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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2022

Mohamed M. El-Dyasty and Ahmed A. Elamer

Many countries are enacting regulations or/and recommendations to promote gender equality in the workplace, especially in the top leadership and management positions…

Abstract

Purpose

Many countries are enacting regulations or/and recommendations to promote gender equality in the workplace, especially in the top leadership and management positions. However, despite current research on gender diversity and firm outcomes, the authors know comparatively little about how different female leadership roles drive such outcomes. This study explores this notion in an emerging market by examining the effect of female leadership on financial reporting quality in Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses multiple regression analyses for a sample of 1,686 firm-year observations listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange over the period 2011–2020.

Findings

This study’s results show that female directors, female executives and females on audit committees are positively associated with financial reporting quality. Further, the results suggest that executive female directors are less involved in income decreasing earnings management practices. The findings are robust to possible omitted variables bias, alternative measurements and endogeneity issues. Taken together, the results are in line with the view that gender diversity is an effective monitoring instrument, which attenuates agency conflict and thus upholds financial reporting quality.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may expand the analysis performed in this study by using other proxies of financial reporting quality (e.g. earnings persistence, earnings predictability, conservatism and restatements). Also, the authors did not investigate the characteristics related to female directors (e.g. education, experience and age) due to data availability. Future research may examine the effect of these characteristics on female directors regarding financial reporting quality.

Practical implications

The evidence about the importance of female leadership in shaping financial reporting quality may inform future policy and regulatory initiatives.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the growing literature related to gender diversity. First, this study extensively investigates the leadership aspects related to female directors in both mentoring and executive positions. Second, the evidence reached is based on three different proxies of financial reporting quality. Thus, unlike previous studies, conclusions were reached based on a solid basis to support the reliability of the results. These findings should be of great interest to policymakers, academics and stakeholders.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 October 2022

Hyondong Kim and Youngsang Kim

This study elaborates on the process through which gender-diverse boards of directors increase representation of females in management positions. This study draws on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study elaborates on the process through which gender-diverse boards of directors increase representation of females in management positions. This study draws on the gender spillover effect to examine whether gender diversity on boards of directors significantly influences the number of women promoted to managerial positions. The authors also employ implicit quota theory to examine the interaction effects of female board directors and their related strategies to target female customers as a source of female talent on the promotion numbers of female managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw from female manager panel data surveyed and gathered by the Korean Women Development Institute (KWDI), a Korean government-sponsored research institution, for the period 2008–2014. The total sample, comprising 5 biannual waves, includes 906 Korean companies across four wage rates. The authors apply zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses to examine the effects of gender diversity on board director positions and its interactions with strategies targeting female markets on the number of female managerial promotions.

Findings

The authors find that gender diversity on boards of directors is positively related to the number of female managers promoted. Furthermore, in corporations where gender is not relevant to firms' strategy and decision-making, broader gender diversity increases the number of female managers promoted at lower- but not higher-level positions.

Originality/value

The current study demonstrates the complex role of gender diversity in board director positions in initiating and promoting the career development of female managers. On the one hand, gender diversity in board director positions has spillover effects on women's representation in management positions. On the other hand, female board directors impede the career progress of senior female managers to maintain their status in quotas when the female market is not critical to firms' competitiveness. Therefore, it is crucial to integrate two different concepts about gender diversity—the gender spillover effect and implicit quota theory—that elaborate on the effects of gender diversity in board director positions on female manager promotion numbers.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2022

Chen Liu and Yan Wendy Wu

The authors investigate how a gender-diverse board, a gender-diverse executive team, or a female chief executive officer (CEO) impact bank balance sheet and equity risk.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigate how a gender-diverse board, a gender-diverse executive team, or a female chief executive officer (CEO) impact bank balance sheet and equity risk.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data of U.S. bank holding companies over the period of 1992–2019, the authors conduct panel regressions with bank and year-fixed effects to analyze how female directors, female executives, and female CEOs impact a wide range of bank risk measures, controlling for the bank, board and executive characteristics.

Findings

The authors find female directors significantly reduce all types of risk. Female executives reduce some balance sheet risk but have an insignificant effect on bank equity risk. However, the presence of female CEOs does not significantly reduce bank risk-taking. During financial crises, female CEOs even increase equity risk.

Social implications

The findings are important to shed light on the ongoing debate on how gender quota policy could be efficiently used to balance the need for gender diversity while ensuring corporate performance. It could also improve social welfare by guiding proper public policy to ensure the efficient use of social labor capital and curb banks' excessive risk-taking incentives.

Originality/value

The authors provide the first empirical evidence demonstrating that female directors and female executives in the banking industry have different impacts on bank risk-taking. The authors also provide the first empirical evidence that female leaders have a different impact on two different types of risks: balance sheet and equity risk. The study is also the first to analyze the impact of female executives over multiple financial crises.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2022

Moncef Guizani and Gaafar Abdalkrim

The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of board gender diversity (BGD) on working capital management (WCM) decision by scrutinizing different positions covered…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of board gender diversity (BGD) on working capital management (WCM) decision by scrutinizing different positions covered by female board directors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a panel data regression model with fixed effect estimations and the generalized method of moments (GMM) to determine the impact of BGD on WCM strategy. This study uses a panel data analysis for 277 non-financial firms listed on Bursa Malaysia over the period from 2011 to 2019.

Findings

The results of this study show that female directors fulfilling either monitoring or executive positions increase the investment in working capital (WC), suggesting a conservative WCM. Precisely, results from this study are consistent with the embedded risk aversion traits of female executives and, hence, preserve high level of investment in WC, which allows superior levels of liquidity to meet firms’ financial commitments. The results also show that Malaysia commitment to gender equality is a key moderator in the female directors – firm WCM relation. The authors find that when the level of gender equality is greater, female directors support firms in adopting aggressive WCM strategies.

Practical implications

This study’s findings provide insights for corporate decision-makers in helping them to determine the board’s design in term of roles and composition that enhances the efficiency of WC. The results also provide guidelines for policymakers and regulators to formulate strategies that support more female board representation. In this way, firms should appoint more female directors on their boards to ensure prudent WC decisions. Moreover, given that female directors are an important determinant of a firm’s WC policy, investors and various internal or external monitoring groups need to factor boardroom gender diversity into their investing, hiring and monitoring mechanisms.

Originality/value

While prior research has examined the effect of BGD on firm performance, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the effect of BGD on the WCM decision.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2012

Emmanuel Zenou, Isabelle Allemand and Bénédicte Brullebaut

Representation of women on boards is getting more and more attention these recent years (Hillman, Shropshire, & Cannella, 2007; Nielsen & Huse, 2010), all the more as…

Abstract

Representation of women on boards is getting more and more attention these recent years (Hillman, Shropshire, & Cannella, 2007; Nielsen & Huse, 2010), all the more as recent influence by the legislator accelerates the pace of change. Indeed, in France, a new law adopted in January 2011 stated that the proportion of female directors should not be lower than 40% in all major companies.

Most previous research focused on the impact of the presence of women in boards on performance, but there are few studies on female directors' networks. In order to help to better understand the ties at the origin of these networks, we study several characteristics and network ties of female directors of French companies belonging to the SBF 120 index and we compare them with male characteristics. We test the specificity of four types of board of directors' networks: attendance at the same elite educational institutions, use of business networks, civil servants' networks, and interlocking directorates.

Our findings suggest that female directors' networks tend to find their origin in business networks more than men. Conversely, male directors have more board interlocking and are more often graduated from elite schools than women. These results show that female directors' networks have specific origins in comparison with men's ones. The exploration of this specificity could be an asset to better understand the role and influence of female directors' networks in governance.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-752-9

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 August 2022

Chengyun Liu, Kun Su and Miaomiao Zhang

This study aims to examine whether and how gender diversity on corporate boards is associated with voluntary nonfinancial disclosures, particularly water disclosures.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether and how gender diversity on corporate boards is associated with voluntary nonfinancial disclosures, particularly water disclosures.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses corporate water information disclosure data from Chinese listed firms between 2010 and 2018 to conduct regression analyses to examine the association between female directors and water information disclosure.

Findings

Empirical results show that female directors have a significantly positive association with corporate water information disclosure. Additionally, internal industry water sensitivity of firms moderates this significant relationship.

Originality/value

This study determined that female directors can not only promote water disclosure but also positive corporate water performance, reflecting the consistency of words and deeds of female directors in voluntary nonfinancial disclosures.

Details

China Accounting and Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1029-807X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 November 2021

Qichun Wu, Fumitaka Furuoka and Shu Chui Lau

The importance of board composition, especially female directors’ presence on boards, is thought to influence corporate responsibility performance, has attracted…

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of board composition, especially female directors’ presence on boards, is thought to influence corporate responsibility performance, has attracted significant scholarly interest. This study aims to examine how board gender diversity (BGD) affects corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance and the moderating factors that influence the relationship. There is a lack of research on the moderating indicators (variable measurement, geographic location, data sets and gender parity score) that impact the BGD and CSR relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses content analysis and meta-analysis to combine the findings of 44 selected papers published from 2010 to 2019, comprehensively reviewing the academic literature on gender diversity in the board composition. Independent and dependent variables are classified based on the variable measurement; this study examines the moderator indicators, such as geographical location, research data sets and gender parity score to investigate the BGD and CSR relationship.

Findings

The findings indicated a significant positive relationship between BGD and CSR performance. The meta-method results showed that the measurements of BGD and CSR limited to impact on the relationship. But a significant moderating effect of the geographical location on the BGD-CSR relationship, the BGD-CSR relationship would be stronger in the firms located in North America than firms located in Asia and other areas. Empirical results also showed a significant moderating effect of gender parity score. There would be stronger BGD-CSR relations in the firms located in the countries with higher gender parity score than the firms located in the countries with low gender parity score. This means the female status is an essential indicator of moderating the BGD-CSR relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The main shortcoming is a lack of sufficient articles on the BGD-CSR relationship. In a future study, researchers may use other databases, such as Google scholar or Ebscohost, to increase the number of relevant articles. These studies would offer new insight into the meta-analysis of the relationship between the BGD and CSR. Finally, the authors identify the potential trend in future research, future research on BGD will need for standardized metrics. The Geographic location is an important indicator that will influence the female director role in CSR. A systematic measure and data of gender research are more important for study in this field.

Practical implications

Meta-analysis is conducted on the independent and dependent variables to examine the causality between BGD and CSR performance, which could better explore diversity among different countries’ boards and, more generally, to investigate the degree to which diversity may influence CSR. Firms may try to balance the BGD to improve future development prospects. Specifically, the results of this study have important implications for corporate governance and policymakers.

Social implications

First, this systematic study uses meta-analysis to combine the findings of previous research on the BGD-CSR. The current research attempts to incorporate mixed empirical results based on the different variable measurements. Second, this study develop and test a contingency model of female on boards and CSR that considers uses the geographic location factors that may enhance or diminish the influence of female on boards on CSR. Specifically, the authors examine whether and under what conditions, boards with more female directors differ for inter-country heterogeneity to which they engage in monitoring roles and are involved with strategy management.

Originality/value

First, this study could be the first systematic study that uses the meta-analysis to combine previous research findings on the BGD-CSR. Second, the current research attempts to incorporate mixed empirical results based on the different variable measurements. Third, this study uses the “gender parity score” to account for inter-country heterogeneity in the BGD-CSR relationship. This study also identifies the potential trend in future research.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 45 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Waqas Bin Khidmat, Muhammad Danish Habib, Sadia Awan and Kashif Raza

This study aims to examine the determinants of the female representations on Chinese listed firm’s boards. This study also investigates the effect of gender diversity on…

2724

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the determinants of the female representations on Chinese listed firm’s boards. This study also investigates the effect of gender diversity on corporate social responsibility activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The Tobit regression model is used because the data is censored and using ordinary least square regression can give spurious results. For robust check, the authors also used Heckman’s (1979) two-stage self-selection model to remove the sample self-selection bias.

Findings

The authors find that the female representations on the corporate board are positively associated with firm age, firm performance, corporate governance, family ownership, institutional ownership and managerial ownership while negatively related to firm size and state ownership. This study also incorporates predictors of the critical mass of women on the Chinese listed firm’s board. The study also tests the female-led hypothesis and concludes that the female representation increases in firms with female chief executive officer (CEO) or female chairpersons. The Chinese listed firms with gender-diverse board are socially responsible.

Research limitations/implications

The importance of diversity in corporate boards has been demonstrated in light of the agency theory and the resource dependence framework. The results contribute to the previous literature by documenting the determinants of female representations on board, robust by alternative measures of gender diversity, firm size, corporate governance and estimation techniques.

Practical implications

The economic significance of gender diversity stirred the firms to increase female representation. The policymakers can understand the reasons for female underrepresentation in Chinese boards and can reform the regulation to enhance governance quality, non-state ownership and risk aversion among the listed firms.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the key predictor of the world’s largest emerging economy, specifically the study focuses on the firm specific determinants, different governance attributes, ownership structure and firm risk measures. This study also seeks to answer if the presence of a female in the Chairperson or CEO position encourages the firms to hire more female directors or not?

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Asma Yousuf and Husam Aldamen

This study aims to bridge the gap in the scarce and inconclusive literature concerning the impact of gender diversity on earnings quality by positioning this relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to bridge the gap in the scarce and inconclusive literature concerning the impact of gender diversity on earnings quality by positioning this relationship within an institutional context. It aims to investigate the moderating effect of different cultural dimensions and accounting values on the relationship between board gender diversity and earnings quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an international sample from 46 countries (3,092 public firms) for the year 2017. A two-level hierarchical linear regression model is used to test the moderating effect of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and Gray’s accounting values on diversity and accruals quality relationship.

Findings

The findings suggest a positive relationship between board gender diversity and earnings quality. Results hold valid after controlling for endogeneity effect. More importantly, regarding national culture, results indicate that power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, professionalism, uniformity, secrecy and conservatism moderate the relationship between female directors and accruals quality. Furthermore, different levels of female representation are essential on boards of different societies to use the benefits of gender-diversified boards in enhancing earnings quality.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides empirical evidence on the effectiveness of various worldwide movements toward increasing board gender diversity. Additionally, the results speak directly to gender quota regulatory bodies suggesting that “no size fits all” for gender quota requirement.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the stream of literature concerning gender diversity and earnings quality by investigating this relationship through the lens of national culture and emphasizing the importance of considering institutional factors in examining social interactions.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Moncef Guizani and Ahdi Noomen Ajmi

This study aims to explore the role of board gender diversity in mitigating chief executive officer (CEO) luck. CEOs are “lucky” when they receive stock option grants on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the role of board gender diversity in mitigating chief executive officer (CEO) luck. CEOs are “lucky” when they receive stock option grants on days when the stock price is the lowest in the month of the grant, implying opportunistic timing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a logistic regression analysis and an instrumental-variable analysis. The sample consists of 3,249 firm-year observations from 2010 through 2015.

Findings

The results show that female directors significantly deter the opportunistic timing of option grants. This study finds that gender diversity – as measured by the percentage of women on the board, the percentage of female independent directors and the percentage of female directors on the compensation committee are likely to reduce the odds that CEOs receive opportunistically timed lucky grants. The results are consistent with those in prior research that documents the benefits of board gender diversity.

Practical implications

The research findings are beneficial to policymakers and regulators, as it allows them to assess the importance of diversity on boards in the monitoring of the managers, particularly as it pertains to the design of CEO compensation packages. Furthermore, these findings have implications for Ibero-American countries as they shed light on the importance to undertake measures and reforms to promote board effectiveness by the introduction of gender diversity.

Originality/value

While prior research has examined the effect of board gender diversity on firm performance, the study is the first to investigate the effect of female directors on the opportunistic timing of option grants, using a rigorous empirical framework that explicitly accounts for endogeneity.

Resumen

Propósito

Este estudio busca explorar el papel de la diversidad de género en la junta directiva para mitigar la suerte del CEO. Los directores ejecutivos tienen “suerte” cuando reciben subvenciones de opciones sobre acciones en los días en que el precio de las acciones es el más bajo en el mes de la subvención, lo que implica un momento oportunista.

Diseño/Metodología

Empleamos un análisis de regresión logística, así como un análisis de variables instrumentales (IV). La muestra consta de 3249 observaciones de las firmas desde 2010 hasta 2015.

Hallazgos

Nuestros resultados muestran que las directoras disuaden significativamente el momento oportunista de la concesión de opciones. Descubrimos que la diversidad de género, medida por el porcentaje de mujeres en la junta directiva, el porcentaje de directoras independientes y el porcentaje de directoras en el comité de compensación probablemente reduzcan las probabilidades de que los directores ejecutivos reciban subvenciones afortunadas en el momento oportuno. Nuestros resultados son consistentes con los de investigaciones anteriores que documentan los beneficios de la diversidad de género en la junta.

Implicaciones practices

Los resultados de la investigación son relevantes para los responsables de la formulación de políticas y los reguladores, ya que les permite evaluar la importancia de la diversidad en los directorios en el seguimiento de los gerentes, particularmente en lo que respecta al diseño de paquetes de compensación de los directores ejecutivos. Además, estos hallazgos tienen implicaciones para los países iberoamericanos, ya que arrojan luz sobre la importancia de emprender medidas y reformas para promover la efectividad de los directorios mediante la introducción de la diversidad de género.

Originalidad

Si bien investigaciones anteriores han examinado el efecto de la diversidad de género de la junta en el desempeño de la empresa, nuestro estudio es el primero en investigar el efecto de las directoras en el momento oportunista de las concesiones de opciones, utilizando un marco empírico riguroso que explica explícitamente la endogeneidad.

Resumo

Objetivo

Este estudo busca explorar o papel da diversidade de gênero no conselho de administração para mitigar o destino do CEO. Os CEOs têm “sorte” de receber opções de compra de ações nos dias em que o preço das ações é mais baixo no mês de concessão, o que é um momento oportunista.

Desenho/Metodologia

Foi utilizada uma análise de regressão logística, bem como uma análise de variáveis instrumentais (IV). A amostra é composta por 3.249 observações de empresas de 2010 a 2015.

Conclusões

Nossos resultados mostram que as diretoras inibem significativamente o momento oportunista de outorga de opções. Descobrimos que a diversidade de gênero, medida pela porcentagem de mulheres no conselho de administração, a porcentagem de conselheiros independentes e a porcentagem de diretoras no comitê de remuneração, provavelmente reduz as chances de CEOs receberem subsídios da sorte em tempo hábil. Nossos resultados são consistentes com pesquisas anteriores que documentam os benefícios da diversidade de gênero no conselho.

Implicações práticas

Os resultados da pesquisa são relevantes para os formuladores de políticas e reguladores, pois permitem que avaliem a importância da diversidade nos conselhos na gestão de gerentes, especialmente no que se refere ao desenho de políticas. Além disso, esses achados têm implicações para os países ibero-americanos, uma vez que lançam luz sobre a importância de empreender medidas e reformas para promover a eficácia dos conselhos por meio da introdução da diversidade de gênero.

Originalidade

embora a evidência científica prévia tenha examinado o efeito da diversidade de gênero do conselho no desempenho da empresa, nosso estudo é o primeiro a investigar o efeito das diretoras no momento oportunista de concessões de opções, usando uma estrutura empírica rigorosa que explica explicitamente a endogeneidade.

1 – 10 of over 16000