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Article
Publication date: 14 April 2022

Hanen Khemakhem, Manel Maalej and Richard Fontaine

Prior research shows that a board of directors' gender diversity positively influences organizations. However, little is known about how and why gender diversity…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research shows that a board of directors' gender diversity positively influences organizations. However, little is known about how and why gender diversity influences the board of directors' functioning and decisions. The objective of this paper is to investigate the differences between women and men when fulfilling their role as directors.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses a qualitative approach based on 29 in-depth semi-structured interviews with female and male board members.

Findings

The authors’ findings reveal that women are as involved as men in the board tasks and responsibilities. Also, women have the same understanding as men of their role and of the skills needed to be board members. However, women fulfil their role differently than men. Women come to board meetings more prepared, take more notes and do more follow-up, and they also dare to ask tough questions to top management. Women directors bring a different point of view — representing different interests — to board discussions, have a different communication style, are not a part of the boys' club and have a social upbringing that might explain gender differences in the boardroom.

Research limitations/implications

This study could help boards and policymakers introduce diversity measures and provide ways to better integrate women into top decision-making groups such as board of directors.

Practical implications

This study's findings can help organizations include females in key decision-making groups such as board of directors.

Social implications

This study reveals that in the same social setting, with the same role and expectations, and the same understanding of their role, both genders continue to perform differently.

Originality/value

Based on direct evidence from board members, this study highlights how and why women do their role in the boardroom differently.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Marina Dabic, Tugrul Daim, Elvan Bayraktaroglu, Ivan Novak and Maja Basic

The purpose of this paper is to understand gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions as measured by perceived feasibility and perceived desirability, and to explore…

2956

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand gender differences in entrepreneurial intentions as measured by perceived feasibility and perceived desirability, and to explore gender differences in perceptions of entrepreneurship education needs – in terms of programmes, activities or projects – to succeed in an entrepreneurial career from the university student's point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data gathered from 3,420 university students in more than ten countries, and applying the Mann‐Whitney non‐parametric test, differences between genders and different intention groups were examined. To reduce the items regarding educational needs, factor analysis was used. Gender differences in educational needs were also examined via Mann‐Whitney Test.

Findings

The results confirm that compared to males, female students are less willing to start their own businesses. There are significant gender differences in terms of perceived feasibility and perceived desirability such that although they feel more supported by their families, females are less self‐confident, more tense, reluctant and concerned about entrepreneurship. In terms of entrepreneurial intention, there are fewer gender differences among students; however, differences relating to self‐confidence and family support still exist. Furthermore, students cited establishing entrepreneurial mentoring and an appropriate tutoring structure as the most needed entrepreneurial educational activity/program/project at an academic institution; this was rated higher by females compared to males.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper could help guide educators and policy makers in designing effective entrepreneurship programmes that are customized to respond to gender specific needs to increase entrepreneurial participation.

Originality/value

This study reveals the gender differences in perceived desirability and perceived feasibility which impact entrepreneurial intentions. Gender differences in the entrepreneurial programmes/activities/projects required at an academic institution to promote entrepreneurial participation among university students is also explored.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Robert Loo

Re‐analyses of data from Canadian samples of management undergraduates in three independent studies of ethical dilemmas, as presented in vignettes, were conducted to test…

3932

Abstract

Re‐analyses of data from Canadian samples of management undergraduates in three independent studies of ethical dilemmas, as presented in vignettes, were conducted to test the hypothesis that women are more ethical than men. Several statistically significant gender differences were found when t‐tests for mean differences were used; however, the effect sizes were all small as measured by Cohen’s d. Three existing frameworks were used to explain these gender differences: gender socialization, underlying ethical frameworks, and situational specificity. When the Bonferroni adjustment was applied to control for Type I error rate, only three of the 76 t‐tests for gender differences across the three studies were significant. It is suggested that these findings of very few gender differences in ethical beliefs, when conservative statistical tests are used, reflect the effects of changing gender socialization and sex roles in contemporary Canadian society among other factors that de‐emphasize gender differences

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2022

Clemens Striebing

Purpose: The study elaborates the contextual conditions of the academic workplace in which gender, age, and nationality considerably influence the likelihood of…

Abstract

Purpose: The study elaborates the contextual conditions of the academic workplace in which gender, age, and nationality considerably influence the likelihood of self-categorization as being affected by workplace bullying. Furthermore, the intersectionality of these sociodemographic characteristics is examined.

Basic Design: The hypotheses underlying the study were mainly derived from the social role, social identity, and cultural distance theory, as well as from role congruity and relative deprivation theory. A survey data set of a large German research organization, the Max Planck Society, was used. A total of 3,272 cases of researchers and 2,995 cases of non-scientific employees were included in the analyses performed. For both groups of employees, binary logistic regression equations were constructed. the outcome of each equation is the estimated percentage of individuals who reported themselves as having experienced bullying at work occasionally or more frequently in the 12 months prior to the survey. The predictors are the demographic and organization-specific characteristics (hierarchical position, scientific field, administrative unit) of the respondents and selected interaction terms. Using regression equations, hypothetically relevant conditional marginal means and differences in regression parameters were calculated and compared by means of t-tests.

Results: In particular, the gender-related hypotheses of the study could be completely or conditionally verified. Accordingly, female scientific and non-scientific employees showed a higher bullying vulnerability in (almost) all contexts of the academic workplace. An increased bullying vulnerability was also found for foreign researchers. However, the patterns found here contradicted those that were hypothesized. Concerning the effect of age analyzed for non-scientific personnel, especially the age group 45–59 years showed a higher bullying probability, with the gender gap in bullying vulnerability being greatest for the youngest and oldest age groups in the sample.

Interpre4tation and Relevance: The results of the study especially support the social identity theory regarding gender. In the sample studied, women in minority positions have a higher vulnerability to bullying in their work fields, which is not the case for men. However, the influence of nationality on bullying vulnerability is more complex. The study points to the further development of cultural distance theory, whose hypotheses are only partly able to explain the results. The evidence for social role theory is primarily seen in the interaction of gender with age and hierarchical level. Accordingly, female early career researchers and young women (and women in the oldest age group) on the non-scientific staff presumably experience a masculine workplace. Thus, the results of the study contradict the role congruity theory.

Details

Diversity and Discrimination in Research Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-959-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2015

Jyoti Rai and Jean Kimmel

Do women exhibit greater financial risk aversion than men? We answer this question using attitudinal and behavioral specifications of risk aversion drawn from the 2010…

Abstract

Do women exhibit greater financial risk aversion than men? We answer this question using attitudinal and behavioral specifications of risk aversion drawn from the 2010 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). To approximate attitudinal specification of risk aversion, we use individuals’ self-reported financial risk tolerance. We use individuals’ relative risk aversion, that is, the effect of wealth on the proportion of assets categorized as risky as behavioral specification of risk aversion. We find that while women display greater attitudinal risk aversion, gender difference in behavioral risk aversion depends upon individuals’ marital status and role in household finances. Single women exhibit greater behavioral risk aversion compared to single men. However, this gender difference does not exist when we compare behavioral risk aversion of married women and men in charge of household finances.

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2022

Abdul Jabbar and Nosheen Fatima Warraich

Providing equal opportunities in class as well as at home does not ensure equal promotion of leisure reading among girls and boys. Gender differences have wider impacts on…

Abstract

Purpose

Providing equal opportunities in class as well as at home does not ensure equal promotion of leisure reading among girls and boys. Gender differences have wider impacts on their reading development. The purpose of this paper is to find out gender differences in leisure reading habits among children.

Design/methodology/approach

The search process was conducted during Aug.–Sept. 2019 using Scopus database. A total of 41 studies were selected for the review. The systematic review used Cochrane Methodologies reported as per preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines for identification, evaluation and selection of studies. The studies that dealt with leisure reading, reported gender difference of reading, had age group of 4–18-year children, were in English language and were accessible to the researchers were selected for review.

Findings

The results were presented in terms of identified reading factors including reading frequency, reading choice, reading time, reading media, reading influence, reading value and library use. The girls were more frequent readers than boys. The girls were in favor of fiction, while boys were interested in reading nonfiction. Girls preferred online materials but boys were in favor of printed materials. The boys were influenced by their fathers and peer groups’ reading, while girls were influenced by their mothers’ reading habits.

Research limitations/implications

The study provided better understanding of boys’ and girls’ reading differences and required the librarians, teachers and academic policymakers to deal with them accordingly.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first kind of systematic review reporting difference of reading on the basis of gender and inferred reading factors. It will be helpful for librarians, teachers and academic policymakers to consider these differences while dealing with boys’ and girls’ reading choices and interests.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Shoshana Neuman

Examines gender and ethnic occupational segregation in Israel, focusing on the interaction between gender and ethnicity. Uses data from the 1983 and 1961 Population and…

Abstract

Examines gender and ethnic occupational segregation in Israel, focusing on the interaction between gender and ethnicity. Uses data from the 1983 and 1961 Population and Housing Census, and two different indices to examine three issues: ethnic versus gender segregation; gender differences in ethnic occupational segregation; and ethnicity differences in gender occupational segregation. Finds that gender segregation is much higher than ethnic segregation; that, overall, women are not more ethnically segregated than men, and that there are ethnic differences in the overall gender dissimilarity indices. Focusing on the sex composition effect, finds that there is no difference in gender segregation within various ethnic groups. Suggests that only in the kibbutz are Eastern women more sexually segregated than Western women. Also investigates and presents long‐term trends between 1961 and 1983 and comparisons with the US. Explores the linkage between educational dispersion and occupational dispersion to explain the study findings. Concludes that educational disparities are responsible for differences in ethnic occupational segregation but not in gender occupational segregation. Offers demand‐side explanations.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 19 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Susan M. Fredricks, Elspeth Tilley and Daniela Pauknerová

The literature is divided upon whether a gender difference occurs with respect to ethical decisions. Notable researchers Tannen and Gilligan demonstrated gender difference

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Abstract

Purpose

The literature is divided upon whether a gender difference occurs with respect to ethical decisions. Notable researchers Tannen and Gilligan demonstrated gender difference while subsequent researchers indicate that gender differences are becoming more neutralized. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes the gender demographic and intercultural influences on ethical decision-making by undergraduate students from New Zealand and the USA through four scenarios.

Findings

Overall for the USA and New Zealand, this research demonstrates this split as well, since two scenarios showed significance while two did not. The two that demonstrated a significance dealt with personnel issues and a past client relationship. These two scenarios suggested that a relationship orientation and relativistic nature among women may influence their decision making. The two scenarios without significance were less relationship oriented, involving dealing with a customer (a stranger) and a subordinate (implying a professional supervisory responsibility). In addition, the neutrality exhibited in the latter two scenarios may reflect Tannen's illustration that there is a cross-gender influence on decision making. With respect to the geographic location, the USA, when compared with New Zealand, and the gender demographics, only the USA reported significant differences for two scenarios.

Originality/value

Undergraduate students in the USA provided situations and discussions that resulted in the development of a number of scenarios. Additional research and evaluation of current events, led to a total of ten scenarios with four scenarios yielding business related situations.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Enav Friedmann and Oded Lowengart

This paper aims to address the role of product involvement in the brand preference formation of men and women. Product involvement can be defined as a consumer’s…

1590

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the role of product involvement in the brand preference formation of men and women. Product involvement can be defined as a consumer’s motivation for product purchase that affects their information processing strategies when forming a brand preference (e.g. more automatic at low levels vs more deliberative at high levels). Given that gender differences are found to be context-dependent, it was expected that, when forming a single brand preference, men would emphasize instrumental aspects (functional and socially conspicuous utilities) and women the experiential utility of the brand only with high-involvement-level products.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive survey (n = 459) using structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was used following an online experiment where involvement level was manipulated (n = 255) to validate the results.

Findings

Stereotypical gender differences appeared at high, but not low-involvement levels. Theoretically, these findings question the evolutionary basis of gender differences, as differences were not consistent at both levels.

Practical implications

The findings raise questions about the efficacy of segmenting by gender when aiming to increase brand preference of low-involvement products, whereas stereotypical targeting seem to be effective for increasing preference for high-involvement ones.

Originality/value

For the first time, the role of product involvement and gender was examined in brand preference formation. This can theoretically clarify whether gender differences are consistent or dependent on the level of involvement. This information can help in designing efficient marketing strategies for products with different involvement levels.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

James W. Grosch, Karen G. Duffy and Paul V. Olczak

Although ethnicity and gender play a significant role in many types of social interaction, little research exists on their importance in mediation. An analysis of…

Abstract

Although ethnicity and gender play a significant role in many types of social interaction, little research exists on their importance in mediation. An analysis of community mediation cases (N = 27,852) from New York state demonstrated that, consistent with predictions from criminal justice research, Whites were underrepresented in mediation relative to Blacks and Hispanics, and that females were more likely to participate in mediation as claimants than men. Both ethnicity and gender were related to the type of dispute, degree of violence, intimacy between disputants, source of referral, and mediation outcome. Additional analysis, taking into account source of referral, education, and income level of the claimant, did not fully account for the observed ethnic or gender differences. Results are discussed in terms of reasons why ethnic and gender differences exist in mediation, limitations of demographic data, and areas for future research.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

1 – 10 of over 69000