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Abstract

Details

Reflections and Extensions on Key Papers of the First Twenty-Five Years of Advances
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-435-0

Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Elina Kallas and Eve Parts

The present paper aims to identify a set of cognitive and contextual characteristics that explain entrepreneurial intentions, actions and venture creation, thereby…

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to identify a set of cognitive and contextual characteristics that explain entrepreneurial intentions, actions and venture creation, thereby covering three successive stages of becoming an entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on entrepreneurship data from a self-reported online survey (n = 1,492) gathered among the Estonian population in 2017. The authors use an exploratory factor analysis to reduce initial survey responses about the external environment into latent factors. Linear regression models are applied to predict the determinants of entrepreneurial intention and actions, whereas the logit model is applied to find out the determinants of being or not being an entrepreneur.

Findings

Younger people, respondents with vocational education and the unemployed have a higher intention to start up. Men are more active than women in the second stage of taking real action, whereas middle-aged respondents and managers are less active. In the final stage of enterprise creation, men become more likely entrepreneurs, whereas younger people and those who do not have higher education become less likely entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial attitudes and competencies as preconditional factors of entrepreneurial readiness have a positive effect in all three stages. The role of motivation appeared to be controversial – it has a weak positive effect on the intention stage but a strong negative effect on the action stage, becoming insignificant in the final stage of becoming an entrepreneur. In the final stage, taking real action has the strongest positive effect. Regarding differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs have a more positive perception of the business environment and the ease of doing business, including the simplicity of entrepreneurship-related legislation. On the other hand, entrepreneurs are more skeptical about the availability of financial resources, and they perceive public attitudes and the role of entrepreneurs in a society less positively.

Research limitations/implications

As data of this study originates from a survey, the sample may not represent the whole population. This might limit the extent to which the conclusions of this study can be generalized. Also, the study’s data do not enable us to consider all potential factors that may affect entrepreneurial intention, action and venture creation. For example, the authors do not consider the effect of income or differences between opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship because of data limitations.

Practical implications

This study focuses on environmental obstacles and individual restrictions that are important in different stages of becoming an entrepreneur. In terms of policy implications, providing better financing opportunities both from private and public institutions and keeping entrepreneurship legislation simple and transparent have the utmost importance in increasing the share of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship-related benefits in society. The younger population’s high entrepreneurial intentions should be transferred more effectively into real actions toward starting up, paired with supportive entrepreneurship education.

Social implications

The study results show that developing positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship and providing relevant competencies through the education system are relevant factors in all stages of becoming an entrepreneur, thus enabling entrepreneurial activities in society.

Originality/value

First, the authors investigate the factors of entrepreneurship separately during the three stages in the journey of becoming an entrepreneur, starting from intentions, followed by preparation actions and finalized by real enterprise creation. Second, the analysis of this study is based on the original Environment-Readiness Entrepreneurship Intention model, which emphasizes the role of the external environment in entrepreneurial processes. Ten factors of the external environment are extracted using exploratory analysis instead of using three traditional predefined factors of the economic, political and socio-cultural environment. Third, our focus on Estonia broadens the knowledge about entrepreneurship in the Central and Eastern European region in general and in the Baltic region, more specifically.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 June 2022

Endrit Kromidha, Levent Altinay, Gulsevim Kinali Madanoglu, Armiyash Nurmagambetova and Melih Madanoglu

Entrepreneurial intentions have traditionally been linked to an entrepreneur's personal ability to take advantage of opportunities. Yet, entrepreneurs' perceptions of…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial intentions have traditionally been linked to an entrepreneur's personal ability to take advantage of opportunities. Yet, entrepreneurs' perceptions of contextual factors, which extend beyond one's control, deserve equal attention. This paper looks at the role played by cultural intelligence and the institutional environment in shaping entrepreneurial intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The role played by cultural intelligence in entrepreneurial intentions and the mediating role played by the institutional environment were studied quantitatively by analyzing 224 young potential entrepreneurs who had participated in a business plan competition. This study used cross-sectional data, developing an original full collinearity assessment approach to check for any common method bias.

Findings

This study reveals a positive relationship between cultural intelligence and entrepreneurial intentions. Likewise, any favorable perceptions of the institutional environment tend to increase the probability of engaging in entrepreneurship and further strengthen the positive effect of cultural intelligence on entrepreneurial intentions.

Originality/value

This study provides a holistic view of the relationship between the entrepreneur and the context in which ventures are created, explaining the role played by cultural intelligence in entrepreneurship based on evidence drawn from a developing country. This contributes to a critical reflection on personal and environmental factors and the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Xiaofang Yao, Xiyue Wu and Dan Long

This paper aims to explore the impact mechanism of Chinese university students’ perceived entrepreneurial environment on their entrepreneurial tendency in the context of…

1498

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the impact mechanism of Chinese university students’ perceived entrepreneurial environment on their entrepreneurial tendency in the context of Chinese economic transition. In particular, the paper provides a reference for relevant departments to make policies and entrepreneurship educators to perfect the pedagogical design and curriculum development in entrepreneurship education programs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used questionnaires to collect data in Chinese universities via random sampling, and gained 729 valid questionnaires. Results from principal component analysis indicate that the scales have a good reliability. In particular, entrepreneurial attitude had three components. The hypotheses are tested by using Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression; the level of statistical significance of F-test was less than 0.05. Hence, multiple linear regression can be used in the analyses.

Findings

The study found that university students’ perceived social environment and economic environment have a positive influence on their entrepreneurial tendency, and entrepreneurial attitude is partially playing a mediating role between students’ perceived entrepreneurial environment and entrepreneurial tendency. However, students’ perceived policy environment has no significant impact on entrepreneurial tendency.

Originality/value

Environmental factors are often viewed as“gap fillers” in related studies, and mostly concentrated in the Western developed countries. This study attempts to fill the gaps in the context of Chinese economic transition.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Michael Sheriff and Moreno Muffatto

Entrepreneurship ecosystems could be useful road maps for the formulation of entrepreneurship policies for countries in Africa. The twenty-first century economic…

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Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship ecosystems could be useful road maps for the formulation of entrepreneurship policies for countries in Africa. The twenty-first century economic development agenda lay a lot of emphasis on the pivotal role that entrepreneurship plays in the growth of economies, job creation and poverty alleviation especially in Africa. But without the right entrepreneurial ecosystems to enhance the formulation of pertinent entrepreneurship policies, achieving entrepreneurial economic growth will be difficult. The existing frameworks for the development of entrepreneurship ecosystems are based on research that has been conducted elsewhere. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Entrepreneurship research in Africa has rarely focused in understanding and evaluating the entrepreneurship ecosystems. In this paper, we have attempted to examine the present state of the entrepreneurship ecosystems in four countries (Botswana, Egypt, Ghana and Uganda) in Africa. Despite the fact that extant literature on the concept is limited, it has been reviewed to provide a picture of entrepreneurship ecosystems. Relevant national and international documents were also examined to evaluate the present state of entrepreneurship ecosystems in these countries.

Findings

The findings from each of the countries though they depict a static situation, justify the proposition that entrepreneurs are omnipresent, it is only the entrepreneurship environment that accounts for the differences in entrepreneurial economic growth and the cross-countries comparisons shows the dissimilarities in national entrepreneurship environments.

Research limitations/implications

In conclusion, a broad process to develop entrepreneurship ecosystems initiatives is suggested alongside the crucial roles that governments and other stakeholders should play which implies that a National Entrepreneurship Mission might be necessary.

Originality/value

Multiple case studies that have compared entrepreneurship ecosystems of countries in Africa are very rare. This study though explorative, is one of the first. The findings and conclusions could be useful for a detailed study to map out pertinent and self sustaining entrepreneurship ecosystems that are necessary for the formulation of entrepreneurship policies.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Syed Zamberi Ahmad and Siri Roland Xavier

The purpose of this paper is to explore the entrepreneurial activities in Malaysia through determining some demographic characteristics, expert and individual perceptions…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the entrepreneurial activities in Malaysia through determining some demographic characteristics, expert and individual perceptions of Malaysian entrepreneurs, in addition to the environment for entrepreneurship, and to highlight Malaysia's entrepreneurial position internationally.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was drawn from country‐level data provided by the National Malaysia GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) to evaluate the current status of entrepreneurial environments in the country.

Findings

The findings show that the early stages of entrepreneurship development in Malaysia are very dynamic and volatile. The number of early‐stage entrepreneurial activities in Malaysia is still lower than in other parts of developing countries. Inadequate financial support, bureaucracy and inconsistency of government policies, lack of entrepreneurial education at tertiary level and inadequacy of entrepreneurial training are some of the important obstacles encountered by entrepreneurs in Malaysia. On the other hand, there are favourable entrepreneurial environmental conditions determined in this study that are promising: the physical infrastructures and services access towards entrepreneurship, and the financial environment related with entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

The results are also useful for optimising the local entrepreneurial environment, and are helpful for policy decision makers. Institutions need to be strengthened before entrepreneurial resources can be fully deployed.

Originality/value

This paper provides the Malaysian government with theoretical support so that the government can utilise limited resources to develop entrepreneurial activities.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Alex Bignotti, Alex J. Antonites and Uapirama J. Kavari

Entrepreneurship is increasingly being recognised as a vehicle for bringing about the development of different economic sectors in various geographical regions, and it is…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurship is increasingly being recognised as a vehicle for bringing about the development of different economic sectors in various geographical regions, and it is believed to result in greater productivity and entrepreneurial performance in agriculture. To date, there are no empirically verified holistic models focussing on the development of agricultural entrepreneurship in an African context. This study aims to fill this gap by developing an agricultural entrepreneurial development model (AEDM) that provides a basis for enhancing entrepreneurial performance in the agriculture sector.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a holistic conceptual AEDM was built from the extant literature with a focus on the African context and encompassing dimension of the enabling environment, entrepreneurial performance and its outcomes. Then, the model was tested empirically by conducting a survey with 477 farmers in Namibia who benefit from Namibia’s National Resettlement Programme and the Affirmative Action Loan Scheme. The model was tested statistically using partial least square-structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results reveal that a supportive environment, entrepreneurial orientation and agricultural sustainability exert a positive impact on entrepreneurial performance in agriculture, which, in turn, leads to greater agricultural productivity and increased income for farmers.

Originality/value

The study theoretically develops and empirically tests a holistic model of agricultural entrepreneurship development. The value of the model lies in its consideration of a plethora of enabling-environment antecedents of entrepreneurial performance in agriculture, as well as some specific organisational- and individual-level outcomes thereof. Therefore, it offers policymakers and practitioners a blueprint for developing agricultural entrepreneurship in an African context.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 November 2011

Samuel Gómez‐Haro, Juan Alberto Aragón‐Correa and Eulogio Cordón‐Pozo

The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how different dimensions of the institutional environment of a region may influence the level…

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Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how different dimensions of the institutional environment of a region may influence the level of corporate entrepreneurship of firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops the relationship between the institutional environment, differentiated in regulatory, cognitive and normative dimensions, and entrepreneurship in existing firms, corporate entrepreneurship, via a questionnaire study covering 150 firms in Spain.

Findings

The relation between institutional environment and corporate entrepreneurship can be distinct. The results show that both the normative and cognitive dimension of the institutional environment influence an organisation's entrepreneurial orientation. They also show that regulatory dimension influences what type of corporate entrepreneurial activity is carried out.

Originality/value

Literature about institutional theory and entrepreneurship has been both descriptive and fragmented. This paper complements the increasing interest in the analysis of the influence of institutional frameworks on corporate entrepreneurship and answers recent calls in the literature to complete previous analyses in an empirical way that supports previous works.

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2022

Nahid Darooghe Arefi, Hassan Bahrololoum, Reza Andam and Aliakbar Hasani

Sustainable development of entrepreneurship could be comprehensively analyzed using a simulation model for entrepreneurship ecosystem based on the system dynamics…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable development of entrepreneurship could be comprehensively analyzed using a simulation model for entrepreneurship ecosystem based on the system dynamics approach. Thus, a complete analysis of the entrepreneurship ecosystem is of high importance. However, an effective analysis of entrepreneurship ecosystem involves many challenges, such as the presence of several factors which interact with each other in various ways with different complex effects in time. Therefore, the approach used in this study is employing analysis of entrepreneurship ecosystems in sports industry using analysis of dynamic systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Several applied issues such as entrepreneurship opportunities, infrastructures, market opportunities and entrepreneurship space in the borders of the dynamic model developed based on the literature and experts' opinion. Finally, a set of strategies based on experts' opinion are ranked with the objective of improvement of evaluation measures using network analysis decision-making approach and fuzzy TOPSIS.

Findings

The results obtained indicate the important role of sports entrepreneurship opportunities, sports tourism, market opportunities, entrepreneurship infrastructures and entrepreneurship-oriented environment in the development of sports entrepreneurship infrastructure in Iran. The credibility and efficiency of the proposed model for analysis of sports entrepreneurship have been ultimately shown.

Originality/value

A holistic approach is proposed based on the hybrid system dynamics approach and fuzzy decision-making method to analyses sports entrepreneurship ecosystem.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Erich J. Schwarz, Malgorzata A. Wdowiak, Daniela A. Almer‐Jarz and Robert J. Breitenecker

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors influencing students' intent to create a new venture. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour and Autio's model of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine key factors influencing students' intent to create a new venture. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour and Autio's model of intention, it aims to develop a model of entrepreneurial intent that incorporates both human and environmental factors. Specifically, the proposed model aims to focus on three constructs to predict the entrepreneurial intent, i.e. general attitudes (toward money, change, and competiveness), the attitude toward entrepreneurship, and the perception of the university environment and regional start‐up infrastructure.

Design/methodology/approach

In June 2005, 35,040 students of medicine, law, and technical, natural, social and business science from seven universities in Austria (electronic survey) were contacted. The response rate was 8.10 per cent. A total of 2,124 cases were considered in the final analysis. A multiple linear regression model with attitudes, perceptions of environment conditions, and selected control variables (age, gender, field of study) was estimated to test the hypotheses.

Findings

With the exception of the attitude toward competitiveness, all other paths regarding general and specific attitudes are significant. Pertaining to the environment conditions, only significant effects of the university on students' interest in business founding were detected. Other environment factors have no impact on entrepreneurial intention among students in Austria. In addition to that, significant differences in entrepreneurial intent regarding age, gender and field of study were found. Despite variation in the intent level between students of different fields of study, any significant differences in the effects of predictor variables on the entrepreneurial intent among the investigated student population were not discovered.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should place more emphasis on interaction between personal and environmental factors. Besides, students' social networks (family and friends) should be included in the analysis of entrepreneurial career decision. Practical implications – The universities in Austria should more extensively address entrepreneurship education to students of other subjects than business sciences. An important component of entrepreneurial training is a social learning process. In this respect, inviting successful entrepreneurs (role models) to the lectures or enabling students small business experience via interaction with local entrepreneurs can be viewed as supportive actions. Developing entrepreneurial skills as crucial life capacities should be the main target of all university faculties.

Originality/value

The paper lays the foundation for a better understanding of the “intent preconditions” in the context of new venture creation, particularly in the context of Austrian students.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 34000