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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

E.T. Otunola and R.S. Ogunbiyi

The aim of the paper is to evaluate the microbiological and physico‐chemical characteristics of fermented pounded yam, a unique and popular food of the Igbominas of Nigeria.

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the paper is to evaluate the microbiological and physico‐chemical characteristics of fermented pounded yam, a unique and popular food of the Igbominas of Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Fresh pounded yam was prepared in the laboratory by a modification of the traditional method, and then fermented for varying periods of time (0‐96hrs), also essentially by the traditional method. Analysis was carried out on the products following documented and established procedures.

Findings

Data obtained indicated noticeable increases in the populations of all the groups of microorganisms investigated with increases in fermentation time, except coliforms which declined in population after 24 hours. Heating of the samples after each fermentation interval resulted in significant reductions in microbial populations such that coliforms could not even be detected after 24 hours of fermentation. Lactic acid production, an indication of flavour development, and pH drop were highest at 48 hours of fermentation. The samples also became softer with increases in fermentation period. The heated samples were considered safe microbiologically, since they contained neither coliforms nor faecal coliforms.

Research limitations/implications

The consumption of fermented pounded yam is encouraged since it is safe microbiologically and develops a desired flavour, while further research should be carried out on the nutritional benefits.

Practical implications

The findings here suggested that adequate heating after fermentation is necessary to eliminate any potential microbial contamination, and for full flavour development.

Originality/value

The results of this research contribute to the knowledge of fermented foods, especially those that are indigenous to Nigeria and West Africa.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

J.O. Olajide, A.A. Adedeji, B.I.O. Ade‐Omowaye, E.T. Otunola and J.A. Adejuyitan

This paper aims to focus on the prospects of incorporating a non‐thermal process (high intensity electric field pulses, HELP) into food processing and preservation methods in…

1011

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the prospects of incorporating a non‐thermal process (high intensity electric field pulses, HELP) into food processing and preservation methods in developing countries. Besides, it is to create awareness to food processors and motivate researchers in developing countries to generate more data on the technology.

Design/methodology/approach

This is based on the review of the various successful applications of HELP process in inactivation of micro‐organisms for the purpose of preservation. The adaptability of the process to plant food processing was also reviewed. Potential areas of application in developing countries were also highlighted and discussed.

Findings

The present findings reveal possible applications of HELP to food processing in developing countries such as fermentation, fruit and vegetable processing, and dehydration of tropical food.

Originality/value

The paper has indicated that the poor energy system in developing countries has made drying and fermentation techniques appropriate methods of food processing. Therefore, HELP technology offers good potentials for both food processing and preservation and as adjunct to other processes such as fermentation and drying.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

Khavhatondwi Rinah Netshiheni, Mpho Edward Mashau and Afam Israel Obiefuna Jideani

White maize-based porridge is a staple food for about 80 per cent consumers in South Africa and in other sub-Saharan African countries contributing significantly to the diet of…

5168

Abstract

Purpose

White maize-based porridge is a staple food for about 80 per cent consumers in South Africa and in other sub-Saharan African countries contributing significantly to the diet of rural population in developing countries. White maize is deficient in some amino acids and over-dependency on its porridge may lead to high prevalence of malnutrition-related health conditions. Moringa oleifera (MO) and termite (Macrotermes falciger) are known to contain substantial amount of protein. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of powders from MO leaves and termite on the nutritional and sensory properties of instant maize porridge.

Design/methodology/approach

Inclusion of MO and termite powder in instant maize porridge, using different treatments were considered using a completely randomised design. Factor levels were control (maize flour) cooked, blanched and uncooked MO samples. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23.

Findings

Protein content of fortified instant maize porridge (FMP) significantly increased from 10.0 to 21.2 per cent compared to unfortified porridge, and this could be attributed to the substitution effect, as fresh uncooked MO leaves are reported to be high in protein. Mineral content of FMP was higher in zinc, iron, calcium and magnesium. Calcium values of FMP were higher (276.8 mg/100 g) compared to unfortified porridge (7.1 mg/100 g). Upon the addition of MO leaves and termite powder, the zinc content increased from 3.4 mg/100to 7.6 mg/100 g. Higher iron values (27.9-36.9 mg/100 g) were observed among fortified samples. The sensory result showed that control sample had higher acceptance than the fortified samples (p = 0.02). Sensory analysis showed that among fortified porridges, blanched sample was rated high for colour and texture, cooked sample was higher in taste and uncooked sample was higher for aroma. Control sample had higher acceptance than fortified porridges for taste. The results of this study showed that the addition of MO leaves and termite powder to instant maize porridge has led to a substantial increase in the nutritional value of FMP.

Originality/value

This study was carried out to develop instant maize porridge fortified with MO leaves and termite powder suitable for infants, pregnant mothers and other maize consumers. The author aimed at improving the nutritional content of instant maize porridge by combining it with MO leaves and termite powders. The results showed that the addition of MO leaves and termite powders to instant maize porridge has led to a substantial increase in the nutritional value of FMP. Therefore, powder from MO leaves and termites could be used in complementary foods to increase protein and mineral contents.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

B.A. Akinwande, O.A. Abiodun and I.A. Adeyemi

The aim of the study is to compare the effect of steaming method and time on the physico‐chemical properties of underutilized Dioscorea dumetorum with three more commonly consumed…

222

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study is to compare the effect of steaming method and time on the physico‐chemical properties of underutilized Dioscorea dumetorum with three more commonly consumed Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea cayenensis and Dioscorea alata.

Design/methodology/approach

Raw and pre‐gelatinized flour were produced from the yam species. Pre‐gelatinization was done by steaming diced cubes in autoclave at 68,950 Nm‐2 for 5 min and in Barlett steamer at 98±2°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. Flour samples were analyzed for amylose content, swelling index, consistency, solubility, water absorption capacity, and iodine affinity for starch.

Findings

The physico‐chemical properties of the flours were affected by both species and steaming time. Pre‐gelatinization of the tuber reduced amylose content in all the yam species, which reduced further with increase in steaming time. Except for amylose content and iodine affinity for starch, D. dumetorum compared with D. rotundata and D. cayenensis in the parameters that were measured. Samples autoclaved for 5 min had value similar to those steamed in Barlett steamer for 10 and 20 min for all the parameters that were measured, except consistency.

Practical implications

It is very important to encourage the cultivation and utilization of D. dumetorum because of the high yield and nutritional composition to enhance the nutritional and financial well‐being of the populace.

Originality/value

Pre‐gelatinization is important as pre‐treatment for yam tubers. Underutilized D. dumetorum could be useful in ingredient formulation for product development, especially as a thickening agent.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2021

Liew-Phing Pui, Wen-Chian Tan, Ianne Kong and Choon-Hui Tan

This review provides an overview of the applications of Bambara groundnuts in various food products. The genetic diversity, physical properties and chemical compositions of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This review provides an overview of the applications of Bambara groundnuts in various food products. The genetic diversity, physical properties and chemical compositions of the crop are also elucidated.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper critically reviewed the physicochemical properties and applications of Bambara groundnuts from recent literature.

Findings

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) is a drought-tolerant crop from West Africa that contains not only carbohydrates and fats but is also high in protein. The cultivars of Bambara groundnut can be distinguished by the colours of seeds, which range from red, blue-eye, brown and black-eye. Bambara groundnuts contain carbohydrate (57–67%), protein (15–25%), fat (4–8%), fibre (1.4–1.5%) and ash (2.9–4%). As a percentage of protein, the essential amino acids, lysine, methionine and cysteine are relatively high in Bambara groundnuts. Meanwhile, linoleic, palmitic and linolenic acids are the fatty acids present in this crop.

Practical implications

Several studies have shown that Bambara groundnuts can be used as fat substitutes, emulsifiers, water binders, bulking agents and thickeners due to its water and oil absorption properties, gelling, pasting, emulsifying and foaming abilities. Bambara groundnuts are used in the development of many intermediate or final products like flour blend, cookies, bread and fermented milk. It has a positive impact on the overall proximate, functional, mineral and amino acid profiles of the food products.

Originality/value

Despite its high nutrient density, Bambara groundnuts are an underutilised legume due to unavailability and lack of knowledge among consumers on its benefits. There is a need to promote the use of Bambara groundnuts as a future food.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Oluwaseyi Olalekan Alao and Godwin Onajite Jagboro

Abandonment of construction projects is still a burning issue in Nigeria. Beside the poor financing of educational infrastructure, abandonment of construction projects remains a…

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Abstract

Purpose

Abandonment of construction projects is still a burning issue in Nigeria. Beside the poor financing of educational infrastructure, abandonment of construction projects remains a significant contributor to the inadequacy of facilities in Nigerian public tertiary educational institutions. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to assess the causes of abandoned projects specific to public institutions of tertiary education in Nigeria, with a view to providing empirical data that are generalizable to enhancing successful delivery of teaching and research facilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data used for the study were obtained through questionnaires administered to 47 professionals comprising 8 architects, 12 mechanical and electrical engineers, 15 civil/structural engineers, 4 builders and 8 quantity surveyors who were involved in physical development of construction projects in public tertiary educational institutions in Osun State. The data were analyzed using mean analysis, factor analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) test.

Findings

The factors most significant to abandonment of tertiary educational institutional projects were delayed payments, fund mismanagement, inadequate budgetary allocation, inadequacy of finance, inflation and bankruptcy of the contractor. Findings also showed that not all factors causing abandonment were significant to tertiary institutional projects. The significant factors clustered under stakeholders’ response capacity, poor financial management, inadequate planning and monitoring, and unexpected occurrences. The K-W test showed significant differences among the categories of tertiary institutions on the ranking of the most significant causes of abandoned projects.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to public tertiary educational institutions in Osun State. Further studies could focus on public health institution projects and private tertiary educational projects to improve the body of knowledge on the subject of causative factors for project abandonment.

Practical implications

The study provided implications for effective contract management of public tertiary educational institutional projects, which is a significant step to improving the available teaching and research facilities in Nigerian tertiary institutions.

Originality/value

The study provides implications for effective contract management systems of projects for public tertiary educational institutions, thereby improving the available teaching and research facilities.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Oluwaseyi Olalekan Alao, Godwin Onajite Jagboro and Akintayo Opawole

This paper aims to determine the effect of the period of abandonment on the final cost and duration of resuscitated tertiary educational building projects as a basis for enhancing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine the effect of the period of abandonment on the final cost and duration of resuscitated tertiary educational building projects as a basis for enhancing the performance metrics of the projects and improving the availability of facilities in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured questionnaire was administered on 47 professionals involved in the physical development of construction projects in Osun State public tertiary educational institutions to provide primary data for the study. Secondary data relating to initial and final costs, initial and final completion dates, dates of abandonment, period of abandonment, date of re-award, etc. were obtained from selected resuscitated projects. Data were analyzed using relative significance index and regression analysis.

Findings

The most significant effects of project abandonment were found to be disappointment of populace and over-stretching of existing facilities. The study showed a directly proportional and an exponential effect of period of abandonment on percentage cost overrun of resuscitated projects, which were represented by yc = −329.755 + 19.545x and yc = 6.1662e0.0506x, respectively. A linear relationship between period of abandonment and percentage time overrun was represented by yt = 0.467 + 0.816x.

Research limitations/implications

The fact that the regression equations could not be validated because of paucity of data was identified as a limitation of this study.

Practical implications

This study adds to the body of knowledge on abandonment of building projects from a quantitative perspective. Findings have implications for guiding long-term infrastructure development plans in public tertiary educational institutions.

Originality/value

Maximum threshold at which abandoned projects may be resuscitated at an economic cost was established as 16 months. Findings further suggest that the economy of new construction would outweigh resuscitation of abandoned projects beyond this period.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2018

Emmanuel Oluwatobi Adebisi, Stephen Okunola Ojo and Oluwaseyi Olalekan Alao

The failure and abandonment of construction projects have proven to be insurmountable problems incessantly militating against the efficient performance of the construction…

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Abstract

Purpose

The failure and abandonment of construction projects have proven to be insurmountable problems incessantly militating against the efficient performance of the construction industry in Nigeria. The complexity, technicality and a host of other project execution issues unique to multi-storey building projects do increase their susceptibility to failure and abandonment. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing failure and abandonment of multi-storey building projects in Nigeria. This is with a view to provide inferential empirical data that could enhance successful delivery of multi-storey building projects in Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were used for the study. A structured questionnaire was administered on consultants and contractors’ personnel within Lagos State, Nigeria. A total of 180 copies of the questionnaire were administered ,and 134 copies which represent a combined response rate of 74.4 per cent were retrieved. The data were analysed using frequency distribution and percentages, Mean item score and factor analysis.

Findings

The factors most significant to the failure and abandonment of multi-storey building projects are inadequate funding by the client, improper planning at the pre-construction phase, structural failure in multi-storey building during construction, bankruptcy/business failure of the contractor, improper scheduling of the building project activities and failure to engage qualified professionals with technical expertise and experience. The rated factors clustered under human resources capability, planning and structural quality, contractor selection and variation, insecurity and variation, and force majeure and political risk.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to multi-storey building projects in Lagos State, Nigeria. Further studies could focus on specific resuscitation strategies for abandoned multi-storey building projects.

Practical implications

The study provided implications for effective project and contract management of multi-storey building projects which is very paramount to improve the delivery of complex, technical- and capital-intensive building projects in Nigeria.

Originality/value

The study provides specific implications for the management of multi-storey building projects, thereby enhancing the delivery of building projects.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

P.C. Okafor and E.A. Apebende

This paper aims to evaluate the inhibitive action of the corrosion of mild steel in sulphuric acid solutions by ethanol extracts of Thymus vulgaris (TYV), Xylopia aethiopica (XYA…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the inhibitive action of the corrosion of mild steel in sulphuric acid solutions by ethanol extracts of Thymus vulgaris (TYV), Xylopia aethiopica (XYA) and Zingiber officinale (ZGO) as eco-friendly and non-toxic mild-steel corrosion inhibitors in H2SO4 solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Ethanol extracts of TYV leaves, XYA fruits and ZGO roots were used as inhibitors in various corrosion tests. Gravimetric and gasometric techniques were used to characterize the mechanism of inhibition.

Findings

Results indicate that the extracts inhibit the corrosion process efficiently. Inhibition efficiency was found to increase with an increase in extract concentration and decrease with an increase in temperature. Inhibition efficiencies followed the trend TYV > ZGO > XYA. Thermodynamic considerations revealed that the energy of activation increased in the presence of the plant extracts. Adsorption of the plant extracts on mild steel surface occurred spontaneously, and Ea and ΔGads values confirm a physical adsorption processes. Phytochemical studies showed the presence of saponoids, flavonoids and polyphenols whose attachment to adsorption sites on the metal surface is responsible for the inhibition process. Experimental data fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Practical implications

The plant extracts can be used in chemical cleaning and picking processes.

Originality/value

The research provides information on the possible use of the ethanol extracts from TYV leaves, XYA fruits and ZGO roots as sources of cheap, eco-friendly and non-toxic corrosion inhibitors.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Mercy Ogunnusi, Huda Salman and Richard Laing

Abandonment poses a range of effects detrimental to the development of a country such as Nigeria. Restoring such infrastructure in a sustainable manner is a challenge identified…

Abstract

Purpose

Abandonment poses a range of effects detrimental to the development of a country such as Nigeria. Restoring such infrastructure in a sustainable manner is a challenge identified in the literature. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novel approach – the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) to identify the sustainability criteria for the redevelopment of abandoned infrastructure in Nigeria. The literature evidences use of TOPSIS in various development contexts, but not in the context of redevelopment of abandoned infrastructure.

Design/methodology/approach

This study explores the potential of TOPSIS in the sustainable redevelopment of abandoned infrastructure in Nigeria through a combination of a quantitative method of data collection – questionnaire – and a case study. The case study focuses on the abandoned Federal Government Secretariat in Lagos. One hundred and sixty-one (161) participants responded to the questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using TOPSIS analytical technique.

Findings

Refurbishment is considered as the most sustainable alternative for the redevelopment of abandoned infrastructure. For criteria consideration, structural integrity and foundation categorized under the technological attributes ranked highest for refurbishment and conversion alternatives. Waste generation and prevention and profitability top the list for demolition and procurement respectively.

Social implications

The social benefit of this study is to bring building considered to be an eyesore back into use.

Originality/value

The findings from the analysis orchestrates the importance of the built environment research concentrating on innovative frameworks for sustainable redevelopment of abandoned structures in the construction industry.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

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