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Flexible working times: effects on employees' exhaustion, work‐nonwork conflict and job performance

Ralph Kattenbach (Centre for Personnel Research, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany)
Evangelia Demerouti (Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands)
Friedhelm Nachreiner (Department of Psychology, Industrial and Organizational Psychology Unit, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, Oldenburg, Germany)

Career Development International

ISSN: 1362-0436

Article publication date: 22 June 2010



The aim of this study is to provide a useful conceptualization of flexible working times and to examine the relationships between flexible working times and employees' well‐being and peer ratings of performance. It is supposed that an employee's “time‐autonomy” would be positively related to performance and well‐being. On the contrary, an unfavorable effect of “time restriction” on well‐being is expected.


A questionnaire‐study was conducted among 167 German employees from 17 different organizations. Information about in‐role and extra‐role performance was also obtained via peer evaluations.


The data support a two‐factor structure of flexibility. The time restriction factor adds to the degree of exhaustion and the work‐nonwork conflict, while time autonomy diminishes these outcome variables. However, the flexibility dimensions are unrelated to performance.


The multidimensional conceptualization of flexibility allows for the detection of advantages and drawbacks regarding the effectiveness of flexible working time models.



Kattenbach, R., Demerouti, E. and Nachreiner, F. (2010), "Flexible working times: effects on employees' exhaustion, work‐nonwork conflict and job performance", Career Development International, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 279-295.



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