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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2021

Daniel Ruiz-Equihua, Luis V. Casaló and Jaime Romero

Online reviews have received research attention in recent years, as they work as precursors of consumer behaviors. Previous studies have suggested that the influence of…

Abstract

Purpose

Online reviews have received research attention in recent years, as they work as precursors of consumer behaviors. Previous studies have suggested that the influence of online reviews may vary across generations. However, the previous literature has not analyzed yet whether millennials and Generation X react differently to online reviews. This study aims to shed light on this by analyzing whether the attitudes and behavioral intentions generated by online reviews are different for these two generational cohorts.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental procedure was designed to manipulate online review valence; data were collected from 351 respondents in two samples, Generation X and millennial participants.

Findings

Results suggested that positive online reviews generate more positive customer attitudes and booking intentions than negative online reviews. In addition, Generation X vs millennials moderates the link among online review valence, attitudes and booking intentions. The resultant behaviors from online reviews are more intense among Generation X than for millennials.

Practical implications

Managers should be aware of online review valence and their customers' generational cohort, that is, whether they are millennials or Generation X, as they react differently to online reviews.

Originality/value

This research examines the moderating role of millennials and Generation X in the relationship between online reviews, consumer attitudes and behavioral intentions. The aim is to explain how millennial and Generation X consumers react to eWOM, that is, whether generational cohort mitigates or enhances the effects of positive vs negative online reviews on consumer reactions.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Leila Canaan Messarra, Silva Karkoulian and Abdul-Nasser El-Kassar

Conflict in the workplace creates a challenge for many of present day managers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating effect of generations X and Y on the…

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9496

Abstract

Purpose

Conflict in the workplace creates a challenge for many of present day managers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the moderating effect of generations X and Y on the relationship between personality and conflict handling styles.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is conducted using a sample of 199 employees working in the electronic retail sector in a non-Western culture. The five-factor model of personality traits is used to measure personality, while conflict styles are measured using Rahim’s Organizational Conflict Inventory II.

Findings

Results indicate that generations X and Y moderate the relationship between specific personality traits and conflict handling styles.

Research limitations/implications

This study investigated the moderating effect of generations X and Y on a sample of employees within the electronic retail service sector in Lebanon. It is recommended that future research examine such a relationship in other sectors and cultures for generalizability. Since generation Z (born in the late 1990s) will soon be entering the job market, further studies should include this cohort when investigating the relationships. Finally, for a deeper understanding of the relationship, it is advisable to use both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods.

Practical implications

The understanding of what influences an individual’s choice regarding his/her choice of conflict resolution styles is of great use to supervisors in general and human resource managers in particular. This will assist in developing training programs that help employees acquire the appropriate skills necessary to control their impulses in a conflict situation. Training should comprise conflict resolution and communication skills that could help bridge the gap between generations. Effectively managing generational conflict in the workplace can positively contribute to the level and frequency of future conflicts, which in turn, can lead to favorable organizational outcomes.

Originality/value

Earlier research that examined the relationship between personality and conflict management styles have found varying results ranging from weak to strong relationships. The understanding of what influences an individual’s choice of which management style he/she chooses is of great use for managers in general and human resource managers in particular. This study showed that the inconsistency could be the result of some factors that moderate this relationship. The age of individuals contributes to the strength or the weakness of the various relationships between personality and conflict handling styles. Findings suggest that generations X and Y do not moderate the relationships among the personality traits and the dominating and obliging conflict styles. They do, however, have varying moderating effects on the relationships between specific personality traits and the integrating, avoiding, and compromising styles.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 65 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Art Thomas and Gary Pickering

Some wine marketing studies make reference to the importance of Generation‐X as the next wave of wine drinkers, but draw attention to a glaring fact; this next generation…

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355

Abstract

Some wine marketing studies make reference to the importance of Generation‐X as the next wave of wine drinkers, but draw attention to a glaring fact; this next generation is consuming less wine than national averages. Whilst considerable amounts of information about Generation‐X exist, few studies have addressed their underlying wine purchasing behaviours. A mock label for a red and white wine was developed and respondents were asked to indicate their probability of purchase and the price they would pay. A range of wine purchasing behaviour questions were included. A questionnaire was randomly presented in a mail survey to 1,144 New Zealand respondents drawn from a national wine mailing list (n=640) and an academic institution (n=504). No follow‐up was undertaken and a 28% response rate was achieved. Generation‐X wine consumers exhibited more differences than similarities to the older age cohort, with many differences being statistically significant. Whilst Generation‐X purchase wines in a similar fashion, they are mainly light purchasers of bottled wine. Generation‐X respondents showed a stronger likelihood of purchasing a never‐before‐seen wine and place a different emphasis on wine label information. More research on Generation‐X and their behaviours as wine consumers is required.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Debby McNichols

This research study seeks so explore the thoughts and perspectives of Generation X aerospace engineers regarding strategies, processes, and methods to enhance the transfer

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6259

Abstract

Purpose

This research study seeks so explore the thoughts and perspectives of Generation X aerospace engineers regarding strategies, processes, and methods to enhance the transfer of knowledge from Baby Boomers to Generation X aerospace engineers.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative Delphi research method is a formalized process designed to extract opinions from a panel of experts in an anonymous and iterative manner. The strength of the technique lies in its ability to gather a diverse range of opinions in an anonymous fashion without the bias of a single individual dominating the discussion.

Findings

Data collected from the Generation X participants helped to answer the study research questions. According to the 24 Generation X study panelists, optimal knowledge transfer requires visible and participative management involvement. Management support is the core of a knowledge‐sharing culture that fosters open and honest communication, respectful and trusting relationships, effective mentoring relationships, dynamic team environments, co‐location of team members, and a technology infrastructure. Synthesis of the data results from all survey rounds assisted in the creation of a knowledge transfer model.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation is the sample size. Another limitation was the predominantly male demographic within the aerospace community. The study did not involve any attempt to examine different perspectives based on race, gender, or geographic location. The scope of the research questions asked and the research methodology employed to extract thoughts, feelings, and perspectives from the Delphi panelists limited the study.

Originality/value

The study is unique because it offers the perspective of a population critical to the survival of organizational knowledge within the aerospace community, the Generation X engineers. The contributions of the study may provide leaders with knowledge transfer methods, strategies, and processes to mitigate knowledge transfer barriers, create an optimal knowledge transfer domain, and facilitate intergenerational knowledge transfer.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Kelly Pledger Weeks, Matthew Weeks and Nicolas Long

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between stereotypes, in-group favoritism, and in-group bolstering effects across generations.

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4879

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between stereotypes, in-group favoritism, and in-group bolstering effects across generations.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the trends found in a qualitative study on generational stereotypes, questions on work ethic, work-life balance, and use of technology were administered to 255 participants identified as Millennials, Generation X, and Baby Boomers. Hypotheses predicted that with a strong stereotype, traditional in-group favoritism will not be found; however, an in-group bolstering effect will emerge. In the absence of a strong stereotype, traditional in-group favoritism is expected.

Findings

Generally, there was a strong stereotype that Baby Boomers are worse at technology than Generation X and Generation X is worse than Millennials. There was also a strong stereotype that Millennials do not do what it takes to get the job done as much as other generations. In the presence of these stereotypes, traditional in-group favoritism was not found, but in-groups bolstered themselves by rating themselves more favorably than other groups rated them. Although these findings did not hold for every item studied, there was moderate support for all three hypotheses.

Practical implications

As employees become aware of their biases, they can collaborate better with employees who are different than they are. Practical recommendations are suggested.

Originality/value

The paper applies theory of in-group favoritism to the perceptions of generational cohorts.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Ann Feyerherm and Yvonne H. Vick

Seeks to undertake research of Generation X women in high technology in order to determine what type of corporate environment would support their needs for professional…

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4865

Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to undertake research of Generation X women in high technology in order to determine what type of corporate environment would support their needs for professional success, personal fulfillment, and sustain longer‐term employment.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study looked at high‐potential Generation X women (born between 1965‐1980) within the high‐technology industry and explored their relationship with work which means how they interact with bosses, peers, subordinates, and the corporate culture.

Findings

The study found that, for Generation X women, personal fulfillment was intrinsically connected to professional success, and that they wanted support from their companies in terms of mentors for guidance and development, opportunities to excel, recognition for efforts, relationships, and flexibility to achieve work/life balance.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size was small and, while the research applies to the high‐technology industry, care would need to be taken in wholesale application to all industries. The way Generation X women perceive the importance of work/life balance carries implications for corporations in terms of training, development, promotional practices and corporate culture.

Originality/value

If companies can provide a cultural environment to support attainment of professional success and personal fulfillment as defined by these women, it may provide a link to longer‐term employment, reduced employee turnover, and improved bottom line corporate performance.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2020

Ali B. Mahmoud, Leonora Fuxman, Iris Mohr, William D. Reisel and Nicholas Grigoriou

The primary purpose of this research is to examine generational differences in valuing the sources of employees' overall motivation in the workplace across Generation X

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6004

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this research is to examine generational differences in valuing the sources of employees' overall motivation in the workplace across Generation X, Generation Y and Generation Z with a view of assisting managers in making employment decisions and maintaining multigenerational staff.

Design/methodology/approach

The respondents in the study live and work in Canada and provided answers to self-administered online surveys between the fourth quarter of 2017 and the end of January 2020. To assess subjects' work motivation, the study employed Gagné et al.'s (2014) multidimensional work motivation scale (MWMS) alongside a three-item measure of employees' overall motivation (designed for this study). The authors assessed measures of validity and reliability and tested the hypothesis about generational differences in work motivation using structural equation modelling (SEM).

Findings

The six motivators regress differently to employees' overall motivation. Generation Z is more sensitive to amotivation than Generation X and Generation Y. Extrinsic regulation-material is a valid source of overall work motivation for Generation Z only. Only Generation X values extrinsic regulation-social as a source of employees' overall motivation. So is introjected regulation by Generation Y. Unlike Generation Z, both Generation X and Generation Y employees value identified regulation as a source of overall work motivation. Finally, intrinsic motivation contributes more to Generation Z employees' overall work motivation than it does for Generation X and Generation Y.

Research limitations/implications

Further work needs to be done to establish whether variations in valuing the sources of motivation may also be spawned by age or status of the respective groups. Future investigations can expand the authors’ focal theme to include additional organisational outcomes, alternative geographical settings and/or include country's economic development as an additional variable. Moreover, further research can address the implications of national culture on shaping generational differences in employee's motivation as well as aiding companies to redesign work tasks considering today's uncertainty as well as increasingly competitive, global environment (e.g. the rise of artificial intelligence).

Practical implications

It is vital to offer motivators that are valued by each of the three generations, i.e. X, Y and Z, before being able to attract the best candidates of each generation. Organisations should not only create an inclusive and understanding multigenerational working environment but also be able to communicate strong branding via new communication channels successfully (e.g. social media networks), which Generation Yers and Generation Zers utilise better than any other generation in employment. Finally, the authors suggest that service organisations with diverse generational composition should adopt new measures of workplace agility to survive interminable disruptions (e.g. the coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] pandemic).

Originality/value

This is the first study of its kind to examine generational differences between Generation X, Generation Y and Generation Z in valuing workplace motivation from a western cultural perspective.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 17 January 2020

Cristina Calvo-Porral and Rogelio Pesqueira-Sanchez

There are differences in the motivations underlying technology behaviour in each generational group; and there may be variances in the way each generational group uses and…

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1503

Abstract

Purpose

There are differences in the motivations underlying technology behaviour in each generational group; and there may be variances in the way each generational group uses and gets engaged with technology. In this context, this study aims to address the following questions: “Does generational cohort influence technology behaviour?” and if so: “What are the main motivations underlying Millennials and Generation X technology behaviour?”.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, based on the uses and gratifications theory this study examines technology behaviour through multi-group structural equation modelling, drawing on a sample of 707 millennials and 276 Generation X individuals

Findings

Research findings indicate that millennials mostly use and get engaged with technologies for entertainment and hedonic purposes; while Generation X individuals are mainly driven by utilitarian purposes and information search. Further, research findings indicate the moderating role of generational cohort in the use of technologies.

Originality/value

This study provides empirical evidence of the main differences and motivations differences driving technology behaviour of millennials and Generation X individuals.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 49 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2004

Steven H. Appelbaum, Maria Serena and Barbara T. Shapiro

An extensive literature search was conducted to better understand and to dispel the current stereotypes in the workplace regarding Generation X and Baby Boomers. For the…

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2907

Abstract

An extensive literature search was conducted to better understand and to dispel the current stereotypes in the workplace regarding Generation X and Baby Boomers. For the purpose of the article Generation X consisted of those born between 1961 and 1981, while Baby Boomers consisted of those born between 1943 and 1960. The purpose of this article was to use an exhaustive review of eclectic/multidisciplinary literature to address six commonly held myths presented by Paul and Townsend (1993). Furthermore, it was intended to examine empirical research gathered by a literature review of the stereotypes in the workplace, to better understand the profiles and factors that motivate the Baby Boomers and Generation X, in conjunction with the following independent variables: age, productivity, motivation, training, and mentoring and job satisfaction. Selected hypotheses were tested suggesting Generation Xers are more productive, more motivated, easily trainable and exhibit higher job satisfaction levels as compared to Baby Boomers. Results were convergent and divergent in several cases worth noting. It is important for organizations to recognize the limitations that stereotypes create in the workplace. As was demonstrated by the varied research, Baby Boomers and Generation Xers are not dissimilar as employees; they possess more similarities than differences. Organizations need to engineer/design an environment of respect for both groups to create synergies between them to build and maintain a productive workforce.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 27 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Corrie Stone-Johnson

The purpose of this paper is to describe how teachers’ generational interpretative frameworks influence their career experiences and to demonstrate how these generational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe how teachers’ generational interpretative frameworks influence their career experiences and to demonstrate how these generational differences impact the power of professional capital to improve teaching and learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper utilizes data from a multi-year, mixed methods study of mid-career teachers in Massachusetts. Data in this paper come from semi-structured interviews with 12 Generation X teachers (born 1961-1980).

Findings

Generation X teachers have a unique self-image, self-esteem, task perception, job motivation, and future perspective that form their generational interpretative framework. This framework is different from that of the prior generation.

Originality/value

These generational differences have implications for how Generation X teachers view professionalism and autonomy and how they see their careers over time. Drawing upon Hargreaves and Fullan’s (2012) suggestions for school leaders, three implications are highlighted. First, a model of professional capital that incorporates teachers’ generational differences must be aware of how teachers view their work before engaging in changing it. This implication ties directly into the second, which is that leaders must know their teachers and understand the culture in which they work. Together, these two implications suggest that implementing a model of professional capital is not enough; it must begin with deliberate thought as to who the teachers are who are being asked to change. Finally, to secure leadership stability and sustainability, leaders must respect generational differences that influence teachers’ desires to move, or not move, into formal leadership roles.

Details

Journal of Professional Capital and Community, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-9548

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