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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2012

Robin Visser and Huub Ruël

This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles…

Abstract

This chapter presents a study on the work of commercial diplomats as international business promoters at foreign posts. Research has largely overlooked the actual roles and activities of commercial diplomats in explaining the effectiveness of commercial diplomacy and international business support. In this study, it is assumed that commercial diplomats’ behavior is influenced by informal institutions. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 23 commercial diplomats at foreign posts from different countries were conducted and analyzed. The results show three different types of role behavior and differences in proactivity per type. Informal institutions such as background, skills, and experience, cultural differences, and the working environment suggest to explain the differences in levels of proactive international business support behavior of commercial diplomats. Further research is needed to assert these findings.

Details

Commercial Diplomacy and International Business: A Conceptual and Empirical Exploration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-674-4

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2010

Sylvie K. Chetty and Loren M. Stangl

The aim of this paper is to study how network relationships are used in the internationalization and innovation of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to study how network relationships are used in the internationalization and innovation of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry. The paper seeks to use the extant literature to develop a matrix consisting of incremental internationalization and innovation and radical internationalization and innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an in‐depth qualitative study of ten software firms in New Zealand. The unit of analysis is the firm. Multiple sources of data collection are used, but the main method of data collection is semi‐structured interviews.

Findings

The ten firms in the study fall into four distinct groups, depending on the type of internationalization and the type of innovation, and each group has particular types of network relationships. Firms with limited network relationships have incremental internationalization and innovation, but those with diverse network relationships have radical internationalization and innovation. The findings indicate that network relationships are influential in shaping the firm's future as well as sustaining the firm.

Practical implications

The matrix developed could assist managers to identify where they appear and what relationships they need to form in order to internationalize their innovation. Managers need to be aware of the changing dynamics of network relationships, and the impact this will have on the firm.

Originality/value

The paper identifies a gap in current SME research that combines the following three research streams: internationalization, innovation, and networks. The original contribution of the paper is to address this gap so that researchers and practitioners have some understanding of innovation and internationalization of SMEs in the context of networks.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Walanchalee Wattanacharoensil, Sappawat Kantamara and Kaewta Muangasame

This study aims to investigate what the crucial elements are when it comes to using a mascot to brand a destination. This study applies the proposed framework of “mascot…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate what the crucial elements are when it comes to using a mascot to brand a destination. This study applies the proposed framework of “mascot usage for destination branding” to two mascot cases, namely, Kumamon and Sukjai. In particular, the Kumamon mascot is first investigated, looking at how it is used to promote Kumamoto, one of the key cities in Kyushu, Japan. Sukjai, another mascot, is then analysed in a similar light. The dominant factors that lead to the success of Kumamon mascot are analysed on the case of Sukjai mascot. The disparity between the two mascot cases allows for a better understanding of the dimensions and practices or lack thereof, that can occur in mascot creation and implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodology is applied, and thematic and content analyses are applied to the three data sources, namely, secondary data collection from different data sources in the English and Japanese languages; researcher onsite observation in Kumamoto; and an in-depth interview with purposive sampling experts.

Findings

The findings indicate that according to the proposed framework, Kumamon has shown all three elements of the framework, namely, promoting destination identity and personality, creating differentiation for the location and having strong stakeholder involvement. On the other hand, these elements were found not to be as strong in the Sukjai case. The findings from the case comparison determine several underlining factors, including the national culture, which can help or hinder in laying the groundwork for the successful application of a mascot in destination branding.

Originality/value

This study complements the previous literature on mascot branding and elaborates on the framework of mascot usage for destination branding based on a combination of the three proposed elements.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

J. Frasier

Describes a method of using WordPerfect to produce book and spinelabels that are identical except for volume number. Examines programs todefine label format, creating…

Abstract

Describes a method of using WordPerfect to produce book and spine labels that are identical except for volume number. Examines programs to define label format, creating macro files for printing, and printing labels using macros.

Details

OCLC Micro, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 8756-5196

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Article
Publication date: 22 August 2008

Angel E. Muñoz Zavala, Arturo Hernández Aguirre, Enrique R. Villa Diharce and Salvador Botello Rionda

The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new constrained optimization algorithm based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm approach.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper introduces a hybrid approach based on a modified ring neighborhood with two new perturbation operators designed to keep diversity. A constraint handling technique based on feasibility and sum of constraints violation is adopted. Also, a special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.

Findings

The paper shows that it is possible to improve PSO and keeping the advantages of its social interaction through a simple idea: perturbing the PSO memory.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed algorithm shows a competitive performance against the state‐of‐the‐art constrained optimization algorithms.

Practical implications

The proposed algorithm can be used to solve single objective problems with linear or non‐linear functions, and subject to both equality and inequality constraints which can be linear and non‐linear. In this paper, it is applied to various engineering design problems, and for the solution of state‐of‐the‐art benchmark problems.

Originality/value

A new neighborhood structure for PSO algorithm is presented. Two perturbation operators to improve PSO algorithm are proposed. A special technique to handle equality constraints is proposed.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2015

Jyoti Rai and Jean Kimmel

Do women exhibit greater financial risk aversion than men? We answer this question using attitudinal and behavioral specifications of risk aversion drawn from the 2010…

Abstract

Do women exhibit greater financial risk aversion than men? We answer this question using attitudinal and behavioral specifications of risk aversion drawn from the 2010 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). To approximate attitudinal specification of risk aversion, we use individuals’ self-reported financial risk tolerance. We use individuals’ relative risk aversion, that is, the effect of wealth on the proportion of assets categorized as risky as behavioral specification of risk aversion. We find that while women display greater attitudinal risk aversion, gender difference in behavioral risk aversion depends upon individuals’ marital status and role in household finances. Single women exhibit greater behavioral risk aversion compared to single men. However, this gender difference does not exist when we compare behavioral risk aversion of married women and men in charge of household finances.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2004

Shlomo Yitzhaki and Quentin Wodon

Mobility implies initial and final distributions and a transition process linking the observations of these two distributions. An inequality index describes properties of…

Abstract

Mobility implies initial and final distributions and a transition process linking the observations of these two distributions. An inequality index describes properties of the intitial or final distribution. A mobility index describes the transition. In most cases, mobility indices have been developed using properties of transition matrices independently of the concepts of inequality and equity that may also be used in the analysis. This paper presents a new tool – the Gini index of mobility – that provides an overall consistent framework for the analysis of mobility, inequality, and horizontal equity. The theoretical concepts are illustrated empirically using panel data from rural Mexico.

Details

Studies on Economic Well-Being: Essays in the Honor of John P. Formby
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-136-1

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Peterson K. Ozili

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are…

Abstract

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are provided to members of the population at a price that is affordable and that price is also economically sufficient to encourage providers of financial services to provide such financial services on a continual basis. Any level of financial inclusion that does not meet these conditions is sub-optimal and incentive-inefficient both for users and providers of financial services.

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Book part
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Jaume Roig Hernando

The recent financial crisis triggered the greatest recession since the 1930s and had a devastating impact on households’ wealth and on their capacity to reduce their…

Abstract

The recent financial crisis triggered the greatest recession since the 1930s and had a devastating impact on households’ wealth and on their capacity to reduce their indebtedness. In the aftermath, it became clear that there is significant room for improvement in property risk management. While there has been innovation in the management of corporate finance risk, real estate has lagged behind. Now is the time to expand the range of tools available for hedging households’ risks and, thus, to advance the democratization of finance. Property equity represents the major asset in households’ portfolios in developed and undeveloped countries. The present paper analyzes a set of potential innovations in real estate risk management, such as price level-adjusted mortgages, property derivatives, and home equity value insurance. Financial institutions, households, and governments should work together to improve the performance of the financial instruments available and, thus, to help mitigate the worst impacts of economic cycles.

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Hadfi Bilel

The purpose of this paper is to observe whether the entrenchment of managers can affect firms’ dividend disbursement decisions and investor sentiment in the Tunisia context.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to observe whether the entrenchment of managers can affect firms’ dividend disbursement decisions and investor sentiment in the Tunisia context.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample includes all non-financial listed stocks in the Tunisia stock exchange during the years 2004–2017. Moreover, the entrenchment of managers is measured by five proxy explained the managers rooting from all listed firms. The propensity to pay dividends is measured by the dividend yield.

Findings

The findings yield qualitatively consistent with the previous research. After controlling for the effect of a manager’s behavior and different entrenchment phase, the result shows that entrepreneurial the firm’s decision to pay dividends could be influenced by the managers’ entrenchment.

Research limitations/implications

The result is limited at the level of the non-financial companies listed in the BVMT, but in future studies, the investigation with other countries can be compared.

Practical implications

Moreover, investors in Tunisia show their preference for a dividend to self-control and satisfaction and increase their profit, especially in an abnormal economic situation explained by the Tunisian political crisis.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is to investigate both the important role of the entrenchment and cycle life of the manager on the decision to distribute dividends and the investor sentiment. Moreover, the author’s problem may be a reference for future investigation talking about the managers’ psychology like opportunism.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2071-1395

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