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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2012

Robin Visser and Huub Ruël

This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles…

Abstract

This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles and activities of commercial diplomats in explaining the effectiveness of commercial diplomacy and international business support. In this study, it is assumed that commercial diplomats’ behavior is influenced by informal institutions. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 23 commercial diplomats at foreign posts from different countries were conducted and analyzed. The results show three different types of role behavior and differences in proactivity per type. Informal institutions such as background, skills, and experience, cultural differences, and the working environment suggest to explain the differences in levels of proactive international business support behavior of commercial diplomats. Further research is needed to assert these findings.

Details

Commercial Diplomacy and International Business: A Conceptual and Empirical Exploration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-674-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2010

Sylvie K. Chetty and Loren M. Stangl

The aim of this paper is to study how network relationships are used in the internationalization and innovation of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the…

5783

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to study how network relationships are used in the internationalization and innovation of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry. The paper seeks to use the extant literature to develop a matrix consisting of incremental internationalization and innovation and radical internationalization and innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an in‐depth qualitative study of ten software firms in New Zealand. The unit of analysis is the firm. Multiple sources of data collection are used, but the main method of data collection is semi‐structured interviews.

Findings

The ten firms in the study fall into four distinct groups, depending on the type of internationalization and the type of innovation, and each group has particular types of network relationships. Firms with limited network relationships have incremental internationalization and innovation, but those with diverse network relationships have radical internationalization and innovation. The findings indicate that network relationships are influential in shaping the firm's future as well as sustaining the firm.

Practical implications

The matrix developed could assist managers to identify where they appear and what relationships they need to form in order to internationalize their innovation. Managers need to be aware of the changing dynamics of network relationships, and the impact this will have on the firm.

Originality/value

The paper identifies a gap in current SME research that combines the following three research streams: internationalization, innovation, and networks. The original contribution of the paper is to address this gap so that researchers and practitioners have some understanding of innovation and internationalization of SMEs in the context of networks.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2022

Risheng Long, Qiang Ma, Zhihao Jin, Yimin Zhang, Hui Han, Shaoni Sun and Xuanying Du

The purpose of this paper is to report the tribological behavior of dimples textured rolling element bearings (REBs) under variable load and starved lubrication.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the tribological behavior of dimples textured rolling element bearings (REBs) under variable load and starved lubrication.

Design/methodology/approach

The pattern parameters include line-diameter of dimples (200 µm, 250 µm, 300 µm), depth of dimples (10 µm, 20 µm, 30 µm). Dimple patterns were prepared on the raceways of the shaft washers of cylindrical roller thrust bearings (CRTBs). A vertical wear test rig was used to obtain their coefficients of friction (COFs) under stepped load (1200–6000 N, with a manually increase of 1200 N every 3600 s) and starved lubrication. The wear losses and worn surfaces were characterized. The tribological performance between stepped load and fixed load (4000 N) was compared. The influence mechanism of dimples on the friction and wear properties of CRTBs under stepped load and starved lubrication was also discussed.

Findings

Compared with the data of smooth ones, the average COFs of the dimples textured bearings are almost all reduced under stepped load and starved lubrication, while their mass losses almost all get higher. The depth−diameter ratio and the effective volume coefficient of dimples are the important factors. In this work, compared with the smooth group, when the line-diameter of dimple is 250 µm and the depth is 20 µm, i.e. the depth−diameter ratio is 0.08, its average COF is reduced by 46.8% and its mass loss is reduced by about 7%, showing wonderful friction-reducing effect and good wear resistance.

Originality/value

This work can provide a reference for the raceway design of REBs.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 74 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2021

Risheng Long, Chao Zhao, Zhihao Jin, Yimin Zhang, Zhen Pan, Shaoni Sun and Weihua Gao

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the friction and wear performance of grooves textured cylindrical roller thrust bearings with different groove dimensions under…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the friction and wear performance of grooves textured cylindrical roller thrust bearings with different groove dimensions under starved lubrication.

Design/methodology/approach

The groove dimensions include: width of grooves (WOG, 50 µm, 100 µm and 150 µm), depth of grooves (DPOG, 7 µm, 11 µm and 15 µm) as well as groove deflection angle (GDA, 45°). A fiber laser marking system was used to prepare groove patterns on the raceways of shaft washers. The friction and wear properties of grooves textured bearings were researched through a vertical universal wear test rig using a customized roller bearing tribo-pair under starved lubrication. Static finite element analyses were conducted to reveal their surface stresses. Through the comprehensive comparison and analyses, the influence mechanism of grooves on the tribological behavior of cylindrical roller thrust bearings was proposed and discussed.

Findings

When grooves textured bearings run under starved lubrication, their average coefficients of friction (COFs) and wear losses are all significantly reduced and much lower than those of smooth group. The influence of DPOG on the COF curves is significant, while the influence of WOG on the COF curves is a little weak. The influence of groove dimensions on the surface stresses of grooves textured bearings is weak, whether the WOG or DPOG. In this work, when the WOG is 100 µm and the DPOG is 15 µm, its average COF and wear loss are both the lowest, 0.0066 and 0.61 mg, respectively. Compared with the data of smooth group, its friction coefficient is reduced by 75.3% and its mass loss is reduced by 95.8%, showing a significant improvement in this condition.

Originality/value

This work can provide a valuable reference for the raceway design and reliability optimization of rolling element bearings.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 73 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Walanchalee Wattanacharoensil, Sappawat Kantamara and Kaewta Muangasame

This study aims to investigate what the crucial elements are when it comes to using a mascot to brand a destination. This study applies the proposed framework of “mascot…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate what the crucial elements are when it comes to using a mascot to brand a destination. This study applies the proposed framework of “mascot usage for destination branding” to two mascot cases, namely, Kumamon and Sukjai. In particular, the Kumamon mascot is first investigated, looking at how it is used to promote Kumamoto, one of the key cities in Kyushu, Japan. Sukjai, another mascot, is then analysed in a similar light. The dominant factors that lead to the success of Kumamon mascot are analysed on the case of Sukjai mascot. The disparity between the two mascot cases allows for a better understanding of the dimensions and practices or lack thereof, that can occur in mascot creation and implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology is applied, and thematic and content analyses are applied to the three data sources, namely, secondary data collection from different data sources in the English and Japanese languages; researcher onsite observation in Kumamoto; and an in-depth interview with purposive sampling experts.

Findings

The findings indicate that according to the proposed framework, Kumamon has shown all three elements of the framework, namely, promoting destination identity and personality, creating differentiation for the location and having strong stakeholder involvement. On the other hand, these elements were found not to be as strong in the Sukjai case. The findings from the case comparison determine several underlining factors, including the national culture, which can help or hinder in laying the groundwork for the successful application of a mascot in destination branding.

Originality/value

This study complements the previous literature on mascot branding and elaborates on the framework of mascot usage for destination branding based on a combination of the three proposed elements.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

J. Frasier

Describes a method of using WordPerfect to produce book and spinelabels that are identical except for volume number. Examines programs todefine label format, creating…

Abstract

Describes a method of using WordPerfect to produce book and spine labels that are identical except for volume number. Examines programs to define label format, creating macro files for printing, and printing labels using macros.

Details

OCLC Micro, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 8756-5196

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Angel E. Muñoz Zavala, Arturo Hernández Aguirre, Enrique R. Villa Diharce and Salvador Botello Rionda

The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces a hybrid approach based on a modified ring neighborhood with two new perturbation operators designed to keep diversity. A constraint handling technique based on feasibility and sum of constraints violation is adopted. Also, a special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.

Findings

The paper shows that it is possible to improve PSO and keeping the advantages of its social interaction through a simple idea: perturbing the PSO memory.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed algorithm shows a competitive performance against the state‐of‐the‐art constrained optimization algorithms.

Practical implications

The proposed algorithm can be used to solve single objective problems with linear or non‐linear functions, and subject to both equality and inequality constraints which can be linear and non‐linear. In this paper, it is applied to various engineering design problems, and for the solution of state‐of‐the‐art benchmark problems.

Originality/value

A new neighborhood structure for PSO algorithm is presented. Two perturbation operators to improve PSO algorithm are proposed. A special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2015

Jyoti Rai and Jean Kimmel

Do women exhibit greater financial risk aversion than men? We answer this question using attitudinal and behavioral specifications of risk aversion drawn from the 2010…

Abstract

Do women exhibit greater financial risk aversion than men? We answer this question using attitudinal and behavioral specifications of risk aversion drawn from the 2010 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). To approximate attitudinal specification of risk aversion, we use individuals’ self-reported financial risk tolerance. We use individuals’ relative risk aversion, that is, the effect of wealth on the proportion of assets categorized as risky as behavioral specification of risk aversion. We find that while women display greater attitudinal risk aversion, gender difference in behavioral risk aversion depends upon individuals’ marital status and role in household finances. Single women exhibit greater behavioral risk aversion compared to single men. However, this gender difference does not exist when we compare behavioral risk aversion of married women and men in charge of household finances.

Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2004

Shlomo Yitzhaki and Quentin Wodon

Mobility implies initial and final distributions and a transition process linking the observations of these two distributions. An inequality index describes properties of…

Abstract

Mobility implies initial and final distributions and a transition process linking the observations of these two distributions. An inequality index describes properties of the intitial or final distribution. A mobility index describes the transition. In most cases, mobility indices have been developed using properties of transition matrices independently of the concepts of inequality and equity that may also be used in the analysis. This paper presents a new tool – the Gini index of mobility – that provides an overall consistent framework for the analysis of mobility, inequality, and horizontal equity. The theoretical concepts are illustrated empirically using panel data from rural Mexico.

Details

Studies on Economic Well-Being: Essays in the Honor of John P. Formby
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-136-1

Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Peterson K. Ozili

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are…

Abstract

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are provided to members of the population at a price that is affordable and that price is also economically sufficient to encourage providers of financial services to provide such financial services on a continual basis. Any level of financial inclusion that does not meet these conditions is sub-optimal and incentive-inefficient both for users and providers of financial services.

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