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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Roqaya Sadek

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of softener treatment on plain jersey fabrics with properties made of cotton and spandex yarn.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of softener treatment on plain jersey fabrics with properties made of cotton and spandex yarn.

Design/methodology/approach

Samples with 100 percent cotton yarns, spandex yarns in alternating courses (half plating) and spandex yarns in every courses (full plating) were produced on a circular knitting machine where the two latter cases were produced at five different levels of spandex extension. After the dyeing process, fabrics were treated with fabric softener using two softener types (cationic and silicon) and all type two concentrations (3 percent, 6 percent) to evaluate the most appropriate softener type and concentration on fabric friction force, sewing needle penetration force and weight loss percent under different levels of spandex extension.

Findings

Results showed that silicon softener treatment results in high decreases in fabric sewing needle penetrating force, friction force and while treatment with cationic softener results in high decreases in weight loss percent for 100 percent cotton, half and full plating fabrics.

Originality/value

There is a growing need to study the effect of softeners when spandex yarns are used in the production of knitted fabric which results in high increase of stitch density. This research compares the effects of two different softener types at different concentrations on the properties of both plain jersey fabric produced from 100 percent cotton yarns and from cotton/spandex yarns with different stitch density.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

R. Rathinamoorthy, K. Gayathri Shree, R. Vaijayanthi, M. Brindha and A. Narmatha

The application of rinse cycle softener after the household laundry process has become more common in recent times. This study aims to understand the effect of repeated…

Abstract

Purpose

The application of rinse cycle softener after the household laundry process has become more common in recent times. This study aims to understand the effect of repeated rinse cycle softener treatment on the mechanical and frictional properties of the cotton fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

Cotton-woven fabric is treated with commercial rinse cycle softener repeatedly for 15 times. After treatment, the fabric was evaluated for the changes in mechanical properties using the Kawabata evaluation system.

Findings

The results of this study revealed that the softener treatment reduces the tensile properties (41.25%) and increases the overall extensibility of the fabric up to 20.89%. The shear (34.57%) and bending rigidity of the treated fabric are reduced considerably than the untreated fabric (58.02%). The increment in the fabric softness and fluffiness was confirmed with the increment in the compression and the difference between the initial and final thickness at maximum pressure. Statistical significance (p < 0.05) is noted only in the case of bending and surface friction properties (dynamic friction).

Originality/value

The usage of rinse cycle softeners in the household laundry has a significant influence on the comfort characteristics of the cotton-woven fabric. Repeated usage of rinse cycle softener increased the fabric softness and fluffiness of the fabric and also reduced the tensile properties significantly.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

R. Rathinamoorthy

The utilisation of softener after laundering of textile became one of the mandatory activities among the consumers. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to determine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The utilisation of softener after laundering of textile became one of the mandatory activities among the consumers. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of repeated rinse cycle softener treatment on the comfort characteristics of cotton and polyester woven fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

The selected cotton and polyester fabrics were treated using three different softeners types and three different numbers of rinsing times, namely 5, 10 and 15. The impact of repeated rinse cycle softener treatment on the comfort characteristics like absorbency, air permeability, wicking, thermal conductivity and flammability was analysed and the changes in the properties were confirmed using two-way ANOVA.

Findings

The number of rinse cycle softener treatment has a significant impact on the absorbency, air permeability and wicking ability of the cotton and polyester fabrics. The thermal conductivity and flammability characteristics of the fabrics mostly altered based on the type of fabric softener used. For all the type of fabric, the burning time reduced after the softener treatment.

Social implications

The consumer expects the softness and fragrance smell developed by the rinse cycle softener and they intend to use it more frequently after every laundry process to achieve that feel. This repeated the application of softener causes a negative impact on the fabric performances. This research result provides an evidence for the changes in physiological comfort aspects of textiles.

Originality/value

This analysis enlightens the negative impact of the repeated use of commercial fabric softener and their types on the common fabrics used in apparel endues.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2011

Gaurav Agarwal, Ludovic Koehl and Anne Perwvelz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of ageing and the use of fabric softener during the life cycle of knitted fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of ageing and the use of fabric softener during the life cycle of knitted fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

The low‐stress mechanical properties were evaluated by means of the Kawabata evaluation system for fabric (KES‐F) and universal surface tester (UST) revealing that the tensile, shear, bending, compression and surface properties were altered by both ageing during the wash cycles and the use of fabric softener.

Findings

Machine laundering leaves fabrics with an uncomfortable hand due to the removal of finishes and the harsh mechanical action of laundering, and results in the change in mechanical properties of the fabrics.

Originality/value

The paper identifies the critical mechanical parameters which are influenced by ageing and the use of fabric softeners during life cycle of garments.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 23 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Mazeyar Parvinzadeh Gashti, Mohammad Yousefpour Navid and Mohammad Hossein Rahimi

Silicone softeners are widely used in the textile industry to improve the performance of textile products. The thermal characteristics and flammability of polyester…

Abstract

Purpose

Silicone softeners are widely used in the textile industry to improve the performance of textile products. The thermal characteristics and flammability of polyester fabrics can be influenced by these compounds, which need to be considered, as important issues of human safety. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes induced on the polyester fibre by silicone softener treatment using a pad/dry/cure method.

Design/methodology/approach

The fibres were first treated with nano‐ and microemulsion silicone softeners. The influence of the silicone emulsion type on thermal properties and flammability of the resultant samples were investigated by various analytical techniques, namely, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and horizontal flammability test (HFT).

Findings

Results showed that the silicone softeners increase the thermal degradation and flammability of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate.

Originality/value

The paper's study of thermal and flammability of the silicone‐treated sample is novel and can be used to optimize the properties of silicone polymers during production and consumption.

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Abdul Azeem, Sharjeel Abid, Noman Sarwar, Shahzaib Ali, Ahsan Maqsood, Rashid Masood and Tanveer Hussain

The purpose of this study is to improve the mechanical properties and reduce the stiffness/harshness of fabric associated with the pigment dyeing of textiles.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve the mechanical properties and reduce the stiffness/harshness of fabric associated with the pigment dyeing of textiles.

Design/methodology/approach

The fabric was pigment dyed with the addition of three different softeners and binders. The fabric was then analyzed to have improved textile properties by measuring tear strength, bending length, crocking and washing fastness tests.

Findings

The conventional route of pigment dyeing (without any softener) imparted poor mechanical and rubbing fastness. The softener-added recipe provided better mechanical, rubbing and washing fastness, and the stiffness values were oppressed as well.

Practical implications

Because of reduced stiffness, increased fastness and mechanical properties, the use of softener with pigment dyeing can improve the market values and satisfaction of the dyed fabrics. The finished product would also have better life and endurance. The process can be modified easily to have a better end-product with a negligible cost addition in industrial process, as softeners are cheap and used in low (10-20 g/l) in industrial settings without affecting the required shades.

Originality/value

This is the first report, to the best of the author’s knowledge, on the optimization of pigment dyeing of PC fabric with the addition of Helizarin and perapret softeners in dyeing bath.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Onur Balci, Gözde Özlem Kinoglu and Burcu Sancar Besen

In this dichotomous study, the silicone-based softeners were produced with the contribution of some additives such as glycerin, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and…

Abstract

Purpose

In this dichotomous study, the silicone-based softeners were produced with the contribution of some additives such as glycerin, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) which had hydrophilic hydroxyl groups for providing or developing the hydrophilic character, lubricity and filling properties of the emulsions. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The produced softeners were applied to the 100 percent cotton-knitted fabrics at different concentrations (owf%). In the first part of the study, the produced silicone emulsions were characterized via particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential and TGA analyses. In addition, the effects of these emulsions on the mechanical properties of the fabrics were examined by bursting strength and pilling tests, and also the whiteness degrees (Berger value) of fabrics were researched. In the second part of the study, the effects of produced silicone softeners on the comfort properties of the fabrics were investigated.

Findings

According to the results, it was possible to say that the additives could be successfully added to the silicone emulsions, and they did not have a crucial effect on the properties of the emulsions or the mechanical and whiteness properties of the fabrics.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, the additives were used as single form in the softeners recipes; however, their dual or trio combinations and/or their different concentrations could be used in the softeners emulsions.

Practical implications

In order to enhance the hydrophilic character, the lubricity and filling properties of the silicone softeners, they could be produced by using appropriate additives.

Originality/value

The contribution of the additives to the recipes of the silicone softeners is a novel approach.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2009

R.H. Gong and A. Bhatia

Most commercial textile materials are given a “soft finish” for the comfort of the wearer. This paper investigates the effects of two levels of concentration for six…

Abstract

Most commercial textile materials are given a “soft finish” for the comfort of the wearer. This paper investigates the effects of two levels of concentration for six commercial softeners on cotton knitted fabrics. The fabric properties are measured by using the Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-FB). It is found that the application of softeners reduces the bending properties of interlock knitted fabrics due to the reduction in inter-yarn friction as the result of the lubrication effect of the softeners. For most softeners, a higher level of concentration leads to a softer fabric, but the optimum concentration level depends on the exact chemistry of the softener. Furthermore, the application of softeners does not reduce the shear properties of the knitted interlock fabric as expected. The main reason is that the shear deformation of a knitted structure is due to the stretching of the loops rather than inter-yarn movement as in the case for woven fabrics. The increased stability of the fabric after softener application makes the fabric more resistant to shear deformation. Therefore, for interlock knitted fabrics, shear properties are not reliable indicators of the softening effect.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Onur Balci, Gözde Özlem Kinoglu and Burcu Sancar Besen

In this study, which is divided into two parts, the silicone softeners having different properties and including different additives as glycerin, polyethylene glycol 400…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, which is divided into two parts, the silicone softeners having different properties and including different additives as glycerin, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) (due to their high hydrophilic characters) are produced for the purpose of providing or developing the hydrophilic character, lubricity and filling properties of the emulsions. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first part of the study, the produced silicone emulsions were characterized and applied to the 100 percent cotton-knitted fabrics. In addition, the mechanical properties and whiteness degrees of the fabrics were also researched. In this part of the study, the effects of the produced silicone softeners on the comfort properties of the fabric samples were investigated by qualitative handle, hydrophility, contact angle, air permeability, thermal comfort and moisture management tests.

Findings

The results showed that while classic silicone application improved mechanical comfort properties of the samples such as the handle and drape properties, they worsened other thermal comfort properties as hydrophility, transfer or dispersion of the moisture, and air permeability. In addition, the thermal comfort properties about heat transfer of the fabric samples were not significantly affected by application of the silicone softeners. All results were affected from the producing recipe of the silicone softeners, and generally the usage of the additives had positive effect on the comfort results depending on the producing recipe (especially type of the silicone oil) of the silicone softeners.

Research limitations/implications

In this study, the additives were used in single form; however, their dual or trio combinations and/or their different amounts can be used in the emulsions.

Practical implications

In order to enhance the hydrophilic character, lubricity and filling properties of the silicone softeners, they could be produced by using appropriate additives.

Originality/value

In the literature, there were not any studies about the silicone softeners including different additives. So the authors can say that the contribution of the additives to the recipes of the silicone softeners is a novel approach.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2021

Wardah Anam, Khurram Shehzad Akhtar, Faheem Ahmad, Abher Rasheed, Abher Rasheed, Muhammad Mohsin, Farooq Azam, Tehseen Ullah and Sheraz Ahmad

The purpose of this study was to produce yarns from three different spinning techniques, i.e.Murata Vortex Spinning (MVS) ring spinning and rotor spinning. Those yarns…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to produce yarns from three different spinning techniques, i.e.Murata Vortex Spinning (MVS) ring spinning and rotor spinning. Those yarns were then used to produce fabrics. Then, the effect of silicone softener on tactile comfort of fabric was investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Three different yarns, i.e. Ring, Rotor and MVS yarns, were used to make fabrics using CCI sample loom which were then subjected to post treatments like desizing, scouring and bleaching. After the completion of the dyeing process, silicone-based softener was used to improve the hand feel of fabrics. The structures of three yarns were evaluated using Scanning electron microscopy. The fabrics were evaluated against compression, bending and surface properties using Kawabata evaluation system.

Findings

The fabric made of MVS yarn depicted more geometrical roughness, coefficient of friction and bending rigidity but less compressibility as compared to fabrics made with other yarns. It was observed that softener concentration has a direct relationship with thickness and bending rigidity of the fabric, and inverse relationship with coefficient of friction and geometrical roughness of the fabric.

Originality/value

MVS yarn has some superior properties over rotor and ring spun yarn like high production rates, high resistance to pilling, clear appearance and stability against deformation but has disadvantage that it has less compressibility. Therefore, softener is applied on the fabric, to address this issue, so that it could also be used for apparels application.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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