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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Jennifer Leutwiler and Brian H. Kleiner

The purpose of this article is to explore the historical differences in wages between different groups (women, minorities, older employees, and other distinct groups) and…

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Abstract

The purpose of this article is to explore the historical differences in wages between different groups (women, minorities, older employees, and other distinct groups) and to analyse whether wage gaps are due to discrimination. Statistical data on wages, population, and education were accumulated from the US Department of Education, the US Department of Labor, and the US Census Bureau. Other reference materials were used to examine various theories for pay differences. Specifically, the gender wage gap is partially due to women’s domestic responsibilities and occupational sex‐typing. Race differences were found to have a correlation to education attainment. However, the wage gaps cannot completely be explained by other factors, indicating that negative stereotypes and discrimination do exist. The existence of discrimination is further supported by the growing number of pay discrimination lawsuits. In 2002, over $52 million was paid out by employers found guilty of employment discrimination in cases filed by the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. This article will define pay discrimination and examine ways to evaluate whether differences in pay are attributable to discrimination. Historical inequalities between men and women’s pay will be presented and evaluated in detail. Race differences between White, African‐American, Hispanic and Asian employees will be thoroughly addressed. Other less common forms of pay discrimination will also be covered. The analysis will reveal the non‐discriminatory as well as discriminatory reasons for differences in pay among individuals with similar aptitude and provide suggestions for improving the situation.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 22 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2013

David Terpstra, André Honorée and John Friedl

This study aims to examine whether the demographics of the US federal judiciary and the type of employment discrimination charge influence federal employment discrimination

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether the demographics of the US federal judiciary and the type of employment discrimination charge influence federal employment discrimination case outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The outcomes of 401 randomly selected employment discrimination cases were examined by utilizing chi square analysis to test the interaction effects of race and gender along with four different charges of employment discrimination.

Findings

The findings suggest that the outcomes of employment discrimination cases are a function of the interaction of the judges' gender and race along with the type of discrimination charge (e.g. gender, race, age, or disability discrimination) involved in the case.

Research limitations/implications

More research studies with larger cell sample sizes for certain discrimination claims should be conducted to ascertain the validity of the current results.

Practical implications

Potential litigants in employment discrimination cases (both plaintiffs and defendants) may find these results relevant in determining their chances for success in the courtroom.

Social implications

These findings could help judges become more aware of potential biases and help guard against being influenced by them. These findings may also have implications for the selection and appointment of judges and suggest that judicial bodies that are more diverse may render more unbiased rulings.

Originality/value

Previous research regarding the influence of the sex and race of the judge on court case outcomes has yielded contradictory and confusing findings. However, by controlling for the possible influence of the type of charge involved in the cases, the findings of the current study suggest that judges' rulings are a function of the interaction of the judges' demographic characteristics with the type of discrimination charge.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 55 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Dawit Gebremeskel and Brian H. Kleiner

The purpose of this article is to explore new developments concerning marital status discrimination. This will start with the principle of equality among citizens in a…

468

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to explore new developments concerning marital status discrimination. This will start with the principle of equality among citizens in a democratic society. The limits of statutory rights, as challenged by personal prejudice and institutionalised systematic practices of discrimination, will be addressed. The historical limitation of some groups of the population in benefiting from statutory equal rights and the attempts to remedy this limitation shall be visited. After exploring the general conceptual issues related to equality, discrimination as related to marital status will be defined and discrimination issues in relation to marital status shall be identified. This will be followed by detailed analysis of the manifestation of discrimination experienced by individuals due to their marital status. Although the types of real or alleged discrimination experienced by people of different marital status are broad, the focus will be on the major ones: housing, employment, credit and insurance. In looking at the new trends and developments, an attempt will be made to identify applicable laws that are meant to prevent or to remedy any marital status related discrimination. Opinions and stands of opposing interest groups, governmental and non‐governmental agencies shall be looked at. Some applicable case law in some states in the United States of America shall be explored. Possible future trends will be pinpointed.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 21 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2022

Izabel Faustino, Katy Maia, Magno Rogerio Gomes, Paulo Mourao and Elisangela Araujo

This paper analyzes the issue of wage differentials and gender discrimination in the Brazilian labor market.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes the issue of wage differentials and gender discrimination in the Brazilian labor market.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on the log-linear equation model by Mincer (1974) and the decomposition method by Oaxaca (1973) and Blinder (1973) and was estimated using data from the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD).

Findings

The main results indicate that there was a reduction in wage differentials and gender discrimination in the majority of regions in Brazil for white workers when comparing the available years. However, for non-white workers, the degree of discrimination increased in Brazil, especially in the central-west and southeast regions. Overall, wage decompositions have suggested that women suffer from wage discrimination.

Originality/value

This is the first paper detailing wage discrimination across the different Brazilian regions and also controlling for usual dimensions like gender and race.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-09-2021-0569.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Ho Kwan Cheung, Eden King, Alex Lindsey, Ashley Membere, Hannah M. Markell and Molly Kilcullen

Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace…

Abstract

Even more than 50 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination toward a number of groups in employment settings in the United States, workplace discrimination remains a persistent problem in organizations. This chapter provides a comprehensive review and analysis of contemporary theory and evidence on the nature, causes, and consequences of discrimination before synthesizing potential methods for its reduction. We note the strengths and weaknesses of this scholarship and highlight meaningful future directions. In so doing, we hope to both inform and inspire organizational and scholarly efforts to understand and eliminate workplace discrimination.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-263-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2015

Catherine E. Harnois

Existing research tends to conceptualize age- and gender-based discrimination as distinct and unrelated social phenomena. A growing body of scholarship, however…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing research tends to conceptualize age- and gender-based discrimination as distinct and unrelated social phenomena. A growing body of scholarship, however, highlights the importance of conceptualizing ageism as potentially gendered, and gender discrimination as inherently shaped by age. Using an intersectional theoretical perspective, this chapter examines how gender and age combine to shape women’s and men’s experiences of workplace mistreatment.

Methodology/approach

The data are obtained from the U.S. General Social Survey. The analysis begins with descriptive statistics, showing how rates of perceived age and gender mistreatment vary for men and women of different age groups. Multivariate logistic regressions follow.

Findings

Experiences of workplace mistreatment are significantly shaped by both gender and age. Among both men and women, workers in their 30s and 40s report relatively low levels of perceived age-based discrimination, compared to older or younger workers. It is precisely during this interval of relatively low rates of perceived age-based discrimination that women’s (but not men’s) perceptions of gender-based mistreatment rises dramatically. At all ages, women are significantly more likely to face either gender- or age-based discrimination than men, but the gap is especially large among workers in their 40s.

Originality/value

Women tend to perceive age- and gender-based mistreatment at different times of life, but a concurrent examination of gender- and age-based mistreatment reveals that women’s working lives are characterized by high rates of mistreatment throughout their careers, in a way that men’s are not. The results highlight the importance of conceptualizing gender and age as intersecting systems of inequality.

Details

At the Center: Feminism, Social Science and Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-078-4

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2022

Yisheng Peng

Based on the role theory, this study examines whether workplace age discrimination indirectly relates to older workers' bridge employment intentions through work meaningfulness.

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the role theory, this study examines whether workplace age discrimination indirectly relates to older workers' bridge employment intentions through work meaningfulness.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 used two-wave time-lagged survey data from one hundred and seventy nurses (≥45 years old) from the Midwestern United States. Study 2 used three-wave time-lagged survey data from one hundred and eighty-six employees from a wide range of occupations in the United States. The online survey contains various self-reports on workplace age discrimination, work meaningfulness, affective commitment, and bridge employment intentions.

Findings

Results in Study 1 found that workplace age discrimination was negatively and indirectly related to older nurses' bridge employment intentions through their experiences of work meaningfulness. Results in Study 2 further confirmed the mediating role of work meaningfulness in the relationship between age discrimination and bridge employment intentions, above and beyond the role of affective commitment.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the research by testing the indirect relationship between workplace age discrimination and older workers' bridge employment intentions through work meaningfulness, further raising our awareness of the importance of social and interpersonal experiences in older workers' preretirement jobs to their late-career development.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Hyunsu Oh

Purpose – This study examined the impacts of racial discrimination on the self-reported health among Asian Americans.Methodology/Approach – This study investigated a…

Abstract

Purpose – This study examined the impacts of racial discrimination on the self-reported health among Asian Americans.

Methodology/Approach – This study investigated a subsample of 1,090 Asian Americans from the 2008 National Asian American Survey. Three-category measure of self-reported health was constructed ain. Racial discrimination experiences encompassed (1) interpersonal discrimination, (2) institutional racism, and (3) hate crime. Ordered logistic regression models were employed to test the association between self-reported health and experiences of racial discrimination among Asian Americans.

Findings – With respect to ethnic origin, South Asians showed lower levels of self-reported health than East Asians/Asian Indians. Although the baseline effect of each discrimination indicator was insignificant, there was an interactional effect between ethnic origin and racial discrimination, indicating the more interpersonal discriminatory experiences, the worse health status for South Asians.

Research limitations – There remained some limitations including data and the measures of racial discrimination.

Originality/Value of Paper – Despite the limitations, this study revealed that as a risk factor, how experiences of racial discrimination shape health disparities among ethnic groups in the United States, focusing on the heterogeneity within Asian Americans.

Details

Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Other Social Characteristics as Factors in Health and Health Care Disparities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-798-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2017

Malia Lee Womack

Purpose: The United States became a member of the United Nations’ (UN’s) core anti-racism treaty, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial…

Abstract

Purpose: The United States became a member of the United Nations’ (UN’s) core anti-racism treaty, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD), but has not passed the UN’s core gender equality treaty, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This chapter explores why the United States passed only one of the conventions. It reviews the power, misinterpretation, and compliance theories that explain why only one of the treaties was ratified. In addition, it offers a fourth explanation of the nation’s behavior – that of relative cost.

Findings: This chapter shows that CEDAW’s mandates, which are specific in nature, are costlier with respect to public services, educational resources, and programs to alleviate cultural prejudices, than are the more broadly framed ICERD mandates. This chapter finds this difference as a driving factor for the nation to enter into the race convention and not the women’s rights pact.

Methodologies: Methodologies used in this publication include feminist and legal analyses and the examination of US policies as well as statements made by political figures.

Originality: This chapter makes contributions to legal and feminist scholarship by providing insight into the nation’s adoption of ICERD, and its failure to ratify CEDAW despite its stance that it is a supporter of women’s rights. The implications of this study are that while the power, misinterpretation, and compliance theories are useful to understand the apparent discrepant response to the two treaties, relative cost as defined by the different ways in which the treaties are framed is also useful in explaining the United States’ failure to ratify the gender equality treaty. Though CEDAW is more specific in its identification of equality issues and is costlier than ICERD, the advancement of both gender and racial equality in the United States falls short of international standards.

Details

Gender Panic, Gender Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-203-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2022

Maude Boulet, Marie Lachapelle and Sebastien Keiff

The main objective of this article is to contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge on the determinants of perceived workplace discrimination and its…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this article is to contribute to the advancement of scientific knowledge on the determinants of perceived workplace discrimination and its consequences on workers' well-being in Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a representative sample of 7,706 workers aged 18 to 65 based on data from the 2016 General Social Survey of Canadians at Work and Home to conduct logistic regression models.

Findings

Women and visible minorities are at greater risk of perceiving that they have experienced workplace discrimination, but immigrants' perceived workplace discrimination risk is no different from that of non-immigrants. This risk is higher in public administration than in other industries and varies between provinces. Perceived workplace discrimination increases stress and is associated with a lower level of self-reported mental health.

Practical implications

Since perceived discrimination has a detrimental effect on workers' well-being, organizations should pay special attention to their employees’ perceptions. Relying only on official complaints of discrimination can lead organizations to underestimate this issue because many employees are not inclined to file an official complaint, even if they believe they have been discriminated against.

Originality/value

The authors findings are original because they suggest that visible socio-demographic characteristics (gender and visible minority) affect perceived workplace discrimination, which is not the case for invisible socio-demographic characteristics (immigrant). They point out that the province of residence is an element of the context to be considered and they indicate that workers in the public sector are more likely to perceive discrimination than those in other industries. These empirical contributions highlight that, despite anti-discrimination laws and government efforts to promote equity, diversity and inclusion, perceived workplace discrimination persists in Canada, particularly among women and visible minorities and it has tangible impacts on the workers' well-being.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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1 – 10 of over 27000