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Article
Publication date: 14 February 2022

Joe Cangelosi, Terry Stringer Damron and David Kim

As consumer health-care spending increases, so does the need for effective communication of preventive health-care information (PHCI) with the potential to prompt…

Abstract

Purpose

As consumer health-care spending increases, so does the need for effective communication of preventive health-care information (PHCI) with the potential to prompt lifestyle changes. Through proactive, effective dissemination of PHCI, health-care service providers can minimize and prevent costly health conditions while improving the efficiency of a traditionally reactive health-care system. Taking into account the considerable time consumers spend on social media and networks (SM&N) and hefty health-care spending among Baby Boomer and Generation X consumers, this study aims to address critical questions concerning the importance of SM&N for gathering PHCI, SM&N preferences for gathering PHCI and the types of behavioral changes consumers have pursued in response to PHCI.

Design/methodology/approach

Designed as a generational cohort analysis, this study is based on the responses of 936 Baby Boomer and Generation X respondents to a questionnaire containing 200 items related to PHCI and social/digital media as a vehicle for acquiring both general and preventive health information. Crosstab analysis was used to examine differences in the characteristics of the generational cohorts. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess differences in the degree of importance Baby Boomer and Generation X health consumers assign to 28 SM&N sites as delivery systems of PHCI. The researchers used ANOVA to determine generational differences in behavioral changes associated with a healthier lifestyle as a result of exposure to PHCI.

Findings

There are significant differences in the characteristics of Baby Boomer and Generation X cohorts. Generation X health-care consumers assign greater importance to SM&N sites as PHCI delivery systems. Additionally, Generation X health-care consumers report greater behavioral change resulting from exposure to PHCI.

Research limitations/implications

New information is provided concerning health-care consumer perceptions of SM&N as a source of PHCI and the behavioral changes consumers pursue as a result of PHCI exposure.

Practical implications

This paper measures the effectiveness of interactive health-care marketing activities, explaining the role of SM&N as an effective source of PHCI and providing marketers with insights useful for PHCI content management and dissemination.

Social implications

Effective dissemination of PHCI via SM&N may help prevent illness among Baby Boomer and Generation X consumers and, accordingly, improve quality of life while easing the increasing pressure on the US health-care system.

Originality/value

Study results evidence the value of SM&N sites to health service providers as they endeavor to improve and extend consumer lives through dissemination of PHCI. Ideas and insights within this paper will inform and enhance social media marketing management practices within pharmaceutical and health-care organizations.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2021

Daniel Ruiz-Equihua, Luis V. Casaló and Jaime Romero

Online reviews have received research attention in recent years, as they work as precursors of consumer behaviors. Previous studies have suggested that the influence of…

Abstract

Purpose

Online reviews have received research attention in recent years, as they work as precursors of consumer behaviors. Previous studies have suggested that the influence of online reviews may vary across generations. However, the previous literature has not analyzed yet whether millennials and Generation X react differently to online reviews. This study aims to shed light on this by analyzing whether the attitudes and behavioral intentions generated by online reviews are different for these two generational cohorts.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental procedure was designed to manipulate online review valence; data were collected from 351 respondents in two samples, Generation X and millennial participants.

Findings

Results suggested that positive online reviews generate more positive customer attitudes and booking intentions than negative online reviews. In addition, Generation X vs millennials moderates the link among online review valence, attitudes and booking intentions. The resultant behaviors from online reviews are more intense among Generation X than for millennials.

Practical implications

Managers should be aware of online review valence and their customers' generational cohort, that is, whether they are millennials or Generation X, as they react differently to online reviews.

Originality/value

This research examines the moderating role of millennials and Generation X in the relationship between online reviews, consumer attitudes and behavioral intentions. The aim is to explain how millennial and Generation X consumers react to eWOM, that is, whether generational cohort mitigates or enhances the effects of positive vs negative online reviews on consumer reactions.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Leila Canaan Messarra, Silva Karkoulian and Abdul-Nasser El-Kassar

Conflict in the workplace creates a challenge for many of present day managers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating effect of generations X and Y on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Conflict in the workplace creates a challenge for many of present day managers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating effect of generations X and Y on the relationship between personality and conflict handling styles.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is conducted using a sample of 199 employees working in the electronic retail sector in a non-Western culture. The five-factor model of personality traits is used to measure personality, while conflict styles are measured using Rahim’s Organizational Conflict Inventory II.

Findings

Results indicate that generations X and Y moderate the relationship between specific personality traits and conflict handling styles.

Research limitations/implications

This study investigated the moderating effect of generations X and Y on a sample of employees within the electronic retail service sector in Lebanon. It is recommended that future research examine such a relationship in other sectors and cultures for generalizability. Since generation Z (born in the late 1990s) will soon be entering the job market, further studies should include this cohort when investigating the relationships. Finally, for a deeper understanding of the relationship, it is advisable to use both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods.

Practical implications

The understanding of what influences an individual’s choice regarding his/her choice of conflict resolution styles is of great use to supervisors in general and human resource managers in particular. This will assist in developing training programs that help employees acquire the appropriate skills necessary to control their impulses in a conflict situation. Training should comprise conflict resolution and communication skills that could help bridge the gap between generations. Effectively managing generational conflict in the workplace can positively contribute to the level and frequency of future conflicts, which in turn, can lead to favorable organizational outcomes.

Originality/value

Earlier research that examined the relationship between personality and conflict management styles have found varying results ranging from weak to strong relationships. The understanding of what influences an individual’s choice of which management style he/she chooses is of great use for managers in general and human resource managers in particular. This study showed that the inconsistency could be the result of some factors that moderate this relationship. The age of individuals contributes to the strength or the weakness of the various relationships between personality and conflict handling styles. Findings suggest that generations X and Y do not moderate the relationships among the personality traits and the dominating and obliging conflict styles. They do, however, have varying moderating effects on the relationships between specific personality traits and the integrating, avoiding, and compromising styles.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Debby McNichols

This research study seeks so explore the thoughts and perspectives of Generation X aerospace engineers regarding strategies, processes, and methods to enhance the transfer

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Abstract

Purpose

This research study seeks so explore the thoughts and perspectives of Generation X aerospace engineers regarding strategies, processes, and methods to enhance the transfer of knowledge from Baby Boomers to Generation X aerospace engineers.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative Delphi research method is a formalized process designed to extract opinions from a panel of experts in an anonymous and iterative manner. The strength of the technique lies in its ability to gather a diverse range of opinions in an anonymous fashion without the bias of a single individual dominating the discussion.

Findings

Data collected from the Generation X participants helped to answer the study research questions. According to the 24 Generation X study panelists, optimal knowledge transfer requires visible and participative management involvement. Management support is the core of a knowledge‐sharing culture that fosters open and honest communication, respectful and trusting relationships, effective mentoring relationships, dynamic team environments, co‐location of team members, and a technology infrastructure. Synthesis of the data results from all survey rounds assisted in the creation of a knowledge transfer model.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation is the sample size. Another limitation was the predominantly male demographic within the aerospace community. The study did not involve any attempt to examine different perspectives based on race, gender, or geographic location. The scope of the research questions asked and the research methodology employed to extract thoughts, feelings, and perspectives from the Delphi panelists limited the study.

Originality/value

The study is unique because it offers the perspective of a population critical to the survival of organizational knowledge within the aerospace community, the Generation X engineers. The contributions of the study may provide leaders with knowledge transfer methods, strategies, and processes to mitigate knowledge transfer barriers, create an optimal knowledge transfer domain, and facilitate intergenerational knowledge transfer.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2022

Ahmet Fidan

Our perception and analysis gradually grow and mature from subjectivity to objectivity as we investigate different periods of society and widen the temporal and spatial…

Abstract

Our perception and analysis gradually grow and mature from subjectivity to objectivity as we investigate different periods of society and widen the temporal and spatial framework. The egocentric viewpoint is responsible for some of humanity's greatest mistakes and social crises throughout history. Without perceiving the ‘other’ and considering individuals who are different from them, societies will not be able to create permanent solutions. Although the answers offered are appropriate for one's own civilisation, when looking at the problem from a global perspective, it is extremely likely that there will be a significant incompatibility with other nations and societies. In this context, while our study advises a method of approaching social arrangements regardless of location, particularly time period, it also provides analysis. So much so that today's analysis differs from yesterday's, and tomorrow's will differ even more from today's. Today, more than 80% of the population lives in cities, and this trend is expected to continue. We find that the perceptions of the demands of generations x, y, z and alpha, living today in the same time period, for public goods and/or services, and the value they place on them, are considerably different in the demographic segment, which continues to develop and grow.

Our study intends to explain, on a worldwide scale, how the value ascribed to events, objects and phenomena differentiate these perceptions through social observations and bilateral interviews with these people living simultaneously in an urban environment. Despite the fact that our research will define a geographical area as an urban area in terms of scope, it will also present examples of these urban areas from other countries throughout the world, putting the problem in a global context. Our sample comprises the major cities of the countries with the most people on each continent, whereas our study universe spans the entire globe. It is about observing the values given to these generations' perceptions of urban services in these capitals, ensuring that generations better understand each other based on these findings and reforming the production and presentation of urban goods and/or services based on these findings. Developed and emerging countries are the focus of our judgements and observations.

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Kelly Pledger Weeks, Matthew Weeks and Nicolas Long

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between stereotypes, in-group favoritism, and in-group bolstering effects across generations.

5217

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between stereotypes, in-group favoritism, and in-group bolstering effects across generations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the trends found in a qualitative study on generational stereotypes, questions on work ethic, work-life balance, and use of technology were administered to 255 participants identified as Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. Hypotheses predicted that with a strong stereotype, traditional in-group favoritism will not be found; however, an in-group bolstering effect will emerge. In the absence of a strong stereotype, traditional in-group favoritism is expected.

Findings

Generally, there was a strong stereotype that Baby Boomers are worse at technology than Generation X and Generation X is worse than Millennials. There was also a strong stereotype that Millennials do not do what it takes to get the job done as much as other generations. In the presence of these stereotypes, traditional in-group favoritism was not found, but in-groups bolstered themselves by rating themselves more favorably than other groups rated them. Although these findings did not hold for every item studied, there was moderate support for all three hypotheses.

Practical implications

As employees become aware of their biases, they can collaborate better with employees who are different than they are. Practical recommendations are suggested.

Originality/value

The paper applies theory of in-group favoritism to the perceptions of generational cohorts.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Ali B. Mahmoud, Leonora Fuxman, Iris Mohr, William D. Reisel and Nicholas Grigoriou

The primary purpose of this research is to examine generational differences in valuing the sources of employees' overall motivation in the workplace across Generation X

11100

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this research is to examine generational differences in valuing the sources of employees' overall motivation in the workplace across Generation X, Generation Y and Generation Z with a view of assisting managers in making employment decisions and maintaining multigenerational staff.

Design/methodology/approach

The respondents in the study live and work in Canada and provided answers to self-administered online surveys between the fourth quarter of 2017 and the end of January 2020. To assess subjects' work motivation, the study employed Gagné et al.'s (2014) multidimensional work motivation scale (MWMS) alongside a three-item measure of employees' overall motivation (designed for this study). The authors assessed measures of validity and reliability and tested the hypothesis about generational differences in work motivation using structural equation modelling (SEM).

Findings

The six motivators regress differently to employees' overall motivation. Generation Z is more sensitive to amotivation than Generation X and Generation Y. Extrinsic regulation-material is a valid source of overall work motivation for Generation Z only. Only Generation X values extrinsic regulation-social as a source of employees' overall motivation. So is introjected regulation by Generation Y. Unlike Generation Z, both Generation X and Generation Y employees value identified regulation as a source of overall work motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation contributes more to Generation Z employees' overall work motivation than it does for Generation X and Generation Y.

Research limitations/implications

Further work needs to be done to establish whether variations in valuing the sources of motivation may also be spawned by age or status of the respective groups. Future investigations can expand the authors’ focal theme to include additional organisational outcomes, alternative geographical settings and/or include country's economic development as an additional variable. Moreover, further research can address the implications of national culture on shaping generational differences in employee's motivation as well as aiding companies to redesign work tasks considering today's uncertainty as well as increasingly competitive, global environment (e.g. the rise of artificial intelligence).

Practical implications

It is vital to offer motivators that are valued by each of the three generations, i.e. X, Y and Z, before being able to attract the best candidates of each generation. Organisations should not only create an inclusive and understanding multigenerational working environment but also be able to communicate strong branding via new communication channels successfully (e.g. social media networks), which Generation Yers and Generation Zers utilise better than any other generation in employment. Finally, the authors suggest that service organisations with diverse generational composition should adopt new measures of workplace agility to survive interminable disruptions (e.g. the coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] pandemic).

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind to examine generational differences between Generation X, Generation Y and Generation Z in valuing workplace motivation from a western cultural perspective.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Ann Feyerherm and Yvonne H. Vick

Seeks to undertake research of Generation X women in high technology in order to determine what type of corporate environment would support their needs for professional…

4958

Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to undertake research of Generation X women in high technology in order to determine what type of corporate environment would support their needs for professional success, personal fulfillment, and sustain longer‐term employment.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study looked at high‐potential Generation X women (born between 1965‐1980) within the high‐technology industry and explored their relationship with work which means how they interact with bosses, peers, subordinates, and the corporate culture.

Findings

The study found that, for Generation X women, personal fulfillment was intrinsically connected to professional success, and that they wanted support from their companies in terms of mentors for guidance and development, opportunities to excel, recognition for efforts, relationships, and flexibility to achieve work/life balance.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size was small and, while the research applies to the high‐technology industry, care would need to be taken in wholesale application to all industries. The way Generation X women perceive the importance of work/life balance carries implications for corporations in terms of training, development, promotional practices and corporate culture.

Originality/value

If companies can provide a cultural environment to support attainment of professional success and personal fulfillment as defined by these women, it may provide a link to longer‐term employment, reduced employee turnover, and improved bottom line corporate performance.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2022

Michael Climek, Rachel Henry and Shinhee Jeong

The purpose of this study is to synthesize the current turnover literature that has investigated the nonfinancial antecedents of turnover intention across generations

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to synthesize the current turnover literature that has investigated the nonfinancial antecedents of turnover intention across generations. This paper provides an integrative and analytical review of prior empirical studies with two research questions: What nonfinancial factors influencing employee turnover have been empirically identified across different generations? and What generational commonalities and uniqueness exist among the turnover antecedents?

Design/methodology/approach

To identify nonfinancial antecedents of employee turnover, an integrative literature review that allows a systematic process of searching and selecting literature was conducted. While synthesizing the antecedents identified in the articles, the authors were able to categorize them at three different levels: individual, group and organizational

Findings

The authors discuss each antecedent according to three categories: individual, group and organizational levels. Based on the findings from the first research question, the authors further explore the commonalities and uniqueness among three generations (i.e. Millennials, Generation X and older workers).

Originality/value

This study found both generational commonalities and uniqueness in terms of turnover intention antecedents. Based on the findings of the study, the authors discuss how to facilitate these common factors across all generations as well as considering the factors unique to each generation. Differentiation within organizations regarding retention strategies should yield positive results for both employees and organizations.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Laura Portolese Dias

Understanding generational differences is basic to marketing fashion items to different generations. A company that can understand these differences will be able to create…

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Abstract

Understanding generational differences is basic to marketing fashion items to different generations. A company that can understand these differences will be able to create better products that speak to generations and learn how to better advertise and market to these generations. This paper represents findings of 453 surveys from members of Generation X and Generation Y, mall observation and industry interviews. It examines the motivations of each generation for purchasing fashion related items and concludes by explaining reasoning for these differences and gives suggestions to better reach these markets. Results indicate that marketers must learn the overall perception that each generation has of itself, and market based upon these views. In addition, results indicate that despite the different needs and wants a generation may have while they are young, every generation will eventually need and want the same kinds of items.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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