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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Liz Thach, Sam Riewe and Angelo Camillo

The purpose of this paper is to identify the wine consumption preferences and behavior of Gen Z wine consumers in the USA and to determine if and how Gen Z differ from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the wine consumption preferences and behavior of Gen Z wine consumers in the USA and to determine if and how Gen Z differ from other major generational cohorts in the USA. This study applies the concepts of generational cohort theory to the US wine market to examine similarities and differences between age cohorts and their potential impact on future wine sales.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative survey was conducted with a quota sample of 1,136 US wine consumers located in all 50 states. Data analysis included one-way ANOVA analysis to test the null hypothesis that the generational cohort means are equal. If the test detected at least one mean difference across cohorts, then pairwise comparisons were performed to identify, which groups differed. The Tukey–Kramer method was used for all post hoc tests. Basic descriptive statistics were also calculated.

Findings

The results show some parallels in terms of similar consumption levels and a higher preference for red wine across all cohorts. However, on the majority of other common wine consumer research topics, Gen Z shows significant differences. Of specific interest, Gen Z consumers report higher levels of preference for sparkling wine than other cohorts; prefers to drink in social situations; are much more interested in labels and package; make decisions based on varietal and alcohol level and are much more engaged on Instagram and Snapchat social media platforms – all pointed to new marketing tactics needed to reach this new consumer segment.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical wine research study to explore the wine preferences and behaviors of Gen Z in the US market. This is valuable because Gen Z is a very large population of consumers, comprising 32% of the world population (Miller and Wei, 2018) and already represent more than $143bn in buying power (Dill, 2015). They are expected to have a huge impact on consumer products, not only in the USA but also on a global basis. Given that the USA is currently the largest wine market in the world in both volume and value (Wine Institute, 2019; VinExpo, 2018), it is important that research is conducted on this new and powerful generation.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Aprihatiningrum Hidayati, Aji Hermawan, Agus W. Soehadi and Hartoyo

The purpose of this study is to shed some light on an important phenomenon – how and why intra-family succession may change if millennial cohorts are considered as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to shed some light on an important phenomenon – how and why intra-family succession may change if millennial cohorts are considered as successors. Specifically, it aims to explore the superordinate themes that support the success of intra-family succession from perspective of two different cohort successors (X and millennial).

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was adopted for detailed structural analysis of in-depth interview as it aims to explore meaning of participants' experiences. A total of ten individuals participated in the study.

Findings

Seventeen superordinate themes emerged from participants' personal statements and experiences. The themes are grouped into four aspects: namely, characteristics of predecessor and successor, succession process, firm and family and succession output. These aspects were found to be different between X and millennial cohort successors. They then form an empirical model of intra-family succession from both perspectives.

Research limitations/implications

This study enriches the theory of family firm by considering generational effect of successors on intra-family succession.

Practical implications

As millennial cohort successors prefer to go directly into business (experiential learning) and are driven by non-material motives (passion-driven), predecessors are expected to utilize them in the process of nurturing and development.

Originality/value

This study considers the role of generation cohort in supporting the success of intra-family succession especially in relation to the characteristics of millennial cohort successors that have been shown to differ from that of X cohort.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Faheem Gul Gilal, Naeem Gul Gilal, Beenish Tariq, Rehman Gul Gilal, Rukhsana Gul Gilal, Zhenxing Gong and Nisar Ahmed Channa

Using two theoretical lenses – social identity theory and generation cohort theory – the present study analyzes the influence of sport motivations (i.e., patriotism, drama…

Abstract

Purpose

Using two theoretical lenses – social identity theory and generation cohort theory – the present study analyzes the influence of sport motivations (i.e., patriotism, drama and excitement of the game, nostalgic associations, interest in star players and social influence) on the intentions to watch the International Cricket Council (ICC) Twenty-20 (T20) World Cup of three different generation cohorts (i.e., Generations X, Y and Z).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from N = 499 cricket lovers from Pakistan based on a non-probability sampling technique. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), structural equation modeling (SEM) and multi-group modeling techniques were used as methods.

Findings

SEM results show that cricket fans' intentions to watch the T20 World Cup are positively influenced by patriotism, drama and excitement of the game, and social influence. The results of multi-group modeling reveal significant differences between Generation X-ers, Y-ers and Z-ers regarding the effect of sport motivations on their intentions to watch the ICC T20 World Cup. Specifically, our findings show that for X-ers, interest in star players and nostalgic associations are the main motivations behind watching the T20 World Cup, whereas drama and excitement appeared to be an important predictor for Y-ers, and patriotism and social influence are more likely to increase Z-ers' intentions to watch the T20 World Cup.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to report the motivations of Generations X, Y and Z to watch the T20 World Cup.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2018

Jun Yang, Chun-Sheng Yu and Jun Wu

This study aims to examine how the perceived importance of work values differs among the three generations (Cultural Revolution, Social Reform and Millennial) in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how the perceived importance of work values differs among the three generations (Cultural Revolution, Social Reform and Millennial) in the Chinese workforce.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded in work values and generation theories, hypotheses were tested by empirical data collected from 464 Chinese employees from companies located in the Yangtze River Delta of China. A one-way multivariate analysis of covariance and a series of one-way analysis of covariance and t-tests were conducted to compare the three generations with respect to work values.

Findings

The results revealed significant generational differences existing in China with respect to extrinsic–intrinsic work values measured by the work-need typology (Huseman and Hatfield, 1990). After controlling for demographic variables, Millennial employees were found to show the highest preference for both extrinsic and intrinsic work values, followed by the Social Reform generation, whereas the Cultural Revolution generation scored lowest. Additionally, important similarities across the three generations were also found.

Research limitations/implications

These findings highlight the complex nature of generational phenomena and suggest the need to further develop a deep appreciation and understanding of the underlying reasons for those generational differences and similarities.

Originality/value

Drawing from generation and work values theory, the authors developed a theoretical framework that allows us to directly compare the three generations in the Chinese workforce with respect to the magnitude of importance each generation attaches to various work priorities. The present study represents an important initial step in throwing more light on the mechanisms underlying the observed generational differences and similarities in work values.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Helen C. Salvosa and Maria Regina M. Hechanova

This study examined generational differences in traits and desired schemas of leaders among Filipino workers using the lens of the generational cohort theory.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined generational differences in traits and desired schemas of leaders among Filipino workers using the lens of the generational cohort theory.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized a sequential exploratory mixed-method approach. Phase One of the study utilized a qualitative approach in eliciting perceived characteristics and leadership schemas. Phase Two utilized a quantitative approach utilizing a survey to test generational differences.

Findings

Cluster analysis of survey responses of 341 Filipino workers showed two generation cohorts – the political and technological generation. Respondents from the political generation characterized themselves as being work-centered, family-oriented, traditional, seasoned, decisive and multi-tasking. The political generation also believes that an ideal leader is someone who cares about people's welfare, delegates, and is able to control others. On the other hand, the technology generation described themselves as being tech-savvy, carefree, laid-back, proud, individualistic, self-centered, arrogant, energetic and adventurous. The technological generation views an ideal leader as someone who is responsible, provides clear instructions, listens, and recognizes people.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on Filipino workers and more studies in other countries are needed to establish generational differences in schemas.

Practical implications

The results have implications on the way that leaders are selected and developed especially in an increasingly diverse workforce.

Social implications

The results highlight the role of political, sociocultural events and technological trends that shape the traits and schemas of workers.

Originality/value

The study contributes to both generational studies as well as implicit leadership literature. The study highlights the value of examining the intersection of both culture and generation in the context of leadership.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Bharat Chillakuri

Organizations have long recognized that focusing on the onboarding experience is vital to the success of the employee and the organization. Organizations are confronted…

Abstract

Purpose

Organizations have long recognized that focusing on the onboarding experience is vital to the success of the employee and the organization. Organizations are confronted with inter-generational issues as they prepare to accommodate Generation Z in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the expectations of Generation Z from the onboarding program so that the organizations are better equipped to welcome the new cohort.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts the interpretive approach to understand the subjective opinions, thoughts and conversations of the respondents. The study adopted an interpretive research approach for two main reasons. First, in the absence of empirical evidence, such a type of approach is helpful when the study aims to understand the subjective experience of individuals, and often can help in theory construction. Second, the approach helps uncover unknown facts and relevant research questions for further research.

Findings

The results from the study can help organizations to fine-tune the onboarding program that meets the needs of Generation Z. The study identified six essential variables that could be addressed in the onboarding enabling the new hires to quickly onboard the organization.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected from the students who are pursuing final year of masters in business administration. Since the respondents are business students findings cannot be generalized to the rest of the cohort as these respondents had a fair idea of what to expect from the organizations.

Practical implications

The study presents six important themes for designing and managing an effective onboarding program for Generation Z. It is important to note that the inter-generational differences are natural, and organizations have to live with it. HR professionals have to bear in mind that this is also an opportunity to revisit, redesign and readjust their onboarding programs to suit the new employees.

Originality/value

The literature on Generation Z is at a nascent stage. Empirical studies on Generation Z were conducted to understand their expectation, beliefs and attitude. However, studies related to their expectations during the new hire orientation programs are absent. The present study could be one of the first studies in helping both managers and the HR function in understanding the expectations of Generation Z.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Hyunju Shin, Jacqueline Eastman and Yuan Li

This study aims to focus on understanding the consumer-luxury brand relationships among Generation Z. Generation Z is an up-and-coming generational cohort that has…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on understanding the consumer-luxury brand relationships among Generation Z. Generation Z is an up-and-coming generational cohort that has received limited research attention in the domains of both consumer-brand relationships and luxury branding, despite its growing size and purchasing power. Therefore, this study highlights the distinctive patterns of Generation Z’s relationship with luxury by identifying their choice of a luxury brand, the nature of the brand relationships, what characterizes these relationships and the internal and external influences that shape these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used brand collage construction. A total of 56 Generation Z respondents created brand collages that covered 38 different luxury brands. The data from the collages and their accompanying descriptions were evaluated using content analysis.

Findings

This study identifies Generation Z’s unique yet expansive view of luxury that encompasses not only traditional luxury but also masstige and non-traditional luxury brands. Moreover, the findings generally support that Generation Z’s relationships with luxury brands are characterized by “like” rather than “love”; while Generation Z may feel a high level of loyalty toward luxury brands in terms of attitudes and behaviors, they do not necessarily have strong, passionate feelings for them.

Originality/value

The findings of this study offer a comprehensive understanding of Generation Z’s brand relationship with luxury. Luxury marketers need to recognize that for Generation Z consumers, luxury is an integral part of their everyday lifestyle more than a display of success, which is clearly different from previous generations.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Book part
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Paul Lim and Andrew Parker

Abstract

Details

Mentoring Millennials in an Asian Context
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-484-3

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Victor Mueke Robinson and Heike A. Schänzel

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it highlights the emergence of Generation Z and the interface of its members with the tourism system. Second, by way of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it highlights the emergence of Generation Z and the interface of its members with the tourism system. Second, by way of a theoretical model, the paper provides a more holistic approach to understanding Generation Z travel experiences in which the emphasis is shifted from the destination to the traveller. This is in keeping with the trend which lays more emphasis on people rather than landscape.

Design/methodology/approach

This is qualitative research founded on an interpretive (constructivist) paradigm. Selecting Generation Z as the subject locates this study under generational theory and assumes prima facie a socially constructed reality. The paper is based on research conducted in New Zealand aimed at understanding the travel experiences of inbound Generation Z travellers. Data were collected from 12 semi-structured interviews lasting about 30 min each and from 5 blogs. Nvivo 11 programme was used in analysing data and developing themes. Core categories and related themes were generated forming building blocks of a theoretical model.

Findings

Findings revealed interplay of multiple factors in Generation Z’s travel experiences at a destination. The factors are global in nature, destination centric and those which are immediate or proximate to the individual. To fully grasp the notion of experience requires the gestalt of the three as well as pre-trip, during-trip and post-trip factors.

Research limitations/implications

The impact of significant events upon participants is assumed. A specific analysis of the events and the magnitude of their influence on the individual participants may be necessary.

Practical implications

Destination marketers tend to concentrate on psychological aspects to appeal to the traveller. The focus, in this case, is creating an attractive image in the mind of travellers to get them to come to the destination. This research suggests shifting the focus to understanding the evolving traveller.

Social implications

Governments and tourism purveyors may require an ever-increasing budget to map out strategies to meet the continuously morphing needs of the future traveller. The constantly evolving global environment necessitates greater flexibility in institutional framework with less bureaucratic bottlenecks.

Originality/value

Generation Z is a relatively new entrant into the tourism market which makes this research relevant and timely. The paucity of academic literature on a generation which is contemporaneously in its “highly influenceable” period of life and entering adulthood in an increasingly changing world is further credence for this research. A more holistic theoretical model to understanding Generation Z travel experience is proposed.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Man Lai Cheung, Wilson K.S. Leung and Haksin Chan

Young consumers have increasingly adopted wearable health-care technology to improve their well-being. Drawing on generation cohort theory (GCT) and the technology…

Abstract

Purpose

Young consumers have increasingly adopted wearable health-care technology to improve their well-being. Drawing on generation cohort theory (GCT) and the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study aims to illuminate the major factors that drive the adoption of health-care wearable technology products by Generation Z (Gen-Z) consumers in Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administrated online survey was used to collect data from a sample of Gen-Z consumers in Hong Kong with experience in using health-care wearable technology. Data analysis was performed using partial least-squares-structural equation modeling to verify four hypotheses.

Findings

The results reveal that consumer innovativeness (CI) and electronic word-of-mouth referral (EWOM) are significant predictors of perceived credibility, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, which subsequently drive online engagement intention and adoption intention (AI).

Practical implications

This research provides practical guidance for marketers of health-care wearable technology products. In particular, CI and EWOM hold the key to young consumers’ product perceptions (and thereby their online engagement and AIs).

Originality/value

This research leverages the insights of GCT to enrich the TAM, specifically by including CI and EWOM as antecedents and online engagement as a consequence in the context of health-care wearable technology. The results of an empirical study enhance theoretical understanding of Gen-Z consumers’ perceptions and behavioral intentions toward health-care wearable technology. They also point to actionable recommendations for marketing this new technology to young consumers.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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