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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

Clifton P. Campbell

Job analysis is the common basis for designing a training course orprogramme, preparing performance tests, writing position (job)descriptions, identifying performance…

Abstract

Job analysis is the common basis for designing a training course or programme, preparing performance tests, writing position (job) descriptions, identifying performance appraisal criteria, and job restructuring. Its other applications in human resource development include career counselling and wage and salary administration. Job analysis answers the questions of what tasks, performed in what manner, make up a job. Outputs of this analytical study include: (a) a list of the job tasks; (b) details of how each task is performed; (c) statements describing the responsibility, job knowledge, mental application, and dexterity, as well as accuracy required; and (d) a list of the equipment, materials, and supplies used to perform the job. Various techniques for conducting a job analysis have been used. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. As a result, different techniques or combinations of techniques are appropriate to different situations. The combined on‐site observation and individual interview techniques are recommended for industrial, trade, craft, clerical, and technical jobs because they generate the most thorough and probably the most valid information. A job analysis schedule is used to report the job information obtained through observations and individual interviews. The schedule provides a framework of 12 items in which to arrange and describe important job analysis information. These 12 items are organised into four sections. Section one consists of items one through four. These items identify the job within the establishment in which it occurs. The second section presents item five, the work performed. It provides a thorough and complete description of the tasks of the job. The Work Performed section describes what the job incumbent does, how it is done, and why it is done. Section three presents items six through nine. These are the requirements placed on the job incumbent for successful performance. It is a detailed interpretation of the basic minimum (a) responsibility, (b) job knowledge, (c) mental application, and (d) dexterity and accuracy required of the job incumbent. The fourth section includes three items which provide background information on the job. These items are: (a) equipment, materials and supplies; (b) definitions of terms; and (c) general comments. Appendix A is a glossary of terms associated with job analysis. It is provided to facilitate more exacting communication. A job analysis schedule for a complex and a relatively simple job are included in Appendices B and C. These examples illustrate how important job analysis information is arranged and described. Appendix D provides a list of action verbs which are helpful when describing the manipulative tasks of a job.

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Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Abstract

Economists and sociologists have proposed arguments for why there can exist wage penalties for work involving helping and caring for others, penalties borne disproportionately by women. Evidence on wage penalties is neither abundant nor compelling. We examine wage differentials associated with caring jobs using multiple years of Current Population Survey (CPS) earnings files matched to O*NET job descriptors that provide continuous measures of “assisting & caring” and “concern” for others across all occupations. This approach differs from prior studies that assume occupations either do or do not require a high level of caring. Cross-section and longitudinal analyses are used to examine wage differences associated with the level of caring, conditioned on worker, location, and job attributes. Wage level estimates suggest substantive caring penalties, particularly among men. Longitudinal estimates based on wage changes among job switchers indicate smaller wage penalties, our preferred estimate being a 2% wage penalty resulting from a one standard deviation increase in our caring index. We find little difference in caring wage gaps across the earnings distribution. Measuring mean levels of caring across the U.S. labor market over nearly thirty years, we find a steady upward trend, but overall changes are small and there is no evidence of convergence between women and men.

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Gender Convergence in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-456-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

David F. Neumann

The supervisor job analysis process was initially developed in a large US fast food chain for establishing selection criteria. As supervisors started using this tool…

Abstract

The supervisor job analysis process was initially developed in a large US fast food chain for establishing selection criteria. As supervisors started using this tool, their interest and enthusiasm led the firm to expand it beyond its original purpose to include the other components of performance. The process is discussed and its use by line management in developing job evaluation dimensions, selection criteria, performance appraisal and identifying training needs is described. Finally, the implementation process and effectiveness of the programme is assessed.

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Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Through a survey of 200 employees working in five of the thirty establishments analysed in previous research about the microeconomic effects of reducing the working time…

Abstract

Through a survey of 200 employees working in five of the thirty establishments analysed in previous research about the microeconomic effects of reducing the working time (Cahier 25), the consequences on employees of such a reduction can be assessed; and relevant attitudes and aspirations better known.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

I‐Wei Chang and Brian H. Kleiner

Outlines the purpose of job analysis and the way in which it is carried out. Identifies the main steps within the process and discusses each in turn. Considers job

Abstract

Outlines the purpose of job analysis and the way in which it is carried out. Identifies the main steps within the process and discusses each in turn. Considers job evaluation, looking at ranking and point systems as well as factor comparison. Covers the management of compensation as an integral part of any effective management system. Provides a basic approach to the subject involving identifying needs, determining objectives, developing and implementing programmes and revising procedures.

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Management Research News, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Jon‐Chao Hong and Yi‐Shyuan Lin

With changes in world and national economies and the continuing trendover the last 20 years towards industrial automation, the nature of theworkforce required has changed…

Abstract

With changes in world and national economies and the continuing trend over the last 20 years towards industrial automation, the nature of the workforce required has changed. Take the current industrial pattern of automation as an example. The demand for production operators drops while the demand for maintenance and repair workers increases. Unfortunately, however, most of the industrial workforce lacks the skills required to become effective members of this new workforce. This means that the changes in manufacturing processes and technologies must take place more slowly than would be the case if a ready supply of the right kind of labour existed. Not surprisingly, this means that we need to place emphasis on the training and development of workers to give them the appropriate knowledge and skills.

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Work Study, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Thomas A. Stetz, Scott B. Button and Dustin W. Scott

The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of two innovative job analysis techniques. First, a graphic‐based approach is used to collect job classification data…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of two innovative job analysis techniques. First, a graphic‐based approach is used to collect job classification data. Second, the results are presented in a graphical representation to decision makers. In addition, the paper examines two concepts, similarity and relatedness, often confused by subject matter experts (SMEs) and decision makers in the context of job classification.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach was used. Focus groups of SMEs used a graphic‐based tool to group jobs into occupational clusters based on the concepts of similarity and relatedness. To effectively communicate the results to organizational decision makers a graphic presentation technique was used.

Findings

The paper found that SMEs were highly engaged in the graphical approach. Decision makers were also intrigued by the graphical presentation. In addition, the paper found confusion between the concepts of similarity and relatedness throughout the process. This confusion had important implications for the grouping of jobs into occupational clusters.

Practical implications

The graphic presentation of results highlighted issues around which the agency had been previously struggling. The approach allowed decision makers to examine and understand meaningful data and reach consensus on complex, multi‐faceted issues. The results also showed that people often confuse the similarity and relatedness of jobs, and that this confusion should be taken into consideration when communicating with non‐job analysts.

Originality/value

Job analysis and classification has changed little over the past several decades. This paper applies innovative ideas to job classification which are equally applicable to job analysis offering interesting avenues for future research and practice.

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Management Research Review, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2008

Robert Boyd

The purpose of this research is to apply principles from the field of industrial and organizational psychology on organizational analysis and job analysis to better…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to apply principles from the field of industrial and organizational psychology on organizational analysis and job analysis to better identify successful candidates for employment in an Information Commons.

Design/methodology/approach

Review of professional research, research from both library literature and industrial and organizational psychology, review of professional association surveys.

Findings

Library administration must invest time to articulate mission, value, and goals for the Information Commons before undertaking the organizational analysis. From the organizational analysis will flow the job analysis, job descriptions and hiring protocols.

Original/value

Core concepts of organizational analysis and job analysis from the field of industrial and organizational psychology are pertinent and useful to library leaders in planning, implementing and staffing new service models, such as Information Commons.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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