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Cognitive-affective-motivation factors influencing international visitors' destination satisfaction and loyalty

Promise Omo-Obas (Department of Marketing, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa)
Thomas Anning-Dorson (Department of Marketing, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa)

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights

ISSN: 2514-9792

Article publication date: 5 December 2022




This paper seeks to understand the interrelationships between destination attractiveness, satisfaction, attachment and visitors' loyalty and to determine the potential moderating effect of generational cohorts. Using expectancy disconfirmation and generational cohort theories, the paper explains how visitors' cognitive knowledge and motivation factors influence international visitors' attraction and maintenance and their behavioral/attitudinal loyalty.


Data were collected from 390 international visitors to South Africa during the Southern Hemisphere's summertime via a quantitative research method. A two-stage approach of structural equation modeling was used to analyze the hypothesized model.


There was no relationship between visitors' loyalty and destination image or destination image and destination trust. However, destination image has a significant effect on visitors' satisfaction. Additionally, visitors' experience had a positive effect on satisfaction and loyalty, while destination trust and destination attachment were positively related.

Practical implications

The findings show that the tourism sector could reap greater benefits from international tourists if a deeper understanding of different generational cohorts was obtained. There was a varying effect of destination marketing organizations' efforts on different generational cohorts' attraction, trust, satisfaction, feelings and expectations. This study proposes that direct marketing organizations should focus on building brand trust, as it is key to attracting different generational cohorts. Lastly, the study found that generational cohort segmentation accrues many benefits and creates and enhances superior advantages.


The paper provides evidence that more than a destination's attractiveness is required to achieve loyalty; segmenting and understanding different generational cohorts' cognitive, affective and motivation aids in generating better response actions to tourists' changing needs and meeting their demands.



Omo-Obas, P. and Anning-Dorson, T. (2022), "Cognitive-affective-motivation factors influencing international visitors' destination satisfaction and loyalty", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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