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Introduction: The world has become a global village with the development of globalization, technology, transportation opportunities, and socioeconomic living conditions…
Introduction: The world has become a global village with the development of globalization, technology, transportation opportunities, and socioeconomic living conditions. Multinational, multicultural businesses have been formed with the effect of globalization. Tourism activities have also gained a global dynamic. People from different cultures travel to different geographies for different purposes, and this highlights the need for managers and employees of tourism businesses to adapt to people from different cultures and multicultural environments.
Aim: In order to achieve success in intercultural communication, it is necessary to work with employees with a high level of intercultural sensitivity. Respect for different cultures without prejudices is very important in hotel businesses to provide quality service. For this reason, the high level of intercultural sensitivity of the employees in tourism businesses, which have a multicultural structure both with their customers and managers, will significantly affect their competitiveness in the sector. The aim of this study is to examine the intercultural sensitivity level of department managers working in hotel businesses according to some demographic features.
Method: The data collected via a survey were analyzed with statistical software. Frequency, percentage, etc., descriptive analysis and difference tests were performed.
Result: Intercultural sensitivity levels of hotel managers were examined according to some demographic characteristics. It was revealed that intercultural sensitivity levels of the managers working in hotel enterprises who participated in the research were far from ethnocentrism.
Implication: In the research, it was found that those who received tourism education respected intercultural differences more than those who did not receive any tourism education, and that they were affected by intercultural interaction more than those who did not receive any tourism education. For those working in the tourism sector, the recruitment of qualified personnel who received tourism education is important in order to achieve intercultural communication.
Originality of Study: The research was conducted on the department managers working in 4 and 5-star hotel enterprises in Marmaris and Bodrum districts of Muğla Province. There are a very limited number of studies in terms of determining the intercultural levels of employees and managers in hotel enterprises and examining them according to demographic characteristics. The research achieved results supporting similar studies. It is deemed significant in terms of determining according to which variables the concept of intercultural sensitivity differ and achieving results that can be generalized. Furthermore, the results which emphasized the importance of intercultural communication in the recruitment of the employees who received tourism education within the sector were also obtained.
Intercultural awareness and skills are important competencies for hospitality and tourism management program graduates due to the internationalization of the tourism…
Intercultural awareness and skills are important competencies for hospitality and tourism management program graduates due to the internationalization of the tourism industry. Graduates will work with coworkers and serve customers from diverse cultural backgrounds. With the exponential growth of China’s tourism industry, an examination of intercultural awareness and skills education in China’s hospitality and tourism higher education is needed. This study employed a qualitative approach by interviewing 11 educators in Chinese mainland universities on their views of the current status of intercultural awareness education, their role in this learning process, and how their program offerings enhance students’ learning of cultural diversity. Implications for administrators and faculty members are discussed.
CISV (formerly Children’s International Summer Villages) is an international charity established in Cincinnati, USA, in 1950. It offers non-formal educational programmes…
CISV (formerly Children’s International Summer Villages) is an international charity established in Cincinnati, USA, in 1950. It offers non-formal educational programmes for children and young people from 11 years. In its intercultural programmes English is used as Lingua Franca while space and opportunities are created for participants to use their first languages. A primary aim of the organisation is to promote intercultural friendship and understanding. This chapter has dual aims. Firstly, it provides a review of the impact of intercultural learning in CISV and its unique multilingual practice on development of friendship and Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) among children and youth. Secondly, it investigates the methodological issues in evaluating the development and changes in ICC, specifically, the under-reported problem of ‘inflated’ perceptions with regard to self-assessment questionnaires.
Existing research evidence corroborates the positive and long-term impact of CISV experience on participants’ social development (including friendship), cultural awareness, challenges are also identified. For example, how can programme and activity organisers encourage equitable and active participation when participants’ language proficiency in the shared language is varied? How do we explain the regression in self-assessment of ICC? In this chapter, we compare three different ways of measuring changes and propose a purposely designed predictive and reflective questionnaire (PaRQ). Open questions (‘narrative spaces’) in these questionnaires provide the opportunity for participants to comment on their own perceptions of learning and friendship development.
CISV differs from many other intercultural education organisations in that it offers opportunity for relatively young children, promotes learning and development in a multicultural environment and adopts a language practice that combines English as Lingua Franca (ELF) and a multilingual outlook. Understanding its successes and areas for improvement provides some insight into friendship development in multilingual and intercultural settings.
This chapter evaluates the potential of virtual worlds for intercultural collaborative learning. A case study of a global lecture series is presented that used a virtual…
This chapter evaluates the potential of virtual worlds for intercultural collaborative learning. A case study of a global lecture series is presented that used a virtual world as a platform for intercultural student collaboration. Students' subjective reports served as a basis for exploring cross-cultural differences in the perceived usefulness of virtual worlds for intercultural collaboration, and to examine what they have learned from working in an intercultural virtual team, what problems occurred, and how they resolved them. Based on the evaluation results, suggestions are provided for a culture-aware design of virtual worlds to facilitate intercultural collaborative learning and the development of intercultural literacy.
This chapter is focused on the specification and integration of intercultural variables for human machine systems and the description of content analysis for these…
This chapter is focused on the specification and integration of intercultural variables for human machine systems and the description of content analysis for these variables. Starting with basics of culture-oriented design, these are followed by an approach to machine localization issues and a cost model, then basics of the intercultural design and human machine system engineering process, a definition and specification of intercultural variables, a systematic treatment for their integration into the process, and a description of how to use these variables in the process. Finally, an example of an intercultural variables approach to “information coding” in a human-machine system is presented for China and Germany.
Purpose –– This chapter shows the connection between the reality of intercultural communication training and its importance to the development of intercultural…
Purpose –– This chapter shows the connection between the reality of intercultural communication training and its importance to the development of intercultural communication competence, symbolised by the Rainbow Model of Intercultural Communication Competence.
Methodology/approach –– 405 useable questionnaires (response rate=19.4%) were used from 56 German MNEs in a convenience sample of companies in the high-tech industry that are suppliers for the automotive, aviation, optical and chemical industry.
Findings –– German MNCs provide traditional intercultural communication training sparingly to expatriates, but with adjustments depending on the target country. Only 41% of training recipients deemed the training helpful for their mission. Non-traditional training methods are administered more consistently.
Practical implications –– The Rainbow Model of Intercultural Communication Competence should guide the implementation of customised intercultural communication training efforts.
Social implications –– Assisting expatriates in their development of intercultural communication competence via intercultural communication training fulfils the social responsibility of multinational enterprises.
Originality/value of chapter –– This chapter provides guidance to human resource specialists in the international arena to design and implement customisable intercultural communication training programmes for expatriates.
This chapter provides insights into young peoples’ perceptions of intercultural relationships. Intercultural relationships consist of partners with different racial…
This chapter provides insights into young peoples’ perceptions of intercultural relationships. Intercultural relationships consist of partners with different racial, ethnic or religious backgrounds. Increasing migration rates, multicultural societies and supportive societal attitudes have created more opportunities for intercultural relationships to form. These factors have contributed to the growing rates of intercultural couples in Australia. It is important to note that some intercultural partners face social barriers that are less common among non-intercultural partners. Young people are of particular interest since intercultural relationship rates are higher in younger generations and education settings are becoming more multicultural. Nonetheless, the complexities of contemporary intercultural relationships and how they may render young people vulnerable has been often overlooked. This chapter is based on a case study that responds to an overarching question: How do young people perceive intercultural relationships? The study involved semi-structured interviews with eight participants between 20 and 26 years of age. The participants had diverse backgrounds and lived in Melbourne. The findings reveal perceptions of significance and acceptance of intercultural relationships. Also revealed are perceptions of social factors that perpetuate vulnerability relating to intercultural relationships in terms of stereotyping, racism and people’s reactions more generally.
As graduates in higher education engage with multiple constituencies from around the world, having cultural competency skills is valuable. Intercultural competence enables…
As graduates in higher education engage with multiple constituencies from around the world, having cultural competency skills is valuable. Intercultural competence enables people to initiate and sustain dialogues among their diverse colleagues and members of the globalized community. In this chapter, Barger examines the role of dialogue education in attaining intercultural competency in graduate courses. According to Vella, dialogue education values inquiry, integrity, and commitment to equity. People should treat others with respect and recognize their knowledge and experience within the community of learning. Dialogue education provides a safe and inclusive place for learners to voice their perspectives and opinions. This chapter utilizes a professor’s reflections with respect to teaching a graduate Intercultural Communication (IC) course in a private liberal-arts college. In the narrative, she discusses teaching and learning strategies to help adult learners understand the importance of intercultural competence and interactions in a multicultural and multilingual world. Barger also examines the integrative reflections of graduate students that took the IC course.
The main purpose of this paper is to test the effects of a classical intercultural simulation on participants' ability to modify their behavior in response to…
The main purpose of this paper is to test the effects of a classical intercultural simulation on participants' ability to modify their behavior in response to collectivistic and individualistic contexts. Moreover, the paper aims to examine moderating effects based on experiential learning and social identity theory.
The learning effects are evaluated through two separate quasi-experimental studies with 152 master students in business economics at a Danish university and 190 bachelor students in international business at a German university.
The analysis shows that intercultural simulations with artificial cultures significantly improve participants' ability to modify their behavior depending on cultural context. Participants who identify with an artificial culture that differs radically from their own take greater advantage of the simulation. The overall duration of international experience moderates participants' learning with a U-shaped effect. Culture-specific experience strengthens the positive effect of the simulation. The comparison of the two conducted studies indicates that previous cognitive teaching enhances learning.
The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of intercultural simulations that guide participants through all phases of the experiential learning cycle. Moreover, they underline the importance of assessing participants' cultural backgrounds before the assignment of training groups.
Prior research on intercultural simulations is often based on qualitative methods and mostly limited to affective outcomes, such as motivation and enjoyment of intercultural interactions. By contrast, this paper quantitatively tests to what extent intercultural simulations improve participants' ability to modify behavior depending on culture.