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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2022

Rajesh Srivastava

This paper studied the effects of music plus fragrance or music alone on consumer purchase behaviour, footfalls and repeat visits to retail stores in the context of the mall.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper studied the effects of music plus fragrance or music alone on consumer purchase behaviour, footfalls and repeat visits to retail stores in the context of the mall.

Design/methodology/approach

A primary research was conducted through a structured questionnaire. A field study was conducted in two malls that attract the maximum crowd. The data from 250 respondents were analysed in total.

Findings

As per the present study, the combination of playing music with fragrance is more effective compared to playing music or fragrance alone on shopping behaviour, footfalls and repeat visits in retail stores in emerging markets like India.

Research limitations/implications

The study is more confined to a comparative study of the effectiveness of music with or without fragrance on consumer purchase behaviour and footfalls in retail stores located in malls. In view of research design, this could be a limitation of the study as types of music and other ambiance factors are not considered. The present study can be extended to religion as the religiosity of respondents may give a different response. The urban respondents may vary when compared to rural consumers. Therefore, the study can be extended by adding the rural or A-city mall or smaller malls in big cities. Research can be extended in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era to see if there is a change in consumer behaviour. It can also be extended to consumer's preference for different music and different fragrances.

Practical implications

This paper provides marketing managers and retail owners with valuable insights on the importance of using music with fragrance in retail stores to create unique consumer experiences in emerging markets that are different from developed countries. Managers should try to create both music, and fragrance in the store to improve purchase intention, and stay longer. To ensure that the planned music and fragrance approach creates the ambiance for consumers, marketing managers are advised to conduct market research. Special care should be taken for younger visitors to the store by creating the right ambiance. The present research will help many offline retailers' managers to strive for new competitive advantages through creating favourable shopping environments by understanding cultural differences.

Originality/value

The research gives direction to use music with a fragrance in the retail ambiance in the malls which will lead to improved consumer purchase, more footfalls, repeat visits and staying longer in emerging markets like India, which is a destination for global brands. Integration of three models of impulse buying (Rook and Fisher, 1995), individualism and collectivism (Triandis, 1995) and stimulus–organism–response (S–O–R) model of Mehrabian and Russell (1974) is used to explain the complex behaviour of consumers towards more purchases and repeat visits. The study will shed light on the quandary that retailers in the organised sector face in emerging markets such as India regarding the use of music and fragrance, as well as the impact on purchase behaviour, footfalls and repeat visits.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Mark Toncar and Marc Fetscherin

This paper aims to investigate visual exaggerations of fragrance advertisements by comparing subjects' expectations resulting from print ads to their subsequent product…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate visual exaggerations of fragrance advertisements by comparing subjects' expectations resulting from print ads to their subsequent product evaluations. It then considers whether the actual scents fall short, meet or exceed these expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of a semiotic analysis the authors capture the corresponding literary attributes of the ads to develop adjective pairs describing the meaning of the ads. Interviews are conducted to assess the meaning that consumers draw from the fragrance ads and the authors supplement these findings by performing a blind olfactory product evaluation of the fragrances. Paired sample t‐tests are used to compare subjects' ad expectations to their subsequent product evaluation of the actual scent.

Findings

These results show that the visual cues and imagery in the fragrance ads appear, under certain conditions, to result in product expectations that exceed actual product evaluations, suggesting the existence of visual puffery. The authors also found that the more abstract descriptors of the ad resulted in significantly higher expectations, while the more concrete descriptors resulted in significantly lower expectations than the actual product evaluation.

Research limitations/implications

A small sample size of homogenous consumers limits the generalizability of the results. No measures of attitude effectiveness were taken.

Practical implications

Visual puffery may be effective and help marketers, even in countries where verbal puffery is illegal, to use another means to reach consumers.

Originality/value

This paper investigates an under‐researched area in advertising. A multi‐method approach and primary data are used to assess subjects' ad expectations of a fragrance and the actual product evaluation and demonstrate the existence of visual puffery.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 August 2020

Jose Figueiredo and Vasco Eiriz

This article aims to understand the influences surrounding the consumption of fragrances, especially if these products fit as a brand extension of luxury brands. More…

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Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to understand the influences surrounding the consumption of fragrances, especially if these products fit as a brand extension of luxury brands. More specifically, it aims at identifying the main reasons behind the process of buying fragrances and the main features associated with the consumption of fragrances.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts a qualitative approach in the form of 15 in-depth interviews with consumers of fragrances, seeking to assess attitudes and influences in the consumption of fragrances as a brand extension of luxury brands.

Findings

This research shows that the emotional use of fragrances as a luxury product is much more important than their functionality, the relationship between the studied consumers and fragrances depends on the occasion of consumption (season of the year; day or night) and the aroma and the durability of the aroma is the main decision criterion for the purchase of fragrances. Respondents have also mentioned comfort, elegance and sophistication as attributes to choose a fragrance as a luxury product.

Originality/value

This article adds to the current knowledge on the topics of luxury brand management and buying behaviour by providing a better understanding of attitudes and influences towards the use of fragrances. This research recognizes the importance of a brand extension strategy for luxury brands, especially in the case of fragrances.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Scott Markham and Joe Cangelosi

Examines the perceptions and preferences of fragrances by females. The sample was taken from nine cities across three continents. Of the two major fragrance concepts…

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Abstract

Examines the perceptions and preferences of fragrances by females. The sample was taken from nine cities across three continents. Of the two major fragrance concepts examined, unisex fragrances have been introduced, with only about half the respondents in the nine cities (six countries) surveyed in this study being familiar with the concept. Respondents assessed the effects of ten factors on the fragrance decisions. The joint effects of ten surveyed factors show major differences between samples as stratified by area, with some consistency among the top factors, as supported by ANOVA and MANOVA analysis. Chi‐Square analysis of unisex and “same‐name” fragrances indicated significant differences in four of six variables. The ten surveyed factors were “scent, European fragrance, price, brand (purchased for self), brand (purchased as gift), mood, season, free items with purchase, container, and color.” “Scent, price, brand and mood” were the dominant variables. Significant differences existed between the respondents in the three major geographic areas, USA, Europe and Asia for seven of the ten factors, i.e. European fragrance, price, brand purchased as a gift, mood, season, container, and color.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Content available
940

Abstract

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 99 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

William Firth

Some of the results of a new overview of the European flavours andfragrances market are summarised. The total market in Europe isestimated to have been worth $2,300…

Abstract

Some of the results of a new overview of the European flavours and fragrances market are summarised. The total market in Europe is estimated to have been worth $2,300 million in 1988 of which about 40 per cent was flavours and 60 per cent fragrances. Fragrances have two main outlets – cosmetics and toiletries (including perfumes) and soap, detergents and other cleaning products. There are many outlets for flavours but it is estimated that 60 per cent of consumption is in soft drinks, dairy products and savoury foods. These three end‐uses are considered in detail. While there are about 1,000 flavours and fragrances manufacturers worldwide, the top 15 take a half share of the market because only the largest companies can afford the high R&D, quality testing and marketing costs involved. The smallest companies can survive by serving niche markets but continuing rationalisation among the medium‐sized firms is likely.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 92 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 28 September 2022

N.S. Padmanabhan, Smitha Siji and M.C. Minimol

This case facilitates the learning of marketing concepts like segmentation, targetting and positioning, marketing mix, branding strategies and digital marketing strategies.

Abstract

Theoretical basis

This case facilitates the learning of marketing concepts like segmentation, targetting and positioning, marketing mix, branding strategies and digital marketing strategies.

Research methodology

The case is written based on the facts available in the public domain and hence it follows secondary data research design. The secondary sources include company websites, industry reports, newspaper articles, social media sites and other online articles and reports. The case is classroom tested with MBA students in digital marketing course and PGDM students in brand management course.

Case overview/synopsis

Cycle Pure agarbathi, the leading brand of NR Group, became the coveted brand among the households of India. This success amidst high competition can be attributed to the concerted effort on product development coupled with mindful branding. To keep abreast of time and competition the company opted to go digital with an e-portal. Cycle Pure had a digital presence much earlier through social media, but the e-portal www.cycle.in, was a novel attempt. All the fragrance products of the brand were available for consumers through www.cycle.in. Moreover, the product assortment consisted of a collection of top-quality products and auxiliaries linked to multiple categories such as invocation necessities, personal care, air care and lifestyle. Furthermore, using in-house fragrance research lab, the company experimented with local aromas through numerous variants and also extended to related products such as sambrani (benzene) and dhoops. With consistent product augmentations along with access to innovative sectors such as air fresheners, the company expected to grow at a rate of 15%–16% annually. However, the company targeted to grab one-third share in the total market within the next five years.

Complexity academic level

This case can be used in Marketing Management, Brand Management, Digital marketing and Strategic Marketing courses at the Master’s level. It is suitable for MBA and executive MBA students.

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2014

Nakul Gupta, Mahadeo P. Jaiswal and Rupali Pardasani

The purpose of this paper is to help students understand how companies combine and leverage their existing knowledge capabilities in order to build strategic advantage for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to help students understand how companies combine and leverage their existing knowledge capabilities in order to build strategic advantage for the company. The case also throws some light on the opportunities and challenges faced by SME's of emerging markets in going international in turbulent macroeconomic scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

The case has been written for the purpose of teaching and class discussion. Interviews with protagonist provided the primary data and published reports and archives of the company provided the secondary data for the case.

Findings

After the class discussion, students will be able to figure out how SME's can best leverage their existing knowledge base, efficiently manage that knowledge base and accurately assess the impact of these knowledge management activities for international expansion.

Originality/value

This is among the first few cases in the area of knowledge management from the perspective of SME's in emerging markets in the fragrance and other allied industries.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 52 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2013

N. A. Ibrahim, Z. M. El-Sayed, H. M. Fahmy, A. G. Hassabo and M. H. Abo-Shosha

The inclusion of softeners (20 g/l), namely, Siligen VN (silicon based), Basosoft SWK (cationic), or Leomin NI (nonionic), in a dimethyloldihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU…

Abstract

The inclusion of softeners (20 g/l), namely, Siligen VN (silicon based), Basosoft SWK (cationic), or Leomin NI (nonionic), in a dimethyloldihydroxy ethylene urea (DMDHEU, 50 g/l) finishing formulation of 65/35 cotton/polyester blended fabric, enhances the resiliency of the fabric, which is expressed as the dry wrinkle recovery angle (WRA). The fabric acquires the ability to keep a rose oil fragrance upon storage up to 3 months. Improving the WRA and acquiring the ability to keep the fragrance can be descendingly arranged as follows: Siligen VN>Basosoft SWK>Leomin NI. Increasing the Siligen VN concentration (0-30 g/l) in the finishing formulation is accompanied by a small increase in the WRA, and a noticeable enhancement in the ability to keep the rose oil fragrance upon storage. By increasing the rose oil concentration (100-300 g/l) in a perfumed bath of cross-linked/Siligen VN, the softened fabric is accompanied by a slight drop in the WRA, and a decreasing ability to keep the fragrance up to 3 months.

However, the extent of the fragrance is higher at higher rose oil concentrations, regardless of the storage time. The ability of the fabric to keep the fragrance can be attributed to solubilization and/or encapsulation of the perfume in the oleophilic segments of the softener, and its slow release with time, so that the smell can be sensed. This ability decreases after increasing the storage time up to 3 months, and depending on the type of perfume oil used, is descendingly arranged as follows: jasmine oil > rose oil > sandal oil.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Nakul Gupta, Radha R. Sharma and Rupali Pardasani

Entrepreneurship, internationalization, family-owned business management, strategic management.

Abstract

Subject area

Entrepreneurship, internationalization, family-owned business management, strategic management.

Study level/applicability

MBA/postgraduate management program courses on family business management. The case can be taught at the beginning of the course to acquaint students with the dynamics of family-owned businesses. MBA/postgraduate/undergraduate courses on entrepreneurship. It can be used in the middle of the course to highlight the challenges presented by an entrepreneur due to change in the business environment and macroeconomic scenario. MBA/postgraduate course on strategic management. It can be used at the beginning of the course to introduce strategies for managing and sustaining growth of a business. MBA/postgraduate course on organizational development. It can be used in the middle of the course to help students understand the importance of designing an optimal organizational structure for a family business.

Case overview

FragraAroma was an Indian fragrance company. Anil Gupta, the Founder and Managing Director of FragraAroma, and his sister Nisha were equal shareholders of the company. With changes in the Foreign Direct Investment Policy in 2013 in India, Anil and Nisha's husband Tarun had different expansion plans for FragraAroma. While Anil was planning to expand FragraAroma internationally, but his sister and her husband wanted diversification of the company's customer segment in the domestic market itself. The case is poised at the juncture, where Anil was facing a labyrinth of critical decisions. Would he go ahead with Tarun's expansion plan or stick to his plan of internationalization? Would his decision affect the harmony of the family? Was there a way that could enable him sailing his family and family business out of the doldrums?

Expected learning outcomes

This case is primarily about a family business and the dilemmas faced by the owner of that family business. The case captures the challenges faced by a family business in sustaining growth and competitiveness. The case can be used to understand how decisions are taken in a family-owned business. To understand the challenges faced by a family-owned business while developing and implementing its growth strategies. To understand the opportunities and challenges presented to a family-owned businesses when macroeconomic scenarios change. To understand the spillover effects of business decisions on family relations in a typical family-owned business setup.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 3 no. 7
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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