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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2013

Yongrong Wang and Peihua Zhang

This study aims to clarify the key factors among physical‐mechanical properties of fabrics in relation to the dynamic pressure performance of compression garment.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to clarify the key factors among physical‐mechanical properties of fabrics in relation to the dynamic pressure performance of compression garment.

Design/methodology/approach

The physical‐mechanical properties of 16 different fabrics were measured using a KESF standard evaluation system and INSTRON tensile tester, and the garment pressure was measured by dynamic pressure measuring system. Grey correlation analysis is used to determine the correlation degree of fabric physical‐mechanical properties and dynamic pressure magnitude.

Findings

The mechanical behaviors (e.g. tensile, shearing, and bending) and physical characteristics are different in elastic fabrics with varied content of elastic fiber, kinds of yarn, et al. Grey correlation analysis is a valid method to analyze the indices of a system, quantize them and put them in order. All the degrees of Grey correlation are more than 0.6. The degree of grey correlation between tensile force (F), shearing rigidity (G) and bending rigidity (B) are higher than others, hence it is conducted that these would significantly effect on garment pressure. The quantitative regression equations between pressure magnitude at extension of 50 percent and the individual key parameters (mean values in wale and course directions) of tested samples are illustrated.

Research limitations/implications

The other parameters (e.g. fabric structure, yarn fineness, and pre‐tension, et al.) should be taken into account. Further, an integrative mathematic model would be established, which could predict the garment pressure directly from the physical‐mechanical properties of fabric.

Originality/value

The present study indicates that pressure magnitude of elastic fabric is an integrative action performed by physical‐mechanical properties. The developed illustrative equations and method offer a rational and practical tool for assessing pressure functional performance of elastic fabric in the stages of design and product development.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Georgia Warren-Myers and Lucy Cradduck

The purpose of this research is to investigate Australian property valuers' identification and consideration of physical risks to properties in valuation practice. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate Australian property valuers' identification and consideration of physical risks to properties in valuation practice. The research further explores valuers' considerations of climate change-related risks.

Design/methodology/approach

The research approach comprised an online survey of Australian valuers who were members of the Australian Property Institute. The online survey included structured and unstructured questions to explore types and extent of risk investigations in valuation practice.

Findings

The analysis reflects that while valuers easily identified and engaged with physical risks, there is a lack of understanding of, and engagement with, climate change risks. This supports the need for better information sources and guidance to inform valuers of climate change risks per se, as well as the development of specific mechanisms for consideration of such risks to be included in valuation processes, practices and reports.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited by the small sample size achieved due to the timing of the survey deployment, which occurred during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdowns in Australia. Thus, the findings are not necessarily representative of the Australian valuation profession, but they do provide indications of current approaches to risk identification in practice and the need for more guidance in relation to climate change risks.

Practical implications

This research identifies that more support, guidance, information and tools, as well as awareness-raising, are required to enable valuers to accurately identify all risks affecting a property.

Originality/value

The research provides a snapshot of current understandings of physical risk identification in valuation practice. As investors and other organisations integrate and build up their analysis of climate risks to their portfolios and organisations, this research indicates that valuers also need to be aware of changing market assessment of physical and climate risks associated with property for consideration in valuation.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Adam Gnatowski and Agnieszka Kijo-Kleczkowska

The main purpose of polymeric mixtures manufacturing is wish to eliminate or reduce drawbacks which polymers are characterised by and also to strive for reduction of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of polymeric mixtures manufacturing is wish to eliminate or reduce drawbacks which polymers are characterised by and also to strive for reduction of the price of expensive polymers with particular very precious properties by mixing them with cheaper polymers but without significant deterioration of their properties. In the work some investigation results have been presented for PA6 which is miscible in viscoelastic state with polymer, with ability to create physical bounds with substances of inorganic as well as organic origins. For this purpose, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) has been used with law molecular weight (10 ± 2,5 thousand). The functionalactive material was prepared with sharp tuning sorption ability across physical modification polycapramide mixed from bipolar polyvinylpyrrolidone in batch – free state, which characterises high ability complex. In the paper, some results of chosen properties of PA with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have been presented. In chance of mixing PA6 with PVP forms solution PVP in PA6, to which proper are large intermolecular influence, in this case hydrogen bond. It is possible to foresee that under the influences of large tangent stresses and intermolecular interaction colloidal solution PVP in PA forms with sure homogeneity, after cooling of it the inversion of winding phases is not noticeable In the mixtures on the basis of such polymers the intermolecular interactions occur, and they differently influence parameters of the modified materials. Conducted investigations have proved opportunity of physical modification of PA6 during mixing, in viscoelastic state, with polyvinylpyrrolidone. The modified polymer has dielectric properties and a reduced susceptibility to water absorption. It can be used as an insulation material, in all industrial sectors, including the energy sector.

Design/methodology/approach

For examinations, the following mixtures were made out: PA 99%/PVP 1%, PA 98%/PVP 2%, PA 90%/PVP 10%. Making mixtures out was begun with weighing elements out on numerical Sortorius AG GO TTINGEN scales and CAS MODEL: SW-1 (PA, PVP). Next elements of mixture were mixed with themselves mechanically. The process of drying was carried out in the ZELMET drier with the thermal kc-100/200 chamber in the temperature 80 °C for 12 h. The process of mixing up was carried out in the arrangement plasticising injections moulding machine of the voluted KRAUSS MAFFEI company KM 65-1600C1 (D screw = 30 mm and the L = 27D, the nozzle about d = 4 mm and the l = 2d) at the following parameters: is the nozzle temperature 230 °C, the speed of turnovers of the screw 210 obr/min. Granulated product of mixtures were get on the rotor grinder. Samples for examinations were made on the computer-operated injection moulding machine of type of KM 65-1600C1 of the KRAUSS MAFFEI company. The conditions which complement the homogeneity of a mixture – these include mixing processes with high shear stresses with the range of temperatures for viscoelastic state for the individual polymers. Such conditions are met by multiple mixing in the injection machine cylinder with extended perpetual screw length (L/D = 25 ÷ 42). Permanent conditions of injecting samples for the research on physical properties were the following: nozzle temperature – 230°C; worm area I temperature – 190°C; worm area II temperature – 210°C; worm area III temperature – 230-245°C, mould temperature 40°C, injection pressure – 60 MPa, clamping time – 5 s, cooling time – 30 s The research on chosen physical properties of getting polymer materials was carried out: hardnesses on hardness testing machine, impact resistance by Charpy’s method, mechanical properties while tension over the endurance machine the INSTON with tension speed of 90 mm/min, softening point by Vicat’s method was determined using testing machine type HAAKE N8, the investigation of DSC method and DMTA method using testing machine type Netzsch, water absorbing power test. The research on the structure was also carried out on the optical microscope type NIKON ECLIPSE E200.

Findings

In the paper, for the physical modification of PA 6, the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) – amorphous polymer which is capable of ionisation and creation of complexes with the transition of the charge with many electrophilic compounds and also proton donors have been used. PVP does not change into the viscoelastic state but it is easily soluble in organic and inorganic solvents and the best in water. Its characteristic is high sorption capacity. As a result of ionisation changes PVP preserve the conformation changes. In case of mixing of polar PA6 polymers with PVP, a PVP solution is being created in PA, to whom big intermolecular interactions are proper for, in it hydrogen bonds. Reducing of polarity occurs of both polymers as a result of hydrogen bonds in created macromolecules. Macromolecule so they are interfering easily in fused condition creating the mixture about reliable homogeneity. An effect is applying to mixing with PA6 in case of dissolving PVP in the PA6 stop under the influence of big adjacent tensions in screw extruder what is calling changes of the supermolecular structure and properties of the material after chilling of stop in the form during injecting. The resultant homogeneous mixture is marked by one reflex narrowed in comparison with output PA6 of melting visible on DSC thermogram with moving to the page of higher tmmax temperatures. PA6/PVP mixtures are also providing effects of examinations about the homogeneity with DMTA method which shows results that the mixture is marked by one reflex of mechanical losses on the plot from (Tg) from the maximum at bigger than PA6 Tg (about 10 ÷ 15°C), and it is possible at the same time to reason that the mixture has not very thick frictional network as a result of the exchange of intermolecular bonds what is displayed itself in the increase in Tg intensity. The results of investigations show that PA with PVP additions create more stable material with visible homogeneity (due to strong intermolecular interactions) which is characterised by satisfactory mechanical properties which insignificantly differ from PA6 properties, but which shows higher deformability and sorptive power.

Originality/value

The results of investigations show that PA with PVP additions create more stable material with visible homogeneity (due to strong intermolecular interactions) which is characterised by satisfactory mechanical properties which insignificantly differ from PA6 properties, but which shows higher deformability and sorptive power. The modified polymer has dielectric properties and a reduced susceptibility to water absorption. It can be used as an insulation material, in all industrial sectors, including the energy sector.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 July 2016

Paul Lewis

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the influence exerted on the thought of F.A. Hayek by the work of the biologist and founder of system theory, Ludwig von…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to examine the influence exerted on the thought of F.A. Hayek by the work of the biologist and founder of system theory, Ludwig von Bertalanffy. The author’s methodology includes textual analysis and archival work. It is argued first of all that Bertalanffy provided Hayek with a conceptual framework in terms of which he could articulate the philosophical significance of his theoretical psychology. In particular, Bertalanffy’s work afforded Hayek a set of concepts that helped him to articulate the relationship between mental and physical events – that is, between mind and body – implied by his theory. The second part of the chapter builds on the first by exploring how Hayek subsequently applied the abstract conceptual framework or ontology set out by Bertalanffy to the economy. In this way, Bertalanffy’s ideas helped Hayek to articulate and shape his emerging view of the economy as a complex adaptive system, which consists of different ‘levels of organisation’, which displays ‘structural’ or ‘emergent properties’, and which evolves over time on the basis of those group-level properties.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-960-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Abdul Jalil Omar and Christopher A. Heywood

This paper aims to explore how branding theory can be used to understand corporate real estate management's (CREM's) relationships with its customers. Specifically, the…

1908

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how branding theory can be used to understand corporate real estate management's (CREM's) relationships with its customers. Specifically, the perspectives of CREM executives and customers are used to develop a statement of a CREM brand.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study approach from four industry sections that consist of telecommunications, logistic, retail, and education from an emerging real estate market (Malaysia) and a mature real estate market (Australia). CREM executives and CREM customers from each case were interviewed to obtain information on CREM within organisations.

Findings

The findings indicate that CREM supports the business by managing organisations' strategic real estate resources as its brand. CREM executives focus more on the technicality of real estate functions, while CREM customers expect corporate real estate (CRE) to support their business functions.

Research limitations/implications

A CREM brand is important to CREM relationship building with the targeted customers. Successful brand development is able to increase CREM visibility to customers and at the same time gain appreciation of its contributions to the organisations.

Originality/value

This is the first study that investigates CREM from a branding perspective. The mechanism for communicating CREM contributions using branding helps to increase acceptance from the customers.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

George K. Stylios

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

1023

Abstract

Examines the fifthteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

George K. Stylios

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

1190

Abstract

Examines the fourteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2011

Joshua Rust

Purpose – To better understand the relation between Friedrich Hayek's “theoretical psychology” and contemporary connectionist theories of mind.Methodology/approach – There…

Abstract

Purpose – To better understand the relation between Friedrich Hayek's “theoretical psychology” and contemporary connectionist theories of mind.

Methodology/approach – There is much in The Sensory Order that recommends the oft-made claim that Hayek anticipated connectionist theories of mind. To the extent that this is so, contemporary arguments against and for connectionism, as advanced by Jerry Fodor, Zenon Pylyshyn, and John Searle, are shown as applicable to theoretical psychology. However, the final section of this chapter highlights an important disanalogy between theoretical psychology and connectionist theories of mind.

Findings – While Hayek can be construed as a connectionist, it is argued that Hayek's ontological presuppositions are not shared by contemporary theorists of mind. In particular, modern critiques of Hayek's theoretical psychology qua connectionism assume that he attempts to provide an account of the mind within the confines of scientific naturalism. This essay argues that this assumption is false. Hayek's ontological presuppositions are more akin to Kant's, implying that Hayek's question is importantly different from those asked by contemporary theorists of mind.

Originality/value of the chapter – At a certain level of abstraction, a Hayakian machine is not unlike certain versions of a connectionist machine. However, to adequately assess the significance of The Sensory Order on its own terms, Hayek's project must be disentangled from our own ontological preoccupations.

Details

Hayek in Mind: Hayek's Philosophical Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-399-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Jasper Beekmans, Erwin van der Krabben and Karel Martens

Urban decline is a much‐researched topic in both urban and real estate literature. Yet, there is no generally accepted measurable indicator for decline. This paper starts…

Abstract

Purpose

Urban decline is a much‐researched topic in both urban and real estate literature. Yet, there is no generally accepted measurable indicator for decline. This paper starts to fill this void. The purpose of this paper is threefold: to better understand the process of decline of one particular urban area, industrial estates; based on that, to identify a possible indicator for decline; and to take a first step in the empirical testing of the suitability of this indicator.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on a review of the literature on definitions of urban decline, and inspired by hedonic price models, the average property value per hectare is identified as a promising indicator for urban decline. Drawing on hedonic price studies explaining the value of individual industrial property, the paper subsequently distinguishes a number of independent variables likely to influence the average property value of an urban area. The paper uses a simple OLS regression to test whether the relation between these independent variables and average property value is in line with expectations.

Findings

The analysis shows that nearly all independent variables have the expected effect on average property values of industrial estates. From this the authors conclude that constructing an indicator for decline based on the average property value of an urban area can prove fruitful to measure decline.

Originality/value

The decline of industrial estates, as a particular type of urban area, has not received much attention in the international real estate literature. Furthermore, the identification of average property value as an indicator for the decline of urban areas is new.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2007

George K. Stylios

Examines the thirteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…

1424

Abstract

Examines the thirteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 19 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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