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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2012

Sukanlaya Sawang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of an inverted U‐shaped relationship between job demands and work engagement, and whether social support moderates…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibility of an inverted U‐shaped relationship between job demands and work engagement, and whether social support moderates this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses 307 technical and information technology (IT) managers who responded to an online survey. Multiple regressions are employed to examine linear and curvilinear relationship among variables.

Findings

Overall, results support the applicability of the quadratic effect of job demands on employee engagement. However, only supervisor support, not colleague support, moderated the relationship between job demands and work engagement.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to shed light on the quadratic effect of job demands on work engagement. The findings have noteworthy implications for managers to design optimal job demands that increase employee engagement.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2022

Leila Afshari, Aamir Hayat, K.K. Ramachandran, Timothy Bartram and Bamini K.P.D. Balakrishnan

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of accelerated job demands on employee outcomes during the COVID-19 crisis. An integrated model was developed to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of accelerated job demands on employee outcomes during the COVID-19 crisis. An integrated model was developed to explore the relationships between different types of job demands (learning, decision-making, work intensification), employee turnover intention (TI) and burnout (BU).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from professionals whose work conditions were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. An online survey was distributed anonymously. A total of 566 questionnaires were included in the analysis. Structural equation modeling was employed to analyze the data.

Findings

The findings revealed that employees' perception of job demands impacts the significance and direction of the relationships between different forms of job demands and employee outcomes. Furthermore, the findings confirm that mediating role of perceived organizational support alleviates the adverse effects of job demands on employee outcomes. Finally, the present study supported the moderation effect of positive affectivity between work intensification and employee BU.

Practical implications

This study provides employers with insights about supporting employees to cope with increased job demands in conditions where rapid changes are inevitable.

Originality/value

The unique context of research (COVID-19) enabled this study to account for the acceleration of job demands that employees experience in rapidly changing situations. This study employed an instrument that allowed for the assessment of acceleration in job demands. Furthermore, the granular approach of the measurement model extended the perspectives of job demands and work intensification.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2021

Chet E. Barney, Brent B. Clark and Serge P. da Motta Veiga

The main purpose of this study was to examine which job resources are most valuable for research productivity, depending on varying teaching demands.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study was to examine which job resources are most valuable for research productivity, depending on varying teaching demands.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from 324 management faculty at research, balanced and teaching (i.e. respectively low-, moderate- and high-teaching demands) public universities in the United States.

Findings

Results showed that no single job resource predicted research productivity across all three types of schools. At research schools (i.e. low-teaching demands), productivity was positively associated with job resources including summer compensation, level of protection for untenured faculty and number of research assistant hours, while negatively associated with travel funding. At balanced schools (i.e. moderate-teaching demands), research output was positively associated with time allocated to research, grant money, travel funding and conference attendance, while negatively associated with amount of consulting hours. At teaching schools (i.e. high-teaching demands), the only significant resource was time allocated to research.

Practical implications

This paper can help management faculty and business school leaders understand what resources are most appropriate given the teaching demands associated with the specific institution, and by further helping these institutions attract and retain the best possible faculty.

Originality/value

This study extends prior work on academic research performance by identifying resources that can help faculty publish given different levels of teaching demands. This is important as teaching demands tend to be relatively stable within an institution, while they can vary greatly across types of institutions.

Details

Career Development International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Ying-Lien Lin and Wei-Tsong Wang

This study explores how the relationship between supervisor's proactivity, job demands and job outcomes is based on dyadic interpersonal interaction based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores how the relationship between supervisor's proactivity, job demands and job outcomes is based on dyadic interpersonal interaction based on the literature of the job demands-resources model and conservation of resources theory.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, valid data from 272 participants (241 information technology subordinates and 31 project managers) in professional service firms are used in measurement and structural analyses based on a cross-level research framework. Additionally, the hierarchical linear modeling technique and a cross-sectional dataset were used to evaluate the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results reveal that supervisor proactivity is a critical resource during the execution of professional service projects and is significantly related to perceptions of job demands on the part of subordinates while positively moderating the relationship between job demands and job satisfaction and job demands organizational commitment.

Originality/value

The answer to the question as to whether extensive use of job resources (i.e. supervisor proactivity) in service projects is beneficial and inconclusive in the current information technology (IT) industry literature. Currently, the IT industry continues to experience rapid growth and is a dynamic sector in the global economy that results in increased demands on supervisors because of the specific characteristics of their positions. Consequently, it is necessary further to examine both the direct and moderating effects of resource crossover driven by supervisor proactivity on subordinate behavior, including job demands, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Although proactivity is a relatively mature concept, some issues related to the negative effects of proactivity on factors, such as job demands, technostress and addiction, need to be further addressed. However, studies specifically focus on investigating this issue are missing from the literature. The findings of this paper thus address these research gaps by validating the direct and moderating relationships of such factors using the proposed cross-level research model.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2013

Anja Van den Broeck, Joris Van Ruysseveldt, Els Vanbelle and Hans De Witte

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset…

Abstract

Several job characteristics have been suggested to influence workers’ well-being. For example, Herzberg (1968) differentiated job characteristics that offset dissatisfaction such as social relations from job aspects that foster job satisfaction such as opportunities for advancement. While Hackman and Oldham (1976) focused on the motivational potential of job characteristics such as task identity and feedback, Karasek (1979) accentuated time pressure as a pivotal job demand. Together these models point out that various job characteristics may influence workers’ functioning.

Details

Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-000-1

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Cristina Rubino, Christa L. Wilkin and Ari Malka

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely…

Abstract

Recent years have seen an explosion in the study of emotions in organizations, and although emotions play a central role in the job stress process, their role is largely neglected in empirical stressor–strain studies. Our chapter aims to build consensus in the literature by showing that discrete emotions provide a mechanism through which stressors exert their impact on well-being. By examining a larger domain of stressors, emotions, and well-being, we begin to develop and expand upon the nomological network of emotions. In an effort to build on the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, which includes both job demands (i.e., negative stimuli such as time pressure) and resources (i.e., positive stimuli such as autonomy), we include both negative and positive discrete emotions with the expectation that negative emotions will generally be linked to demands and positive emotions will be linked to resources. We also propose that there may be circumstances where demands trigger negative discrete emotions and lead to greater experienced strain, and conversely, where resources arouse positive discrete emotions, which would positively affect well-being. The model in our chapter sheds light on how discrete emotions have different antecedents (i.e., job demands and resources) and outcomes (e.g., satisfaction, burnout, performance), and as such, respond to calls for research on this topic. Our findings will be of particular interest to organizations where employees can be trained to manage their emotions to reduce the strain associated with job stressors.

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The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-586-9

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Toon W. Taris and Michiel A.J. Kompier

This chapter examines employee learning behavior as a function of work characteristics. Karasek’s Demand-Control (DC) model proposes that high job demands and high job

Abstract

This chapter examines employee learning behavior as a function of work characteristics. Karasek’s Demand-Control (DC) model proposes that high job demands and high job control are conducive to employee learning behavior. A review of 18 studies revealed that whereas most of these supported these predictions, methodological and conceptual shortcomings necessitate further study. Perhaps the most important weakness of the DC-based research on learning is that the conceptual foundations of the DC model regarding employee learning behavior are quite rudimentary, while the role of interpersonal differences in the learning process is largely neglected. The second part of this chapter explores the relationship between work characteristics and learning behavior from the perspective of German Action Theory (AT). AT explicitly discusses how work characteristics affect learning behavior and assigns a role to interpersonal differences. We conclude by presenting a model that integrates action-theoretical insights on learning with DC-based empirical results.

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Exploring Interpersonal Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-153-8

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Annika Krick, Jörg Felfe and Sarah Pischel

Drawing upon the job-demands resources and the job demands-control-support model, the authors examined the buffering effect of health-oriented leadership (HoL) in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon the job-demands resources and the job demands-control-support model, the authors examined the buffering effect of health-oriented leadership (HoL) in terms of staff care on the relationship between job demands and employee health and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional data from two studies (N1 = 314 and N2 = 260) were analyzed using moderation analyses.

Findings

Study 1 showed that staff care mitigates the effect of job demands on strain and health complaints. Study 2 found that staff care also buffered the effect of job demands on general health and job satisfaction.

Practical implications

Particularly under high job demands, staff care is an important resource for employees' health and satisfaction. Organizations should promote leaders' staff care.

Originality/value

Findings provide further evidence for the beneficial role of leaders in terms of HoL.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 17 March 2010

Jason Kain and Steve Jex

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key…

Abstract

Karasek's (1979) job demands-control model is one of the most widely studied models of occupational stress (de Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). The key idea behind the job demands-control model is that control buffers the impact of job demands on strain and can help enhance employees’ job satisfaction with the opportunity to engage in challenging tasks and learn new skills (Karasek, 1979). Most research on the job demands-control has been inconsistent (de Lange et al., 2003; Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999), and the main reasons cited for this inconsistency are that different variables have been used to measure demands, control, and strain, not enough longitudinal research has been done, and the model does not take workers’ individual characteristics into account (Van Der Deof & Maes, 1999). To address these concerns, expansions have been made on the model such as integrating resources, self-efficacy, active coping, and social support into the model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001b; Johnson & Hall, 1988; Demerouti, Bakker, de Jonge, Janssen, & Schaufeli, 2001a; Landsbergis, Schnall, Deitz, Friedman, & Pickering, 1992). However, researchers have only been partially successful, and therefore, to continue reducing inconstencies, we recommend using longitudinal designs, both objective and subjective measures, a higher sample size, and a careful consideration of the types of demands and control that best match each other theoretically.

Details

New Developments in Theoretical and Conceptual Approaches to Job Stress
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-713-4

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Lourdes Gastearena-Balda, Andrea Ollo-López and Martín Larraza-Kintana

This paper aims to compare job satisfaction in public and private sectors and the mediating role of several job demands and resources on the relationship between the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to compare job satisfaction in public and private sectors and the mediating role of several job demands and resources on the relationship between the employment sector and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the job demands-resources model, this study argued that differences in job satisfaction were explained largely by the job characteristics provided in each sector. Data comes from the quality of working life survey, a representative sample of 6,024 Spanish public and private employees.

Findings

This study revealed that public employees were more satisfied than private ones. This relationship was partially mediated by job demands and job resources, meaning that the public and private employment sectors provided different working conditions. Public employees, in general, had fewer demands and more job resources than private ones, which resulted in different levels of job satisfaction. Additionally, partial mediation indicated that public employees are more satisfied than private ones, despite accounting for several job demands and job resources.

Research limitations/implications

While the findings of this study highlighted the relative importance of job demands and job resources in affecting job satisfaction of public and private employees, the generalizability of the results to other countries should be limited as the study only used data from a single country.

Practical implications

A significant portion of the positive effect on job satisfaction of public employees is channeled through the lower levels of routine work and lower number of required working hours and through better job resources such as higher salary, more telework, greater prospects at work and more training utility. To improve job satisfaction, it is apparent that managers should pay special attention to things such as routine work, working hours, training and telework.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the comprehension of how several job demands and resources simultaneously play a mediating role in explaining the relationship between the employment sector and job satisfaction.

Objetivo

Este artículo compara la satisfacción laboral en los sectores público y privado y el papel mediador de varias demandas y recursos laborales en la relación entre el sector laboral y la satisfacción laboral.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Basándonos en el modelo Demandas del Trabajo-Recursos (JD-R), argumentamos que las diferencias en la satisfacción laboral se explican en gran medida por las características del trabajo que se ofrece en cada sector. Los datos proceden de la Encuesta de Calidad de Vida Laboral (ECVT), una muestra representativa de 6.024 empleados públicos y privados españoles.

Conclusiones

El estudio reveló que los empleados públicos estaban más satisfechos que los privados. Esta relación estaba parcialmente mediada por las exigencias del trabajo y los recursos laborales, lo que significa que los sectores de empleo público y privado ofrecían condiciones de trabajo diferentes. Los empleados públicos, en general, tenían menos exigencias y más recursos laborales que los privados, lo que dio lugar a diferentes niveles de satisfacción laboral. Además, la mediación parcial indicó que los empleados públicos están más satisfechos que los privados, a pesar de tener en cuenta varias demandas y recursos laborales.

Limitaciones e implicaciones de la investigación

Si bien los resultados de este estudio ponen de manifiesto la importancia relativa de las exigencias y los recursos del puesto de trabajo a la hora de afectar a la satisfacción laboral de los empleados públicos y privados, la generalización de los resultados a otros países debería ser limitada, ya que el estudio sólo utilizó datos de un único país.

Implicaciones prácticas

Una parte importante del efecto positivo sobre la satisfacción laboral de los empleados públicos se canaliza a través de los niveles más bajos de trabajo rutinario y el menor número de horas de trabajo exigidas y a través de mejores recursos laborales como un salario más alto, más teletrabajo, mayores perspectivas en el trabajo y más utilidad de la formación. Para mejorar la satisfacción laboral, es evidente que los directivos deben prestar especial atención a aspectos como el trabajo rutinario, el horario laboral, la formación y el teletrabajo.

Originalidad/valor

Este artículo contribuye a la comprensión de cómo varias exigencias y recursos del trabajo desempeñan simultáneamente un papel mediador en la explicación de la relación entre el sector del empleo y la satisfacción laboral.

Finalidade

Este artigo compara a satisfação profissional nos sectores público e privado e o papel mediador de várias exigências e recursos de emprego na relação entre o sector do emprego e a satisfação profissional.

Concepção/metodologia/abordagem

Com base no modelo Job Demands-Resources (JD-R), defendemos que as diferenças na satisfação no emprego eram em grande parte explicadas pelas características do emprego fornecidas em cada sector. Os dados provêm do Inquérito à Qualidade da Vida Profissional (QWLS), uma amostra representativa de 6.024 funcionários públicos e privados espanhóis.

Conclusões

O estudo revelou que os funcionários públicos estavam mais satisfeitos do que os privados. Esta relação foi parcialmente mediada por exigências e recursos de emprego, o que significa que os sectores público e privado de emprego proporcionavam condições de trabalho diferentes. Os funcionários públicos, em geral, tinham menos exigências e mais recursos de emprego do que os privados, o que resultou em diferentes níveis de satisfação no emprego. Além disso, a mediação parcial indicou que os funcionários públicos estão mais satisfeitos do que os privados, apesar de contabilizarem várias exigências de emprego e recursos laborais.

Limitações/implicações da investigação

Embora os resultados deste estudo tenham salientado a importância relativa das exigências e dos recursos do emprego para a satisfação dos trabalhadores públicos e privados, a generalização dos resultados para outros países deve ser limitada, uma vez que o estudo apenas utilizou dados de um único país.

Implicações práticas

Uma parte significativa do efeito positivo na satisfação profissional dos funcionários públicos é canalizada através dos níveis mais baixos de trabalho de rotina e do menor número de horas de trabalho necessárias e através de melhores recursos laborais, tais como salários mais elevados, mais teletrabalho, maiores perspectivas no trabalho, e mais utilidade na formação. Para melhorar a satisfação profissional, é evidente que os gestores devem prestar especial atenção a coisas como o trabalho de rotina, horas de trabalho, formação, e teletrabalho.

Originalidade/valor

Este artigo contribui para a compreensão de como várias exigências e recursos laborais desempenham simultaneamente um papel de mediação na explicação da relação entre o sector do emprego e a satisfação profissional.

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