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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Stephen Hunt

This chapter uses discourse analysis to explain why entrepreneurship has become a primary response to Africa’s youth employment challenge. It analyses almost 20 years of…

Abstract

This chapter uses discourse analysis to explain why entrepreneurship has become a primary response to Africa’s youth employment challenge. It analyses almost 20 years of academic literature and publications from one of the world’s foremost authorities on entrepreneurship: the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The study found that youth were positioned within a discourse of entrepreneurial essentialism; where entrepreneurship was narrativised as the only option for youth employment; and youth were framed as entrepreneurship being the natural solution for them. Youth were concurrently framed within numerous contradictory entrepreneurial discourses which were used to elevate and legitimise entrepreneurship as the key pathway for addressing Africa’s youth employment challenge. An important finding in this study was that the dominant model of entrepreneurship being promoted by GEM to address the challenge is a mainly skills-based pathway to self-employment and low-growth microenterprise development. This is concerning for two reasons: firstly, global evidence does not demonstrate much support for such an approach, and secondly, it undermines other responses to youth unemployment, particularly those which seek to address more structural, demand-side barriers to employment.

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 June 2022

José Ernesto Amorós

This chapter provides an introduction to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), a project under Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) regional approach. As a region…

Abstract

This chapter provides an introduction to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), a project under Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) regional approach. As a region, the countries of LAC correspond to the second-highest representation in GEM after Europe. The chapter describes the GEM project, summarizes some key longitudinal indicators for the region, and analyzes the contributions and importance of GEM project for the systematic study of entrepreneurship.

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Gabriel Gomes da Cunha and Paulo Arvate

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of government-led programs on the engagement of individuals in entrepreneurship.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of government-led programs on the engagement of individuals in entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors worked with government-led programs of 16 European countries between 2003 and 2014 and were able to benefit from the 2008 natural experiment (i.e. the global financial crisis) to produce a robust investigation using a regression kink design (RKD).

Findings

The work shows that government-led programs that are designed to include monitoring schemes can significantly increase individuals' engagement in opportunity-driven entrepreneurship. The authors found that monitoring schemes do not have the same relevance for necessity-driven entrepreneurship. Therefore, the authors believe the difference occurs because monitoring design avoids problems related to moral hazard and adverse selection when it comes to individuals choosing whether to participate (or not) in government-led programs.

Originality/value

While it is important for governments to provide an enabling environment for entrepreneurship, this study showed that not all types of public program have positive results. In fact, it has been demonstrated that poorly-designed programs can actually decrease the likelihood of individuals engaging in entrepreneurial activities. The efficiency of programs is substantially improved, however, when they are designed to include monitoring schemes.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Ernestine N. Ning

The debate that entrepreneurship is an engine of economic development has been a long-standing one. The higher the level of entrepreneurial activities, the higher the…

Abstract

The debate that entrepreneurship is an engine of economic development has been a long-standing one. The higher the level of entrepreneurial activities, the higher the economic development. However, this literature is contradictory or elusive in Sub-Saharan Africa. Entrepreneurial activities are high in Africa, but economic development is not. Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, 2017) data, the chapter discusses some of the contradictory factors. Further data were collected from 60 businesses, 20 each from Cameroon, Nigeria and Uganda for more clarification in 2019. The results show that the economic development is solely measured in economic terms. Entrepreneurship in Africa operates in an embedded context quite different from that of developed nations. Africans are often only making do with the environment in which they find themselves; thus, entrepreneurship in Africa should not be seen as unproductive considering the context and motives of the entrepreneurs.

Details

Enterprise and Economic Development in Africa
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-323-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Shayegheh Ashourizadeh and Chuqing Zhang

This study aims to investigate the effect of the crisis on entrepreneurial activities and how it can be relieved. Specifically, we explore how the positive effects of the…

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effect of the crisis on entrepreneurial activities and how it can be relieved. Specifically, we explore how the positive effects of the human capital (self-confidence, opportunity alertness, and risk willingness) on startup activities are changed after the global financial crisis. Additionally, we explore how knowing an entrepreneur boosts up these relationships. We applied data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) about prospective women entrepreneurs in China in 2006–2007 (precrisis time) and 2009–2010 (postcrisis time). Results show a sharp drop in effect size of self-confidence and opportunity recognition upon women's entrepreneurial actions; however, the global financial crisis nullified the effect of fear of failure on potential women entrepreneurs' business activities. Furthermore, knowing an entrepreneur has no significant moderating effect. Theoretical and practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-327-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2020

Veselina Vracheva and Irina Stoyneva

Gender equality levels opportunities for men and women and reduces the initial capital constraints women often face, and yet as entrepreneurship opportunities for women…

Abstract

Purpose

Gender equality levels opportunities for men and women and reduces the initial capital constraints women often face, and yet as entrepreneurship opportunities for women open up in more developed and egalitarian societies, fewer women are choosing entrepreneurship. This paper explores this contradiction as it relates to female economic and political participation in the context of business regulation efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on panel data from 89 countries from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor survey and the Global Gender Gap report, we use random effects regression to examine relationships. Analyses included 252 country-years, and all data used during analyses were at the country level.

Findings

Results suggest that equality in economic participation narrows and political participation widens the entrepreneurship gender gap, but a country's business regulation efficiency moderates both relationships negatively.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not distinguish opportunity- and necessity-driven entrepreneurship, and does not consider the survival rates of enterprises and their industries.

Practical implications

Findings are pertinent to policymakers interested in advancing female entrepreneurship. They also apply to female entrepreneurs who must begin to recognize the diversity in work-life preferences among women and men.

Originality/value

A theoretical model is informed by two competing theories, suggesting that in the context of female entrepreneurship, removal of economic and political participation barriers, combined with business regulation efficiency, intensifies the entrepreneurship gender gap.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Allan Villegas-Mateos, Elda Barron and Linda Elizabeth Ruiz

The entrepreneurial education has obtained special attention by researchers hoping to develop better entrepreneurship programmes that may result in higher entrepreneurial…

Abstract

The entrepreneurial education has obtained special attention by researchers hoping to develop better entrepreneurship programmes that may result in higher entrepreneurial activity outputs of students. The culture on its own is one of the main determinants, among others, of the entrepreneurial activities undertaken in different countries. In that sense, this research contributes to a greater understanding of the relationship between culture and entrepreneurial education. Using one of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s surveys, the National Experts’ Survey, the authors used Structural Equation Models to analyse the sample of N =  445 experts in Mexico as an effort to achieve a consensus about which of these two constructs is dependent on the other, ‘entrepreneurial education’ or ‘cultural and social norms’. The results of this chapter show that in Mexico there is an influence of the cultural and social norms on entrepreneurial education at all levels, primary, secondary, and superior. Nevertheless, an important limitation of the study was that it does not differentiate between private and public education, but yet it contributes to the understanding of the less visible entrepreneurial educational levels in the literature. This chapter aims with the phenomena of how teaching entrepreneurship works by analysing the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s social environment variable effect on entrepreneurial education. This research contributes to the evidence that the teaching practice under the socio-cultural dimension enables to detect the continuity factors to make an educational transformation.

Details

Universities and Entrepreneurship: Meeting the Educational and Social Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-074-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Linda Elizabeth Ruiz, Elda Barron and José Ernesto Amorós

Interest in the role and behavior of women entrepreneurs has increased in the last decades. This research study examines personal characteristics and labor and business…

Abstract

Interest in the role and behavior of women entrepreneurs has increased in the last decades. This research study examines personal characteristics and labor and business regulations on entrepreneurship and corporate entrepreneurship. It also analyzes how gender differed in these forms of entrepreneurship across Latin American countries. We performed logistic regressions to different models with information from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) from 2016. We used a sample from 10 countries. We also used information from the Heritage Foundation and The World Bank. The results show that antecedents of entrepreneurship activity differ by gender. Specifically, the effect is different when analyzing labor regulations. We also find different intensities depending on gender. The study contributes to the literature about gender and different forms of entrepreneurship. We suggest developing policies in favor of women's entrepreneurial activity within the workplace and as independent entrepreneurs.

Book part
Publication date: 2 March 2022

Ahmad Hawi, Farha Al-Kuwari and Christophe Garonne

This chapter draws its findings from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data set for 2016 to 2019 to provide a comprehensive albeit concise overview of the…

Abstract

This chapter draws its findings from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data set for 2016 to 2019 to provide a comprehensive albeit concise overview of the evolution of entrepreneurship activities in Qatar.

The results indicate that Qatar experienced an increase in the entrepreneurship activities with a significant percentage of adults starting or running new businesses. Data also revealed that, despite an equal proportion of women and men involved in early-stage entrepreneurial activities, women experience a lower transformation rate into established business ownership. In addition, to the gender gap, this study revealed that transforming new businesses into established business ownership is one of the main challenge to be addressed to develop the impact of entrepreneurship in the country further. Finally, the chapter shows that Qatar has created an entrepreneurial ecosystem of very high quality as demonstrated by its third place in the National Entrepreneurship Context Index and by having secured the first place in the MENA region.

This chapter concludes by outlining a number of recommendations for policymakers to further foster the entrepreneurial activities in Qatar especially among the younger population.

Details

Entrepreneurial Rise in the Middle East and North Africa: The Influence of Quadruple Helix on Technological Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-518-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Ali Raza, Moreno Muffatto and Saadat Saeed

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between entrepreneurial cognition and innovative entrepreneurial activity (IEA) across countries using an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between entrepreneurial cognition and innovative entrepreneurial activity (IEA) across countries using an institutional perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper tests theoretical model using data collected by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness study and the Index of Economic Freedom (IEF). A multi-level analysis is performed based on set of 1,004,620 observations from 49 countries spanning 13 years (2001–2013).

Findings

The results suggest that in terms of formal regulations; the relationship between entrepreneurial cognitions and IEA becomes stronger when there is an increase in intellectual property right and business freedom regulations in a country. On the other hand, in terms of informal institutions the relationship between entrepreneurial cognitions and IEA becomes stronger when the level of institutional collectivism and uncertainty decreases and performance orientation increases.

Originality/value

The study indicates that entrepreneurship by innovation increases when the individuals possess high level of entrepreneurial cognition under suitable institutional conditions (e.g. intellectual property right, business freedom, institutional collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and performance orientation).

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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