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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Abbas J. Ali, Thomas Falcone and Ahmed A. Azim

Addresses the issues of work ethics and work‐related attitudes inthe USA and Canada. Two‐hundred‐and‐ten individuals from variousorganizations participated. The results…

4590

Abstract

Addresses the issues of work ethics and work‐related attitudes in the USA and Canada. Two‐hundred‐and‐ten individuals from various organizations participated. The results indicated that US participants were found to be more committed to the Protestant and contemporary work ethic than Canadians. Both women and workers (male and female) scored high on Protestant work ethic (PWE). No differences in PWE were found, however, between Catholic and Protestant participants. In addition, the results showed high correlations between all work ethic measures and work‐related individualism.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 May 2022

Jie Zhong, Li Zhang and Guang Xu

The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between supervisor-subordinate Guanxi (SSG) and employee affective commitment. Integrating social exchange…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between supervisor-subordinate Guanxi (SSG) and employee affective commitment. Integrating social exchange theory (SET) with conservation of resource (COR) theory, this paper explores the mixed effect of SSG on affective commitment as well as the moderating roles of an individual difference (subordinate work ethic) and a contextual variable (procedural fairness).

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopted a survey involving 249 subordinates to test the hypothesized model.

Findings

The results showed that the relationship between SSG and affective commitment was inverted U-shaped, and this relationship was moderated by work ethic and procedural fairness, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

Despite those contributions listed above, there are still some limitations that future research should seek to address. First, the data of this research are cross-sectional, which might cause common method bias to responses. However, all the hypotheses are higher-order forms of the main effects (curvilinear and moderating effects), which are not affected by the cross-sectional nature of the study (Podskoff et al., 2003). Moreover, given these variables in the model are related to subordinates' internal psychological states or perceptions, data for the study should be collected from subordinates. Relatedly, the cross-sectional nature of the dataset may raise a question about the directionality of the relationships. However, the research model is based on strong theories (i.e. SET and COR theory). In addition, prior research has indicated that Guanxi has an influence on commitment, not vice versa (Cheung et al., 2009; Chen and O'Leary, 2018). However, given that only experimental design can conclusively prove the directionality of the relationship, the authors encourage to replicate the current study using such a design. In addition, the authors encourage future studies to collect longitudinal data and replicate the current study. Second, this study only tested how work ethic and procedural fairness moderated the relationship between SSG and affective commitment. The authors encourage future research to explore the moderating effect of other moderators, such as the integrity of supervisors. In particular, when the supervisor has a high level of integrity, the negative influence of higher SSG may be weakened. Third, this study did not explore the mechanism linking SSG with affective commitment. Future studies should explore the potential mechanisms. For example, subordinates' emotional exhaustion might be the potential mechanism between SSG and affective commitment.

Practical implications

The results imply that supervisors should treat SSG as a double-edged sword and maximize the positive influence of SSG. In addition, organizations should hire individuals with high work ethic or provide related training. At last, organizations should realize the importance of procedural fairness and set a sector that oversees making and executing well-designed roles.

Originality/value

Previous studies on SSG mainly focused on its positive effect on affective commitment, neglecting to explore its negative effect. This paper helped to illustrate the relationship between SSG and affective commitment comprehensively by indicating the relationship between SSG and affective commitment was inverted U-shaped and moderated by work ethic and procedural fairness, respectively.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Gayle Porter

To provide current information on managers' expectations of their employees, toward structuring future research on amount of time and energy devoted to work.

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Abstract

Purpose

To provide current information on managers' expectations of their employees, toward structuring future research on amount of time and energy devoted to work.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data, acquired through focus groups and interviews, provide a sample of the perceptions of 57 managers in the mid‐Atlantic region of the USA regarding employees' work ethic.

Findings

The results are presented as descriptive information of interest in formulating future research. The traditional work ethic (hard work, responsibility, diligence) still dominates managers' expectations, and they believe many employees have lost the willingness to work now for later returns (that was a key component of the early Protestant work ethic in the USA). Many of the concerns these managers expressed parallel predictions by writers in social and economic history – for example, influence of early social development, emphasis on everything “instant”, and the pressure through technology to work anywhere/anytime. Some implications for practice are discussed.

Originality/value

This study is unique in that it asks the managers directly about their individual expectations. Literature reflects both individual and organizational pressures for hard work, but the organizational side is assessed through examining unfortunate outcomes of policies and practices. The personal comments of the managers provide an important dimension to considering demands of the workplace.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Dwight M. Hite, Joshua J. Daspit and Xueni Dong

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of cultural assimilation – termed “transculturation” – on work ethic perceptions, thus this study examines trends in…

1781

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of cultural assimilation – termed “transculturation” – on work ethic perceptions, thus this study examines trends in work ethic across ethnic and generational groups within the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review on work ethic, ethnicity, and transculturation, an analysis of variance based on 873 survey responses is presented. The sample includes undergraduate and graduate students at several public universities within the USA.

Findings

An empirical analysis supports the hypothesis that the variation of work ethic perceptions within the Millennial generation is significantly less than the variation among older generations. The authors find no significant difference in general work ethic perceptions among Millennial ethnic groups.

Research limitations/implications

While the study is conducted using a convenience sample, the demographics are closely representative of the USA labor force. The results suggest that Millennials, while a more diverse ethnic population, exhibit less variation among work ethic perceptions than earlier generational groups.

Practical implications

Understanding differences in work ethic perceptions across various ethnic groups is valuable for managers interested in designing jobs that appropriately exploit the full value of a multi-generational workforce.

Originality/value

The findings of this study offer new insights into how more recent generations, while more ethnically diverse, exhibit a convergence in perceptions of work ethic.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Darwish A. Yousef

This study investigates the moderating impacts of the Islamic work ethic on the relationships between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. It uses a sample of…

12352

Abstract

This study investigates the moderating impacts of the Islamic work ethic on the relationships between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. It uses a sample of 425 Muslim employees in several organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The empirical results indicate that the Islamic work ethic directly affects both organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and that it moderates the relationship between these two constructs. Results further reveal that national culture does not moderate the relationship between the Islamic work ethic and both organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Results also point out that support of the Islamic work ethic differs across age, education level, work experience, national culture, organization type (manufacturing or service), and ownership (private or public). Furthermore, empirical results suggest that there is a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Implications, limitations and lines of future research are discussed.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Darwish A. Yousef

The article examines the potential mediating role of the Islamic work ethic between locus of control, role conflict and role ambiguity. The study uses a sample of 397…

5361

Abstract

The article examines the potential mediating role of the Islamic work ethic between locus of control, role conflict and role ambiguity. The study uses a sample of 397 employees in a variety of manufacturing and service organizations in an Islamic country, the United Arab Emirates. The results of correlational analysis and regression models suggest that the Islamic work ethic is related to locus of control. Furthermore, the results of a series of regression models indicate that the Islamic work ethic mediates the relationship between locus of control and role ambiguity. On the other hand, the results point out that the Islamic work ethic does not mediate the relationship between locus of control and role conflict. Results further point out that there is a significant correlation between the Islamic work ethic and role ambiguity. Limitations, lines of future research, implications and contributions are discussed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Thiagarajan Ramakrishnan, Dwight M. Hite, Joseph H. Schuessler and Victor Prybutok

Information security is a growing issue that impacts organizations in virtually all industries, and data breaches impact millions of customers and cost organizations…

Abstract

Purpose

Information security is a growing issue that impacts organizations in virtually all industries, and data breaches impact millions of customers and cost organizations millions of dollars. Within the past several years alone, huge data breaches have been experienced by organizations such as Marriot, Equifax, eBay, JP Morgan Chase, Home Depot, Target and Yahoo, the latter of which impacted three billion users. This study aims to examine the utilization of pre-employment screening to identify potential hires that may require enhanced information security training to avoid such costs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors hypothesize that an individual’s work ethic predicts a person’s information security behavior. The authors test this hypothesis using structural equation modeling with bootstrapping techniques.

Findings

Data analysis suggests that certain dimensions of work ethic do indeed predict information security posture, and thus, simple pre-employment screening techniques (i.e. questionnaires) can aid in identifying potential security threats.

Practical implications

The findings provide a tool for identifying problematic employee security posture prior to hiring, which may be useful in identifying training needs for new hires.

Originality/value

The findings provide a tool for identifying problematic employee security posture prior to hiring, which may be useful in identifying training needs for new hires.

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Gayle Porter

Organizational change initiatives are successful only through the efforts of the people, so it is important to look beyond surface reactions and understand the deeper…

9312

Abstract

Organizational change initiatives are successful only through the efforts of the people, so it is important to look beyond surface reactions and understand the deeper implications of employees' visible work habits. By integrating work from several disciplines, this paper poses a series of questions aimed at creating better awareness of differences in how and why people work. Historic tracking of beliefs about work in the USA is provided as an example of how a positive foundation of strong work ethic can become the dysfunctional extreme of workaholism.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2010

Jessica Li and Jean Madsen

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese managers' perceptions of work ethic (work‐related values and attitudes) and to provide insights on how managers interact…

2065

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese managers' perceptions of work ethic (work‐related values and attitudes) and to provide insights on how managers interact with their workers.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative study using a series of in‐depth interviews to draw state‐owned enterprises (SOE) managers' perceptions of work ethic. The inquiry process led to a single‐case level of analysis where data are aggregated to incorporate a thematic approach. Underlining theoretical frameworks that guide the study are a combination of Western and Eastern work ethic frameworks and cross‐culture management understanding of the concept of guanxi.

Findings

Five themes that emerged from data analysis became the five dimensions of Chinese managers' work ethic profile. In addition, the study revealed four overarching themes that influence managerial behavior in Chinese SOEs: the absolute power of the boss; work is the center of life; social network ties to the workplace; and place hope in the hands of the boss.

Research limitations/implications

The paper provides comprehensive understanding of the Chinese management work ethic profile. Future studies should expand to include managers from different generations and industry sectors.

Practical implications

The paper highlighted the importance of matching cultural values with management practices. It identified differences between the west and east of their work‐related values and attitudes, which have practical implications for developing effective management strategies and practices when working with Chinese SOEs.

Originality/value

The paper provides an indigenous description of Chinese managers' work ethic profile and provides suggestions for future research.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 July 2011

Andre Slabbert and Wilfred I. Ukpere

South Africa is a developing country, and within this context, it is essential to be economically competitive and proactive. Various sources reveal that the national…

2308

Abstract

Purpose

South Africa is a developing country, and within this context, it is essential to be economically competitive and proactive. Various sources reveal that the national productivity has been traditionally low, and continues to remain low. Within the context of the international arena, this is unacceptable. If South Africa is to become a recognised role player in the international arena, it is imperative to increase productivity like China. This paper aims to focus on the issues involved.

Design/methodology/approach

A 65‐item inventory which measures seven conceptually and empirically distinct facets of the work ethic construct, i.e. the multi‐dimensional work ethic profile (MWEP) was utilised to critically distinguish between the Chinese and South African workforces. The samples approximated 150 subjects in each grouping. Findings which emanate from this study have distinct ramifications for the South African economy.

Findings

It appears as if a linkage exists between productivity and work ethic, as illustrated by amongst others, Hamilton‐Attwell and Du Gay and Pryke. Paradoxically, a number of other variables exist which impact on the productivity phenomenon, thus rendering a strict causal relationship between work ethic and productivity tenuous in nature. Despite this, it is a recognised reality that there is a substantive “negativity” in the work ethic of the South African labour force, possibly in relation to historical and cultural factors. The Chinese work ethic is diametrically opposed to that of South Africa.

Research limitations/implications

In discussions with Chinese workers held in 2010, four primary schools of thought emerged: a firm belief that hard work will bring desired results; pride in personal accomplishments and hard work; fear of embarrassment or shame in case of failure; and immense patriotic pride in China and its achievements. It is the present authors' conviction that none of these apply to the South African labour force, and that most certainly could be partly responsible for the economic disparities between the two countries. Hence, additional research should be conducted to improve the current state of affairs.

Social implications

Of the seven facets in the MWEP, six are positively slanted, while the other, leisure, can be construed as negatively aligned with a positive work ethic. Interestingly, if the Chinese sample is compared to the South African, this is the only facet where the latter obtains a superior score. The inference is clear: South Africans are essentially more concerned about having free time. In the overall context of the MWEP, this is a strikingly negative observation.

Originality/value

One of the major challenges confronting South Africa, since the triumph of democracy in 1994, is low productivity of labour. Therefore, comparing South African work ethics with that of China will enable South Africa recognize the gaps in terms of behavior towards work and stimulate the countries international competitiveness.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 8000