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Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2015

Catherine E. Harnois

Existing research tends to conceptualize age- and gender-based discrimination as distinct and unrelated social phenomena. A growing body of scholarship, however…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing research tends to conceptualize age- and gender-based discrimination as distinct and unrelated social phenomena. A growing body of scholarship, however, highlights the importance of conceptualizing ageism as potentially gendered, and gender discrimination as inherently shaped by age. Using an intersectional theoretical perspective, this chapter examines how gender and age combine to shape women’s and men’s experiences of workplace mistreatment.

Methodology/approach

The data are obtained from the U.S. General Social Survey. The analysis begins with descriptive statistics, showing how rates of perceived age and gender mistreatment vary for men and women of different age groups. Multivariate logistic regressions follow.

Findings

Experiences of workplace mistreatment are significantly shaped by both gender and age. Among both men and women, workers in their 30s and 40s report relatively low levels of perceived age-based discrimination, compared to older or younger workers. It is precisely during this interval of relatively low rates of perceived age-based discrimination that women’s (but not men’s) perceptions of gender-based mistreatment rises dramatically. At all ages, women are significantly more likely to face either gender- or age-based discrimination than men, but the gap is especially large among workers in their 40s.

Originality/value

Women tend to perceive age- and gender-based mistreatment at different times of life, but a concurrent examination of gender- and age-based mistreatment reveals that women’s working lives are characterized by high rates of mistreatment throughout their careers, in a way that men’s are not. The results highlight the importance of conceptualizing gender and age as intersecting systems of inequality.

Details

At the Center: Feminism, Social Science and Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-078-4

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Sharon Foley, Hang-yue Ngo, Raymond Loi and Xiaoming Zheng

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of gender and strength of gender identification on employees’ perception of gender discrimination. It also explores…

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4235

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of gender and strength of gender identification on employees’ perception of gender discrimination. It also explores whether gender comparison and perceived gender bias against women act as mediators in the above relationships. It aims to advance the understanding of the processes leading to individual’s perception of gender discrimination in the Chinese workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 362 workers via an employee survey in three large companies in China. The human resource staff helped us to distribute a self-administered questionnaire to the employees, and the authors assured them of confidentiality and protected their anonymity. To test the hypotheses, the authors employed structural equation modeling. The authors first conducted confirmatory factor analysis on the measurement model, and then the authors estimated three nested structural models to test the mediating hypotheses.

Findings

The results reveal that gender and strength of gender identification are related to perceived gender discrimination. The authors further found that gender comparison and perceived gender bias against women partially mediated the relationship between gender and perceived gender discrimination, while gender comparison fully mediated the relationship between strength of gender identification and perceived gender discrimination.

Practical implications

The study helps managers understand why and how their subordinates form perceptions of gender discrimination. Given the findings, they should be aware of the importance of gender identity, gender comparison, and gender bias in organizational practices in affecting such perceptions.

Originality/value

This study is the first exploration of the complex relationships among gender, gender identification, gender comparison, perceived gender bias against women, and perceived gender discrimination. It shows the salient role of gender comparison and gender bias against women in shaping employees’ perceptions of gender discrimination, apart from the direct effects of gender and strength of gender identification.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Lonneke Dubbelt, Sonja Rispens and Evangelia Demerouti

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender discrimination and the perceived job demands and job resources of women and men. This is important…

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6054

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender discrimination and the perceived job demands and job resources of women and men. This is important because it may provide insight into what factors contribute to women’s disadvantaged position at work.

Design/methodology/approach

Two cross-sectional studies were conducted, Study 1 in a male-dominated organization and Study 2 in a gender-balanced organization.

Findings

The results showed that in both organizations, gender discrimination was positively associated with women’s job demands and negatively associated with their job resources. Additionally, in the male-dominated organization the perceived gender discrimination was also negatively associated with men’s job resources. Overall, the results were more consistent across the two organizations for women’s job resources.

Originality/value

This paper links gender literature with the job demands-resources model to translate gender discrimination into quantifiable job characteristics and may provide alternative explanations for previous found gender differences in well-being and career success.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Florence Lui and Deidre M. Anglin

Ethnoracial minorities report a variety of discriminatory experiences due to systemic racism. Yet, few studies have examined whether gender and race/ethnicity interact to…

Abstract

Purpose

Ethnoracial minorities report a variety of discriminatory experiences due to systemic racism. Yet, few studies have examined whether gender and race/ethnicity interact to predict institutional discrimination and racial microaggressions through an intersectional approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A predominantly female (60%), ethnoracial minority (20.8% Black, 31.6% Asian, 30.8% Latina/o, 8.2% White, 6.6% Middle Eastern) sample of 895 undergraduates attending a minority-serving public university in an urban setting completed self-report measures of sociodemographic characteristics, experiences of racial microaggressions and institutional discrimination.

Findings

Significant (p < 0.05) gender × race/ethnicity interaction effects were found in several institutional discrimination domains: Males reported more police/court discrimination overall, but gender differences in police/court discrimination were less pronounced for non-Black vs Black students. While males tended to report more institutional discrimination than females, the reverse was true for the Middle Eastern group: Middle Eastern females reported institutional discrimination in more domains and more discrimination getting hired than their male counterparts. There was a significant race/ethnicity × gender interaction effect for environmental microaggressions: White males reported more environmental microaggressions than White females, but gender differences were not found in the overall sample.

Originality/value

This study is the first to the authors’ knowledge to assess the interactive effects of gender and ethnicity on the type of microaggressions experienced in a diverse sample that includes individuals of Middle Eastern descent. The authors highlight the range of discriminatory events that ethnoracially minoritized undergraduates experience, even at a minority-serving institution.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Sharon L. Segrest, Eric J. Romero and Darla J. Domke‐Damonte

This conceptual paper explores how the construct of machismo can influence gender‐based discrimination across two cultures; Mexico and the US. First, the relevant…

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2281

Abstract

This conceptual paper explores how the construct of machismo can influence gender‐based discrimination across two cultures; Mexico and the US. First, the relevant literature on machismo is reviewed and the construct clarified. Secondly, evidence is presented which indicates that masculine gender roles are not innate, but rather heavily influenced by cultural factors. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are used to develop propositions about the effect of masculinity on gender‐based discrimination. We suggest propositions designed to explain how programs aimed at eliminating or reducing gender‐based discrimination might be impacted by high levels of cultural masculinity.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2021

Raheel Yasin and Sarah I. Obsequio Namoco

There is scarcity in the literature, both empirically and theoretically, regarding the relationship between transgender discrimination and prostitution. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

There is scarcity in the literature, both empirically and theoretically, regarding the relationship between transgender discrimination and prostitution. This study aims to offer a new framework for conceptualizing workplace discrimination and prostitution by examining the mediating role of poverty in the relationship between discrimination and prostitution.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual framework of this study is based on the social identity theory and the theory of prostitution.

Findings

Transgender is a neglected group in society, and more often, they are the ones who are unable to find jobs and when employed, find it challenging to sustain their employment because of their gender identity. This leads them to be discriminated at their workplaces. Subsequently, they are forced to leave their workplace and settle to work as prostitutes for their economic survival.

Research limitations/implications

Further research should empirically test the design model.

Practical implications

Managers play an essential role in eliminating discrimination in the organization. Managers need to take measures in crafting gender-free and anti-discrimination policies. They take steps to design recruitment policies in which there is no need to disclose applicant identity.

Social implications

Discrimination, on the basis of gender identity, promotes a culture of hate, intolerance and economic inequality in society. Prostitution has devastating effects on society.

Originality/value

In the field of organizational behavior, discrimination as a factor of prostitution was not explored. This study provides a significant contribution to the transgender and discrimination literature along with the prostitution theory and the social identity theory by proposing a model that highlights discrimination as one of the factors that compel the transgender community to be involved in prostitution.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Christin L. Munsch and C. Elizabeth Hirsh

Despite the absence of federal legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender identity and expression, many companies have adopted such policies in recent…

Abstract

Despite the absence of federal legislation prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender identity and expression, many companies have adopted such policies in recent years. We examine the impact of several contextual factors thought to influence gender identity and expression nondiscrimination policy adoption among Fortune 500 firms from 1997 to 2007. Our findings suggest that city and state laws likely influence policy adoption, as do federal case rulings regarding gender nonconformity and the adoption of similar policies by companies in the same industry. We found little evidence that companies respond to state or city executive orders or to media coverage of gender identity issues in the workplace.

Details

Gender and Sexuality in the Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-371-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Kinsey B. Bryant-Lees and Mary E. Kite

This study aimed to experimentally investigate whether disclosing one's sexual orientation while applying for a job would impact hiring decisions.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to experimentally investigate whether disclosing one's sexual orientation while applying for a job would impact hiring decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiment employed a 2 (Applicant Gender: Male/Female) × 2 (Applicant Sexual Orientation: Heterosexual or Gay/Lesbian) × 2 (Job Type: Masculine/Feminine) between-subjects design. Participants (N = 349) were randomly assigned to one of eight applicant conditions. They were first presented with a job description, followed by a cover letter displaying the applicants' qualifications, gender and sexual orientation. Participants evaluated the applicant's competence, social skills and hireability, and provided self-reports of their attitudes toward gays/lesbians and traditional gender roles.

Findings

The results demonstrated a distinct pattern of discrimination toward gay/lesbian applicants who were rated significantly lower in competence, social skills and hireability than were heterosexual applicants. Additionally, using multigroup structural equation modeling, we found that sexual orientation differentially impacted the relationship between attitudes and hireability ratings; negative attitudes toward homosexuality, beliefs about sexual orientation as a choice and belief in traditional gender roles were significant predictors of hireability ratings for gay/lesbian applicants, but were unrelated to evaluations of heterosexual applicants.

Research limitations/implications

The current study highlights the underlying mechanisms involved in hiring discrimination against Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans (LGBT) workers including lower evaluations of competence, social skills and structural differences in the impact of attitudes. These direct links must be explicitly addressed for continued progress related to equality, diversity and inclusion in Human Resource Management (HRM). Continued multidisciplinary research that considers gender identity and sexual orientation signal salience, consequences of specific career stereotypes, regional differences and the effects of societal shifts in attitudes overtime will continue to improve our understanding and drive us toward a more equitable future.

Practical implications

By identifying the underlying mechanisms involved in hiring discrimination, this study highlights the need for diversity trainings that go beyond the blanket approaches to diversity management and explicitly address conscious and unconscious biases that may influence the hiring process. Additionally, it is critical for organizations to provide top-down support from leadership, and implement mechanisms that allow LGBT voices to be heard and feel comfortable in their work environment to reduce the psychological strain.

Social implications

Prior to the recent landmark ruling by the Supreme Court on June 15, 2020, which extended the 1964 Civil Rights Act workplace protections to gay, lesbianand transgender employees, in many places across the United States Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) identifying workers could still be legally discriminated against. The pattern of discrimination identified in the current study provides clear evidence that these protections are necessary, and long overdue.

Originality/value

This study identifies two clear patterns of hiring discrimination: (1) lower hireability ratings and (2) structural differences in the evaluative process for gay/lesbian applicants. These findings provide experimental evidence, currently lacking in the literature, that support survey-based and qualitative findings of LGBT's experiences, and demonstrate how negative attitudes, irrelevant to the qualifications of an applicant, seep into hiring decisions.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Vincent Icheku

The issue of discrimination in Afghanistan is pervasive, and the present report focuses on gender discrimination in employment deemed particularly important for immediate…

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1371

Abstract

Purpose

The issue of discrimination in Afghanistan is pervasive, and the present report focuses on gender discrimination in employment deemed particularly important for immediate policy intervention by the international community. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the measures taken to eliminate gender discrimination in employment since the American‐led invasion in 2001.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a literature review with potential to inform policy change to improve the employment situation of rural Afghan women. Although there is paucity of data on many facets of Afghan society, this paper synthesises available information regarding measures to improve employment for Afghan women and discusses factors that should be considered in future employment policies.

Findings

This paper establishes that many rural Afghan women today experience cultural and religious barriers to employment. The paper argues that much as there have been significant improvements in the employment situation of Afghan women living in cities since the US‐led invasion, rural Afghan women still suffer from inequality in employment. In addition, the paper finds that the barriers to employment opportunities confronting rural Afghan women today stem from existing cultural and religious practices.

Practical implications

The current Afghan Government and international community should pursue policies that would terminate the cultural and religious practices that violate Afghan women's employment rights.

Originality/value

The most valuable part of this paper is the new insight into gender discrimination in employment in the run up to the ten‐year anniversary of the ousting of the repressive Taliban regime. The paper's findings would serve as input for the current government's efforts to address gender discrimination in Afghanistan.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Jody Heymann, Bijetri Bose, Willetta Waisath, Amy Raub and Michael McCormack

There is substantial evidence of discrimination at work across countries and powerful evidence that antidiscrimination laws can make a difference. This study examines the…

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1407

Abstract

Purpose

There is substantial evidence of discrimination at work across countries and powerful evidence that antidiscrimination laws can make a difference. This study examines the extent of protections from discrimination at work in countries around the world and which groups were best covered.

Design/methodology/approach

This study assesses legal protections in hiring, pay, promotions/demotions, terminations and harassment for 13 different groups across 193 countries using a database the authors created based on analysis of labor codes, antidiscrimination legislation, equal opportunity legislation and penal codes. Differences in levels of protection were examined across social groups and areas of work, as well as by country income level using Chi-square tests.

Findings

Protection from gender and racial/ethnic discrimination at work was the most common, and protection across migrant status, foreign national origin, sexual orientation and gender identity was among the least. For all groups, discrimination was more often prohibited in hiring than in promotion/demotion. There was inconsistent protection from harassment and retaliation.

Research limitations/implications

Addressing discrimination at work will require a broad range of synergistic approaches including guaranteeing equal legal rights, implementation and enforcement of laws and norm change. This study highlights where legislative progress has been made and where major gaps remain.

Originality/value

This article presents findings from an original database containing the first data on laws to prevent discrimination in the workplace in all 193 countries around the world. The study analyzes legal protections for a wide range of groups and considers a full range of workplace protections.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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