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Trait-level and week-level regulatory focus as a motivation to craft a job

Paraskevas Petrou (Institute of Psychology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands AND Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands)
Evangelia Demerouti (Department of Industrial Engineering & Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University, Eindhoven, The Netherlands)

Career Development International

ISSN: 1362-0436

Article publication date: 11 May 2015




The purpose of this paper is to address regulatory focus (promotion vs prevention) as a trait-level variable and a week-level variable linked to employee job crafting behaviors (i.e. seeking resources, seeking challenges and reducing demands). The authors hypothesized that while promotion focus relates positively to seeking resources and seeking challenges, prevention focus relates positively to reducing demands. Furthermore, the authors expected that the links between week-level regulatory focus and crafting would be stronger when the respective trait-level regulatory focus is high.


Two studies were conducted to address the aims, namely, a cross-sectional survey among 580 civil servants and a weekly survey among 81 employees of several occupations.


The hypothesized links between regulatory focus and job crafting were supported at the trait- and the week-level. Only the link between week-level prevention focus and reducing demands was stronger when trait-level prevention focus was high. Unexpectedly, seeking resources positively related to prevention focus at the week-level.

Practical implications

While prevention states may enhance reducing demands behaviors especially for prevention focussed employees, organizations and managers may use promotion states to enhance seeking resources and seeking challenges behaviors among all types of employees and, thereby, shape a strategy emphasizing the promotion values of growth and development.


The findings shed light to a diverse range of employee motivational orientations (i.e. approach vs avoidance and trait-like vs state-like) behind job crafting and, thus, shed light to individual correlates of job crafting.



This work was supported by a High Potential grant from the Utrecht University to Evangelia Demerouti.


Petrou, P. and Demerouti, E. (2015), "Trait-level and week-level regulatory focus as a motivation to craft a job", Career Development International, Vol. 20 No. 2, pp. 102-118.



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Copyright © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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