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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Christian M. Ringle, Marko Sarstedt and Hossein Olya

This study aims to propose guidelines for the joint use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose guidelines for the joint use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to combine symmetric and asymmetric perspectives in model evaluation, in the hospitality and tourism field.

Design/methodology/approach

This study discusses PLS-SEM as a symmetric approach and fsQCA as an asymmetric approach to analyze structural and configurational models. It presents guidelines to conduct an fsQCA based on latent construct scores drawn from PLS-SEM, to assess how configurations of exogenous constructs produce a specific outcome in an endogenous construct.

Findings

This research highlights the advantages of combining PLS-SEM and fsQCA to analyze the causal effects of antecedents (i.e., exogenous constructs) on outcomes (i.e., endogenous constructs). The construct scores extracted from the PLS-SEM analysis of a nomological network of constructs provide accurate input for performing fsQCA to identify the sufficient configurations required to predict the outcome(s). Complementing the assessment of the model’s explanatory and predictive power, the fsQCA generates more fine-grained insights into variable relationships, thereby offering the means to reach better managerial conclusions.

Originality/value

The application of PLS-SEM and fsQCA as separate prediction-oriented methods has increased notably in recent years. However, in the absence of clear guidelines, studies applied the methods inconsistently, giving researchers little direction on how to best apply PLS-SEM and fsQCA in tandem. To address this concern, this study provides guidelines for the joint use of PLS-SEM and fsQCA.

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2021

David Marius Gligor, Ismail Golgeci, Carla Rego, Ivan Russo, Sıddık Bozkurt, Terrance Pohlen, Brian Hiatt and Vipul Garg

The purpose of this paper is to build on recent efforts occurring within business-to-business (B2B) marketing research to advance methodological developments. As phenomena…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to build on recent efforts occurring within business-to-business (B2B) marketing research to advance methodological developments. As phenomena within B2B relationships have become increasingly complex, marketing scholars have begun to point out the limitations associated with correlation-based methodological approaches and highlight the need for new developments in this area. One such development is the fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA).

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a literature review to examine the use of fsQCA in B2B marketing research.

Findings

First, the current manuscript presents the benefits that the application of fsQCA can offer to market researchers investigating B2B phenomena. Second, the paper presents the current state of fsQCA use within B2B marketing. Third, it suggests possible marketing B2B research topics that can be explored using fsQCA.

Originality/value

The study highlights the benefits of fsQCA, presents the current state of fsQCA use within B2B marketing and offers a rich future research agenda for B2B marketing scholars. This agenda can also help spur additional method developments in the discipline.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2018

Cristina Ponsiglione, Adelaide Ippolito, Simonetta Primario and Giuseppe Zollo

The purpose of this paper is to explore the configuration of factors affecting the accuracy of triage decision-making. The contribution of the work is twofold: first, it…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the configuration of factors affecting the accuracy of triage decision-making. The contribution of the work is twofold: first, it develops a protocol for applying a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) in the context of triage decision-making, and second, it studies, through two pilot cases, the interplay between individual and organizational factors in determining the emergence of errors in different decisional situations.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology adopted in this paper is the qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The fuzzy-set variant of QCA (fsQCA) is implemented. The data set has been collected during field research carried out in the Emergency Departments (EDs) of two Italian public hospitals.

Findings

The results of this study show that the interplay between individual and contextual/organizational factors determines the emergence of errors in triage assessment. Furthermore, there are some regularities in the patterns discovered in each of the investigated organizational contexts. These findings suggest that we should avoid isolating individual factors from the context in which nurses make their decisions.

Originality/value

Previous research on triage has mainly explored the impact of homogeneous groups of factors on the accuracy of the triage process, without considering the complexity of the phenomenon under investigation. This study outlines the need to consider the not-linear relationships among different factors in the study of triage’s decision-making. The definition and implementation of a protocol to apply fsQCA to the triage process in EDs further contributes to the originality of the research.

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2019

Shahrokh Nikou, Malin Brännback, Alan L. Carsrud and Candida G. Brush

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the conceptualization and measurement of entrepreneurial intentions. Significant studies anchored in the Theory of Planned Behavior…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to revisit the conceptualization and measurement of entrepreneurial intentions. Significant studies anchored in the Theory of Planned Behavior use causal statistical approaches to entrepreneurial intentions. This methodological approach, leads to the conclusion that there is a single pathway for all groups of people to achieve business start-up. Even though theory suggests approaches by women entrepreneurs to start a business may be influenced by different factors from those influencing men, results are inconclusive in these analyses. The authors argue that methodological preferences for linear, causal analytical approaches limit the understanding of gender similarities and differences in the business start-up process. The authors propose that when considering diverse samples, it is unreasonable to assume there is only a single pathway leading to business start-up.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) and data set of 2,038 respondents, the authors investigate factors predicting the intentions to start a business and evaluate the alternative conjunctive paths that emerge.

Findings

The fsQCA results shows that the relationship among conditions leading to entrepreneurial intentions is complex and is best represented as multiple and conjectural causation configurations. In other words, there are multiple significant pathways (refers to equifinality) that predict intentions to start a business start-up, and there are significant differences by gender.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the roll of gender as a sperate condition in the analysis. This paper offers implications for theory and future research and highlights the complexity of this domain.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 January 2021

Giulio Ferrigno, Giovanni Battista Dagnino and Nadia Di Paola

Drawing upon the importance of research and development (R&D) alliances in driving firm innovation performance, extant research has analyzed individually the impact of R&D…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon the importance of research and development (R&D) alliances in driving firm innovation performance, extant research has analyzed individually the impact of R&D alliance partner attributes on firm innovation performance. Despite such analyzes, research has generally underestimated the configurations of partner attributes leading to firm innovation performance. This research gap is interesting to explore, as firms involved in R&D alliances usually face a combination of partner attributes. Moreover, gaining a better understanding of how R&D partner attributes tie into configurations is an issue that is attracting particular interest in coopetition research and alliance literature. This paper aims to obtain a better knowledge of this underrated, but important, aspect of alliances by exploring what configurations of R&D alliance partner attributes lead firms involved in R&D alliances to achieve high innovation performance. To tackle this question, first, this study reviews the extant literature on R&D alliances by relying on the knowledge-based view of alliances to identify the most impactful partner attributes on firms’ innovation performance. This paper then applies a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to explore the configurations of R&D alliance partner attributes that lead firms involved in R&D alliances to achieve high innovation performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study selects 27 R&D alliances formed worldwide in the telecom industry. This paper explores the multiple configurations of partner attributes of these alliances by conducting a fsQCA.

Findings

The findings of the fsQCA show that the two alternate configurations of partner attributes guided the firms involved in these alliances to achieve high innovation performance: a configuration with extensive partner technological relatedness and coopetition, but no experience; and a configuration with extensive partner experience and competition, but no technological relatedness.

Research limitations/implications

The research highlights the importance of how partner attributes (i.e. partner technological relatedness, partner competitive overlap, partner experience and partner relative size) tie, with regard to the firms’ access to external knowledge and consequently to their willingness to achieve high innovation performance. Moreover, this paper reveals the beneficial effect of competition on the innovation performance of the firms involved in R&D alliances when some of the other knowledge-based partner attributes are considered. Despite these insights for alliance and coopetition literature, some limitations are to be noted. First, some of the partners’ attributes considered could be further disentangled into sub-partner attributes. Second, other indicators might be used to measure firms’ innovation performance. Third, as anticipated this study applies fsQCA to explore the combinatory effects of partner attributes in the specific context of R&D alliances in the telecom industry worldwide and in a specific time window. This condition may question the extensibility of the results to other industries and times.

Practical implications

This study also bears two interesting implications for alliance managers. First, the paper suggests that R&D alliance managers need to be aware that potential alliance partners have multiple attributes leading to firm innovation performance. In this regard, partner competitive overlap is particularly important for gaining a better understanding of firm innovation performance. When looking for strategic partners, managers should try to ally with highly competitive enterprises so as to access their more innovative knowledge. Second, the results also highlight that this beneficial effect of coopetition in R&D alliances can be amplified in two ways. On the one hand, when the partners involved in the alliance have not yet developed experience in forming alliances. Partners without previous experience supply ideal stimuli to unlock more knowledge in the alliance because new approaches to access and develop knowledge in the alliance could be explored. On the other hand, this paper detects the situation when the allied partners are developing technologies and products in different areas. When partnering with firms coming from different technological areas, the knowledge diversity that can be leveraged in the alliances could drive alliance managers to generate synergies and economies of scope within the coopetitive alliance.

Originality/value

Extant research has analyzed individually the impact of R&D alliance partner attributes on firm innovation performance but has concurrently underestimated the configurations of partner attributes leading to firm innovation performance. Therefore, this paper differs from previous studies, as it provides an understanding of the specific configurations of R&D alliance partner attributes leading firms involved in R&D alliances to achieve high innovation performance.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 13
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2021

Fang-Yi Lo, Wing-Keung Wong and Jessica Geovani

The authors aim to obtain the optimal combinations of factors from institutional environment adaptation mechanisms and internal resources or capabilities that influence…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors aim to obtain the optimal combinations of factors from institutional environment adaptation mechanisms and internal resources or capabilities that influence the sustainability of a firm.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a new index, called the sustainability index, based on the stakeholder perspective by employing a corporate credit risk index, an evaluation of a firm's corporate governance, corporate financial performance and firm age. The authors then apply both Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Regression Analysis and Fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (FsQCA) to obtain the optimal models for firms' sustainability.

Findings

The OLS analysis shows that the variables including financial leverage, slack, innovation capability, manufacturing capability and human capital that have significant influences on the sustainability of firms. Our FsQCA analysis obtains configurations of several solutions for firm sustainability and concludes that the fit of combinations of institutional factors and/or internal resources and capabilities of a firm is related to its sustainability.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations in our new index include these: first, one may add more key metrics to measure the index; second, the findings do not provide any necessary nor a sufficient condition to get sustainability for sure. The limitations of using multiple regression analysis are that it is not able to reveal the combinations of causal conditions that can lead to the outcome in the real world as well as to the sustainability of a firm in our study. To overcome the limitations, the authors apply fsQCA analysis to identify combinations of causal conditions to a firm's sustainability in our study.

Practical implications

Introducing the sustainability index enables us to find out all factors influencing the sustainability of a firm. The authors’ analysis can be used to identify combinations of causal conditions to lead to outcomes in the real world. Their analysis enables managers to know how to predict the sustainability of the firm. For example, the authors’ fsQCA analysis shows that low marketing capability will lead to the high sustainability of the firm. This information helps managers to make the decision or plan to achieve good results toward their businesses and get better allocate their resources and get a better investment.

Social implications

The authors’ analysis can be used to identify combinations of causal conditions to lead to outcomes in the real world and enable managers to know how to predict the sustainability of the firm. A correct prediction can assist companies in developing their future operations, which would enhance their competitiveness vis-à-vis rivals during this time of global economic volatility, which, in turn, enables firms to perform better and employ more employees that could help the entire society.

Originality/value

The sustainability index the authors developed in our paper is new in the literature and the findings obtained by both OLS Regression Analysis and FsQCA are new in predicting a firm's sustainability. The authors’ findings are useful for academics, managers and policymakers in predicting and maintaining a firm's sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 27 December 2016

Abstract

Details

Bad to Good
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-333-7

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Petteri T. Leppänen, Aaron F. McKenny and Jeremy C. Short

Research in entrepreneurship is increasingly exploring how archetypes, taxonomies, typologies, and configurations can help scholars understand complex entrepreneurial…

Abstract

Research in entrepreneurship is increasingly exploring how archetypes, taxonomies, typologies, and configurations can help scholars understand complex entrepreneurial phenomena. We illustrate the potential for set-theoretic methods to inform this literature by offering best practices regarding how qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) can be used to explore research questions of interest to entrepreneurship scholars. Specifically, we introduce QCA, document how this approach has been used in management research, and provide step-by-step guidance to empower scholars to use this family of methods. We put a particular emphasis on the analytical procedures and offer solutions to dealing with potential pitfalls when using QCA-based methods and highlight opportunities for future entrepreneurship research.

Details

Standing on the Shoulders of Giants
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-336-0

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2017

Laura Herbst, Dominik Reinartz and Arch G. Woodside

The focus of this study is on analyzing influencing factors of antisocial travel-related behaviors – in particular road rage. Building on the concept of redirection, the…

Abstract

The focus of this study is on analyzing influencing factors of antisocial travel-related behaviors – in particular road rage. Building on the concept of redirection, the current chapter develops a theory of natural and planned redirection to derive starting points for demarketing antisocial behaviors. A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) with survey data from 6,811 consumers from the DDB Life Style Study is used to gain insights into the individuals behind road rage. Results show that specific kinds of anti- and prosocial behavior associate with high and low levels of road rage, respectively. The study finds that these prosocial behaviors may function as natural redirection mechanisms and prevent or reduce road rage. Thereby, the findings extend previous analyses of road rage and allow for deriving theoretical and policy implications.

Details

Consumer Behavior in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-690-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 25 April 2014

Farshid Shams

The aim of this chapter is to introduce a methodology that enables researchers to employ a set of systematic comparative tools and techniques in their multiple case study…

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is to introduce a methodology that enables researchers to employ a set of systematic comparative tools and techniques in their multiple case study research that allow them to move from drawing loose comparisons towards a more formalised type of analysis, while simultaneously paying attention to within-case complexities. This methodology stands between the qualitative and the quantitative methods and helps researchers to build middle-range theories (Mjoset, 2001) from small to intermediate numbers of cases. This methodology encompasses a number of techniques including crisp and fuzzy set-theoretic qualitative comparative analyses, which have been used in a wide range of social science disciplines. However, these techniques have not received sufficient attention from higher education scholars.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research II
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-823-5

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