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Black Mixed-Race Men
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-531-9

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2020

Christina B. Chin and Erica Morales

At universities across the country, students of color have organized and participated in protests, walkouts, and social media campaigns to call attention to racialized…

Abstract

At universities across the country, students of color have organized and participated in protests, walkouts, and social media campaigns to call attention to racialized experiences that they feel have been largely ignored by their campus communities. Often these students of color are confronted with acts of racism that take the form of subtle everyday insults, known as racial microaggressions. Given the prevalence of racial microaggressions in higher education, the question arises as to how educators and administrators can effectively educate students on this concept in order to increase their cultural competency and combat these racialized acts. In this chapter, we consider how the classroom can be an active space to increase students’ competency and validate the experiences of marginalized groups. Drawing from critical race theory, previous literature, and our own experiences in the classroom, we outline several pedagogical strategies for educating students on racial microaggressions. First, we encourage faculty to arrange their classrooms for effective dialogue by being reflexive of your own positionality and privilege, collaborating with students on class ground rules, and unpacking the complexities of racial discussions with students. Next, we draw upon social media, popular culture, student-centered activities, and interdisciplinary research in order to demonstrate lived experiences of racial microaggressions and their consequences within higher education. Finally, we work with students on examining how they might contest these racialized insults in their own lives and potentially work toward larger social change.

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Cultural Competence in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-772-0

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Nisha Nair, Deborah Cain Good and Audrey J. Murrell

Given the nascent stage of research on microaggressions, the study is an attempt to better understand the experience of microaggressions and examine it from the point of…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the nascent stage of research on microaggressions, the study is an attempt to better understand the experience of microaggressions and examine it from the point of view of different marginalized minority identities. The purpose of this paper is to report on the subjective experience of microaggressions from the lenses of gender, race, religion and sexual orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore how microaggressions are experienced by different identities, the authors conducted four focus group studies with university students at a prominent Midwestern university. Each focus group focused on the experience of microaggressions for a particular identity group.

Findings

The authors discuss the nature and forms of exclusion that occur through microaggressions, and offer six microaggression themes that emerged as common across the marginalized identities studied. The authors add to the microaggression taxonomy and highlight the role of repetition in how microaggressions are perceived. The authors also discuss intersectional microaggressions.

Originality/value

While various studies have focused on reporting microaggression themes with regard to singular identities, this study is potentially the first that explores microaggression themes across different marginalized identities. The findings highlight novel forms of microaggressions such as the revealing or making visible of marginalized identities, and microaggressions emanating from within a minority group directed at other members within the same identity group, what the authors call as in-group microaggressions. The authors highlight and point to the need for more work on intersectional microaggressions.

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Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Lynn R. Offermann, Tessa E. Basford, Raluca Graebner, Sumona Basu DeGraaf and Salman Jaffer

The present study aims to apply the construct of microaggressions to organizational contexts by examining perceptions of discrimination in ambiguous interactions between…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to apply the construct of microaggressions to organizational contexts by examining perceptions of discrimination in ambiguous interactions between White supervisors and Black subordinates and their impact on work outcomes under varying conditions of leader fairness.

Design/methodology/approach

US participants (N=387) responded to scenarios describing supervisor‐subordinate interactions involving subtle to blatant discrimination, after being told either that the supervisor had a history of fair, equitable treatment of subordinates or that the supervisor had a history of unfairness and inequity.

Findings

Leader equity impacted discrimination perceptions, affording leaders greater benefit of the doubt in ambiguous interracial interactions. For all levels of microaggression severity, microaggressions were perceived less when the supervisor had a reputation for equity and fairness; expected work outcomes were also better when the supervisor had a reputation for equity and fairness at all levels of microaggression severity.

Research limitations/implications

As blatant discrimination grows more and more unacceptable, examining the subtle and sometimes unintended aspects of workplace discrimination is increasingly important. The authors’ results suggest that a leader's reputation for equity and fairness may mitigate the effects of racial slights.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the impact of leader equity on microaggressions and the first to empirically explore the impact of microaggressions on work outcomes. Their results suggest the importance of establishing leader reputations of fairness and training staff to recognize even subtle forms of discrimination and exclusion.

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Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

James A. Roffee and Andrea Waling

The purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of experiences of anti-social behaviour in LGBTIQ+ youth in university settings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of experiences of anti-social behaviour in LGBTIQ+ youth in university settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The discussion reflects on qualitative interviews with LGBTIQ+ young people studying at university (n=16) exploring their experiences of anti-social behaviour including harassment, bullying and victimisation in tertiary settings.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that attention should be paid to the complex nature of anti-social behaviour. In particular, LGBTIQ+ youth documented experiences of microaggressions perpetrated by other members of the LGBTIQ+ community. Using the taxonomy of anti-social behaviour against LGBTIQ+ people developed by Nadal et al. (2010, 2011), the authors build on literature that understands microaggressions against LGBTIQ+ people as a result of heterosexism, to address previously unexplored microaggressions perpetrated by other LGBTIQ+ people.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could seek a larger sample of participants from a range of universities, as campus climate may influence the experiences and microaggressions perpetrated.

Practical implications

Individuals within the LGBTIQ+ community also perpetrate microaggressions against LGBTIQ+ people, including individuals with the same sexual orientation and gender identity as the victim. Those seeking to respond to microaggressions need to attune their attention to this source of anti-social behaviour.

Originality/value

Previous research has focused on microaggressions and hate crimes perpetrated by non-LGBTIQ+ individuals. This research indicates the existence of microaggressions perpetrated by LGBTIQ+ community members against other LGBTIQ+ persons. The theoretical taxonomy of sexual orientation and transgender microaggressions is expanded to address LGBTIQ+ perpetrated anti-social behaviour.

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Safer Communities, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Jacqueline Darvin

There is more to culturally responsive teaching than selecting multicultural texts and designing inclusive lesson. This paper aims to support teachers in becoming more…

Abstract

Purpose

There is more to culturally responsive teaching than selecting multicultural texts and designing inclusive lesson. This paper aims to support teachers in becoming more culturally responsive by guiding them in how to recognize and respond to microaggressions in their daily interactions with students, colleagues, and parents.

Design/methodology/approach

Microaggressions have been defined as “brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color”.

Findings

When classroom interactions contain microaggressions, students are damaged in both seen and unseen ways. Interactions between teachers, students and parents afford powerful occasions to analyze classroom communication and provide windows into the nature of student–student, student–teacher and teacher–parent relationships.

Practical implications

Regardless of where, when, why or how they occur, these interactions provide brief opportunities for culturally responsive teachers to demonstrate that they respect their students’ home and community cultures, accept who their students are and honor the education that they receive both inside and outside of school.

Social implications

Becoming more adept at recognizing and addressing microaggressions is one way that teachers can become more culturally responsive. For students, being able to identify and respond more effectively to microaggressions creates greater opportunities for all students to think critically and engage in social action.

Originality/value

This paper presents an original viewpoint on identifying and reducing microaggressions in classrooms and school communities.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Eveldora Wheeler

Microaggressions have gained heightened attention in academic milieus (Solórzano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000). Originally Pierce (1995) defined microaggressions as “subtle…

Abstract

Microaggressions have gained heightened attention in academic milieus (Solórzano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000). Originally Pierce (1995) defined microaggressions as “subtle, stunning, and unconscious put-downs of those in inferior status” by a collection of individuals in power (p. 313). Sue (2010) suggests that specific interactions involving race, gender, disability, sexual orientation, religion, class, etc. can be susceptible to a potential racial microaggression.

This chapter will begin with a summary of the rewards and challenges of my doctoral journey. I will share highlighted perspectives from a faculty socio-cultural phenomena perspective. Next, the chapter will explore the phenomenon of monochromatic microaggressions (MM) through the lens of my initial experiences as a new and unknown tenure track Assistant Professor and African American (AA) female.

An additional motif presented in this narrative is a discourse on silent forms of microaggressions and monochromatic microaggressions, both in and out of the classroom (Hendrix, 2007). Monochromatic microaggressions represents hostilities from two distinct, yet combined, groups of individuals at the same time. The term connotes concerted and combined microaggressions and MM associated with the dominant group and horizontal violence perpetuated with oppressed groups. Both groups, identifying from different plateaus, elicit a duality of enmities (e.g., one from underprivilege and the other from privilege).

The intention of this narrative is to write a new future, provide mentoring to those that may be vulnerable to similar experiences and to encourage resilience and broad networking. This chapter presents a personal, transparent, inspirational, but heartfelt narrative.

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Diversity and Triumphs of Navigating the Terrain of Academe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-608-3

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

William A. Smith, Rodalyn David and Glory S. Stanton

African American males experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial…

Abstract

African American males experience acute or chronic stress from discriminatory treatment and racial microaggressions, decreasing their biopsychosocial health. Racial microaggressions include but are not limited to merciless and mundane exclusionary messages, being treated as less than fully human, and civil and human rights violations. Racial microaggressions are key to understanding increases in racial battle fatigue (Smith, 2004) resulting from the psychological and physiological stress that racially marginalized individuals/groups experience in response to specific race-related interactions between them and the surrounding dominant environment. Race-related stress taxes and exceeds available resilient coping resources for people of color, while many whites easily build sociocultural and economic environments and resources that shield them from race-based stress and threats to their racial entitlements.

What is at stake, here, is the quest for equilibrium versus disequilibrium in a society that marginalizes human beings into substandard racial groups. Identifying and counteracting the biopsychosocial and behavioral consequences of actual or perceived racism, gendered racism, and racial battle fatigue is a premier challenge of the twenty-first century. The term “racial microaggressions” was introduced in the 1970s to help psychiatrists and psychologists understand the enormity and complications of the subtle but constant racial blows faced by African Americans. Today, racial microaggressions continue to contribute to the negative experiences of African American boys and men in schools, at work, and in society. This chapter will focus on the definition, identification, and long-term effects of racial microaggressions and the resultant racial battle fatigue in anti-black misandric environments.

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The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Aimee Sinclair

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the sanist microaggressions that peer workers face working in mental health and proposes ways in which peer workers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the sanist microaggressions that peer workers face working in mental health and proposes ways in which peer workers and institutions may begin to challenge sanist practices within the sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is written as a personal narrative. It explores a “moment” in the life of the author as a peer support worker.

Findings

Peer workers are often faced with sanist microaggressions on the job which can significantly affect peer workers’ capacity over time. Sharing our stories, identifying points of resistance and working collectively to challenge microaggressions are important to peer worker survival within the mental health system. Organisations that train or employ peer workers should be aware of sanist microaggressions and learn how to strategically respond to them.

Originality/value

The paper documents the experiences of the author. There is limited academic literature documenting peer worker experience of microaggressions.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Book part
Publication date: 30 May 2019

Ann E. Lopez

Demographic shifts and increasing diversity have increased calls for more Black women in higher education teaching and leadership in Canada. This chapter examines how I…

Abstract

Demographic shifts and increasing diversity have increased calls for more Black women in higher education teaching and leadership in Canada. This chapter examines how I navigate my practical and theoretical journey in academe through my ontological experiences as a Black female immigrant in large university in Southern Ontario Canada. Drawing on critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical frame, I explore and theorize my resistance to racial microaggressions through what I describe as “navigational moves.” These “navigational moves” include decolonizing education, spirituality, self-care, and developing a supportive network. These “navigational moves” are grounded in my history and experiences. The chapter explores notions of resistance, empowerment, and sustenance as important factors in challenging racial microaggressions in academe.

Details

Diversity and Triumphs of Navigating the Terrain of Academe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-608-3

Keywords

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