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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Piia Seppälä, Jari J. Hakanen, Asko Tolvanen and Evangelia Demerouti

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of a job resources-based intervention aimed at proactively increasing work engagement and team innovativeness…

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1604

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of a job resources-based intervention aimed at proactively increasing work engagement and team innovativeness during organizational restructuring using a person-centered approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The intervention was conducted in two organizations: two departments served as participants (n=82) and two as controls (n=52). The aim was to first identify sub-groups of employees with different developmental patterns of work engagement, and then to determine whether these sub-groups benefited differently from the intervention with respect to team innovativeness and work engagement.

Findings

Latent profile analysis identified three different patterns of work engagement among the participants: high and stable (n=64), moderate and decreasing (n=13), and low and decreasing (n=5). The χ²-test yielded no significant difference between participants and controls (n=52) with respect to team innovativeness over time. However, t-tests showed that team innovativeness increased in the high work engagement class and somewhat decreased in the moderate and low work engagement classes.

Practical implications

During organizational changes, those initially work-engaged seem to be able to proactively build their team innovativeness via a job resources-based intervention and remain engaged; whereas those initially not work-engaged may not, and their work engagement may even decrease.

Originality/value

This study reveals that an initial level of work engagement is a prerequisite why some employees profit more from a job resources-based intervention than others and provides tailored knowledge on the effectiveness of the intervention.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 31 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Inge L. Hulshof, Evangelia Demerouti and Pascale M. Le Blanc

This study examines whether job crafting is related to service-oriented task performance (i.e. performance aimed at providing high-quality services) through meaningful…

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1096

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines whether job crafting is related to service-oriented task performance (i.e. performance aimed at providing high-quality services) through meaningful work and work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 156 employees of a Dutch unemployment agency (4 days, 531 observations). Multilevel SEM was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Results showed that job crafting was related to service-oriented task performance via meaningful work and work engagement. Specifically, seeking resources and seeking challenges were positively related to service-oriented task performance via meaningful work and work engagement, whereas reducing demands was negatively related to service-oriented task performance via meaningful work and work engagement.

Originality/value

The study concludes that seeking resources and seeking challenges are beneficial for service-oriented task performance.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Evangelia Demerouti, Arnold B. Bakker and Yitzhak Fried

This study aims to examine the role of instrumental vs intrinsic work orientations in the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model.

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3864

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the role of instrumental vs intrinsic work orientations in the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model.

Design/methodology

Using a sample of 123 employees, the authors investigated longitudinally whether an instrumental work orientation moderates the motivational process, and mediates the health impairment process in the JD‐R model.

Findings

Regression analyses revealed that an increase in job resources over time was particularly beneficial for experienced flow at Time 2 among employees holding an instrumental (vs intrinsic) work orientation. In addition, structural equation modeling analyses showed that work pressure was reciprocal with need for recovery, which was reciprocal with instrumental work orientation.

Research limitations/implications

Findings suggest that work orientation should be integrated in research linking work characteristics with motivational and health impairment processes.

Practical implications

Organizations should avoid placing overly high demands on their employees as these not only impair employees' health, but also change their orientation towards work.

Social implications

Organizations can contribute to the wellbeing of individuals and society by designing jobs that provide affordable demands and sufficient resources.

Originality/value

The present study successfully integrated work orientations in the JD‐R model.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Evangelia Demerouti, Sabine A.E. Geurts and Michiel Kompier

This study conducted among 751 employees of the Dutch Postal Service examined (1) the prevalence of various types of work‐home interaction, (2) the relationships of (these…

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1879

Abstract

This study conducted among 751 employees of the Dutch Postal Service examined (1) the prevalence of various types of work‐home interaction, (2) the relationships of (these various types of) work‐home interaction with selected work and home characteristics, and (3) the relationships of (these various types of) work‐home interaction with two health indicators (i.e., fatigue and health complaints). Results supported our assumption that workhome interaction is best characterized by a four‐dimensional structure crossing the distinction between the direction of influence (work → home influence (WHI) vs. Home → work influence (HWI)) and the quality of influence (negative vs. positive). The results further supported our hypotheses, derived from the Demand‐Control‐Support Model and the Effort‐Recovery Model: job demands were most strongly related to negative influence from work (negative WHI), and home demands were primarily (albeit weakly) related to negative influence from home (negative HWI). In accordance with our expectation, job control and particularly job support were associated with positive WHI. There was no support, however, for a similar facilitating process originating in the home situation: home control and home support were not related to any type of interaction. Furthermore, particularly negative WHI was associated with fatigue and health complaints. These findings add to the existing knowledge about possible antecedents and consequences of the interaction between work and private life.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 23 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Ralph Kattenbach, Evangelia Demerouti and Friedhelm Nachreiner

The aim of this study is to provide a useful conceptualization of flexible working times and to examine the relationships between flexible working times and employees'…

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12977

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to provide a useful conceptualization of flexible working times and to examine the relationships between flexible working times and employees' well‐being and peer ratings of performance. It is supposed that an employee's “time‐autonomy” would be positively related to performance and well‐being. On the contrary, an unfavorable effect of “time restriction” on well‐being is expected.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire‐study was conducted among 167 German employees from 17 different organizations. Information about in‐role and extra‐role performance was also obtained via peer evaluations.

Findings

The data support a two‐factor structure of flexibility. The time restriction factor adds to the degree of exhaustion and the work‐nonwork conflict, while time autonomy diminishes these outcome variables. However, the flexibility dimensions are unrelated to performance.

Originality/value

The multidimensional conceptualization of flexibility allows for the detection of advantages and drawbacks regarding the effectiveness of flexible working time models.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Despoina Xanthopoulou, Arnold B. Bakker, Maureen F. Dollard, Evangelia Demerouti, Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Toon W. Taris and Paul J.G. Schreurs

The purpose of this paper is to focus on home care organization employees, and examine how the interaction between job demands (emotional demands, patient harassment…

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7883

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on home care organization employees, and examine how the interaction between job demands (emotional demands, patient harassment, workload, and physical demands) and job resources (autonomy, social support, performance feedback, and opportunities for professional development) affect the core dimensions of burnout (exhaustion and cynicism).

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses were tested with a cross‐sectional design among 747 Dutch employees from two home care organizations.

Findings

Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses partially supported the hypotheses as 21 out of 32 (66 per cent) possible two‐way interactions were significant and in the expected direction. In addition, job resources were stronger buffers of the relationship between emotional demands/patient harassment and burnout, than of the relationship between workload/physical demands and burnout.

Practical implications

The conclusions may be particularly useful for occupational settings, including home care organizations, where reducing or redesigning demands is difficult.

Originality/value

The findings confirm the JD‐R model by showing that several job resources can buffer the relationship between job demands and burnout.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Arnold B. Bakker and Evangelia Demerouti

This paper aims to provide an overview of the recently introduced concept of work engagement.

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42803

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an overview of the recently introduced concept of work engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative and quantitative studies on work engagement are reviewed to uncover the manifestation of engagement, and reveal its antecedents and consequences.

Findings

Work engagement can be defined as a state including vigor, dedication, and absorption. Job and personal resources are the main predictors of engagement; these resources gain their salience in the context of high job demands. Engaged workers are more creative, more productive, and more willing to go the extra mile.

Originality/value

The findings of previous studies are integrated in an overall model that can be used to develop work engagement and advance career development in today's workplace.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Paraskevas Petrou and Evangelia Demerouti

The purpose of this paper is to address regulatory focus (promotion vs prevention) as a trait-level variable and a week-level variable linked to employee job crafting…

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1696

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address regulatory focus (promotion vs prevention) as a trait-level variable and a week-level variable linked to employee job crafting behaviors (i.e. seeking resources, seeking challenges and reducing demands). The authors hypothesized that while promotion focus relates positively to seeking resources and seeking challenges, prevention focus relates positively to reducing demands. Furthermore, the authors expected that the links between week-level regulatory focus and crafting would be stronger when the respective trait-level regulatory focus is high.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were conducted to address the aims, namely, a cross-sectional survey among 580 civil servants and a weekly survey among 81 employees of several occupations.

Findings

The hypothesized links between regulatory focus and job crafting were supported at the trait- and the week-level. Only the link between week-level prevention focus and reducing demands was stronger when trait-level prevention focus was high. Unexpectedly, seeking resources positively related to prevention focus at the week-level.

Practical implications

While prevention states may enhance reducing demands behaviors especially for prevention focussed employees, organizations and managers may use promotion states to enhance seeking resources and seeking challenges behaviors among all types of employees and, thereby, shape a strategy emphasizing the promotion values of growth and development.

Originality/value

The findings shed light to a diverse range of employee motivational orientations (i.e. approach vs avoidance and trait-like vs state-like) behind job crafting and, thus, shed light to individual correlates of job crafting.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2009

Maria Peeters, Cobi Wattez, Evangelia Demerouti and Wietske de Regt

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether work‐family (WF) interference functions as an explaining mechanism in the link between work‐family culture and well‐being…

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2568

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether work‐family (WF) interference functions as an explaining mechanism in the link between work‐family culture and well‐being, hereby distinguishing between a negative and a positive process. The negative, energy depleting process initiates from a hindrance work‐family culture and ends up to burnout through the experience of work‐family conflict. The positive, motivation generating process initiates from a supportive work‐family culture and ends up to work engagement through work‐family enrichment.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a quantitative study among employees from three different organizations (n=516).

Findings

Work‐family conflict fully mediates the relationship between a hindrance WF‐culture and the exhaustion dimension of burnout and partially mediates the relationship between a hindrance WF‐culture and the cynicism dimension of burnout. With regard to the mediational role of work‐family enrichment the results also confirm the paper's hypothesis. Work‐family enrichment partially mediates the relationship between a supportive WF‐culture and work engagement. Interestingly, analyses of some alternative mediational paths reveal some additional findings. Specifically, a supportive work‐family culture relates to work engagement through the perception of less work‐family conflict. Moreover, a supportive culture is also related to less feelings of burnout through work‐family enrichment.

Originality/value

The study shows that it pays off to invest in a supportive work‐family culture because such a culture contributes to work engagement and in the same time helps to prevent burnout.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 30 November 2010

Veerle Brenninkmeijer, Evangelia Demerouti, Pascale M. le Blanc and I.J. Hetty van Emmerik

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands‐resources model.

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2958

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of regulatory focus in the job demands‐resources model.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire survey was conducted among 146 teachers in secondary education. It was expected that detrimental effects of job demands (i.e. workload, interpersonal conflict) on emotional exhaustion would be more pronounced among individuals with a strong prevention focus (oriented towards safety and security). Favorable effects of job resources (i.e. autonomy, social support) on motivational outcomes were expected to be more pronounced among individuals with a strong promotion focus (oriented towards growth and development).

Findings

The hypotheses regarding the moderating role of prevention focus were confirmed, but the moderating effect of promotion focus appeared to be exactly opposite to expectations. The effect of job resources on motivational outcomes was more pronounced for individuals with a weak promotion focus.

Originality/value

To the best of one's knowledge, this is the first study to examine the role of regulatory focus in the job demands‐resources model. The study shows that regulatory focus is important in explaining individual responses to job demands and resources and may therefore be a relevant factor in career development.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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