of education, work experience and international mindset.

Originality/value

This study indicates that the factors that (de)motivate millennial students to engage in international assignments differ on the basis of various socio-demographic variables.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2021

Halimin Herjanto and Muslim Amin

Deodorant, as a hygienic product, becomes a daily necessity product and has significant benefits to its users. Yet, the real motivation for consuming deodorant is not…

Abstract

Purpose

Deodorant, as a hygienic product, becomes a daily necessity product and has significant benefits to its users. Yet, the real motivation for consuming deodorant is not fully understood, and therefore, this study aims to join the extant literature in this context by investigating the effect of personal values.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study using the laddering approach (means-end analytic) was used and 50 college students participated in this study.

Findings

The hierarchical value maps show that achievement, power, security and benevolent personal values are responsible for millennials deodorant consumption behavior. Fragrance, price and antiperspirant are the most important attributes that appeal to such consumption.

Practical implications

The findings also suggested that three different situational factors generated these different personal values. It includes a pre-career environment, puberty and maintaining self-stability. The strongest attributes that appeal to millennials are fragrance, price, antiperspirant, brand, long-lasting quality and packaging.

Originality/value

This study offers the means-end approach to the framework of millennials deodorant consumption behavior and which can be implemented to investigate millennials consumption decision-making processes.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Cagri Bulut, Murat Nazli, Erhan Aydin and Adnan Ul Haque

This study aims to demonstrate how greenwashing perceptions shape the effect of environmental concern on post-millennials purchasing behavior.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to demonstrate how greenwashing perceptions shape the effect of environmental concern on post-millennials purchasing behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 174 responses gathered through a street survey method from 5 different universities in Turkey, data are analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences software (SPSS 16.0). Principal component analysis is performed to assess the differentiation in factors. Multiple regression analysis is used to examine the effects of the items on the post-millennials purchasing and recommendation behavior.

Findings

The main findings revealed that the environmental concern trait of post-millennials triggers their green purchasing behavior. When the concern on green products is high, the awareness of perceiving that “if the product is actually green or pretending to be green” is high. When the post-millennials take the greenwashing perception into account, their environmental concern has lower effects on their green behavior. The moderating role of greenwashing between environmental concern and green purchasing is apparent. Greenwashing perception decreases the effects of environmental concern on green behavior.

Originality/value

The research raises the concept of greenwashing perception that moderates the relationship between environmental concern and post-millennials purchasing behavior. This study also demonstrates that greenwashing awareness has a critical role in creating a purchasing behavior of post-millennials that have environmental concerns.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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