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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Maral Mahdad, Thai Thi Minh, Marcel L.A.M. Bogers and Andrea Piccaluga

There is little known about investigating the importance of all proximity dimensions simultaneously as a result of geographical proximity on university-industry…

Abstract

Purpose

There is little known about investigating the importance of all proximity dimensions simultaneously as a result of geographical proximity on university-industry collaborative innovation. This paper aims to answer the question of how geographically proximate university and industry influence cognitive, social, organizational, institutional and cultural proximity within university-industry joint laboratories and finally, what is the outcome of these interplays on collaborative innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an exploratory multiple-case study approach. The results are derived from 53 in-depth, semistructured interviews with laboratory directors and representatives from both the company and the university within 8 joint laboratories of Telecom Italia (TIM). The data collection was carried out in 2014 and 2015. The analysis follows a multi-grounded theory approach and relies on a mix of deductive and inductive reasoning with the final goal of theoretical elaboration.

Findings

This study finds the role of social and cultural proximity at the individual level as a result of geographical proximity as an enabler of collaborative innovation by triggering mutual learning, trust formation and frequent interactions. Cognitive proximity at the interface level could systematically influence collaborative innovation, while organizational and institutional proximity has marginal roles in facilitating collaborative innovation. The qualitative analysis offers a conceptual framework for proximity dimensions and collaborative innovation within university-industry joint laboratories.

Practical implications

The framework not only advances state-of-the-art university-industry collaboration and proximity dimension but also offers guidance for managers in designing collaborative innovation settings between university and industry.

Originality/value

With this study, the paper advances the understanding beyond solely the relationship between proximity and collaboration and shed light on the interplay between geographical proximity and other proximity dimensions in this context, which has received limited scholarly attention.

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Juhi Gahlot Sarkar and Abhigyan Sarkar

The purpose of this study was to explore possible types of brand proximity based on respective psychological causal antecedents, and also to uncover possible marking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore possible types of brand proximity based on respective psychological causal antecedents, and also to uncover possible marking outcomes of brand proximity.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from young adult respondents through semi-structured depth interviewing. The data were coded using a grounded theory method to interpret causal relationships between concepts.

Findings

Data coding resulted in a causal process model showing various psychological factors that would predict various brand proximity types, and also various attitudinal outcomes of brand proximity. Important emerging market context-specific findings are that the majority of Asian consumers feel emotionally close to developed foreign country originated brands, and that they use brands as a means to escape from various stress factors present in their daily lives.

Originality/value

A value of the study lies in exploring the contemporary types of psychological brand proximity and associated factors in the domain of consumer-brand relationship for the first time among Asian young adults.

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Rodoula H. Tsiotsou

Cross-cultural research constitutes a pivotal topic for marketing; however, the literature indicates that there are a few studies analyzing social media reviews from a…

Abstract

Purpose

Cross-cultural research constitutes a pivotal topic for marketing; however, the literature indicates that there are a few studies analyzing social media reviews from a cross-cultural perspective using cultural proximity (supra-national level) as a proxy of culture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify cross-cultural differences in service evaluations and specifically, in hotel appraisals among tourists from Central, Eastern (including Post-Soviet States), Northern and Southern Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach has been taken by studying online user-generated ratings of hotels on Trip Advisor. In total, 1,055 reviews of five hotels in Greece were used for the study.

Findings

Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of variances results confirm cultural differences in overall service evaluations and attributes (value, location, sleeping quality, rooms, cleanliness and service) of tourists from various European regions. Specifically, Eastern Europeans uploaded more reviews than any other European group, whereas Northern Europeans were more generous in their appraisals than Eastern, Southern and Central Europeans.

Practical implications

The results of the study could be used for segmentation purposes of the European tourism market and for recognizing, which aspects of their services need to be improved based on the segments they serve. Moreover, managers should encourage Northern and Eastern Europeans to upload their reviews as both groups are more generous in their evaluations. Moreover, the findings are useful to marketers of other services.

Originality/value

To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study that examines cross-cultural differences in hotel appraisals from a supra-national perspective including developed (Northern and Western Europe), developing (Southern Europe) and emerging tourism markets (Eastern Europe).

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 February 2022

Marilyne Chicoine, Francine Rodier and Fabien Durif

The purpose of this study is to explore the definition of local food through the concept of perceived proximity in order to improve the understanding of food locality and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the definition of local food through the concept of perceived proximity in order to improve the understanding of food locality and to propose a new framework for analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents an exploratory research through 32 semi-structured interviews with six agri-food industry stakeholders carried out in Quebec, Canada. Thematic analysis is used to identify the main dimensions of the proximity of a local food. A conceptual framework based on the results is presented.

Findings

The results suggest that local food can be defined according to nine dimensions of proximity: geographic, process, price, identity, relational, functional, cultural, access and experiential.

Originality/value

This study allows the concept of local food to be broken down into a constellation of perceived proximities and expands the understanding of the differences in the perception of food locality.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Omar Moufakkir and Mohamad N. Alnajem

Despite their popularity among tourists, information about low-cost accommodation is limited. The study aims to focus on hostels as tourist accommodation. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite their popularity among tourists, information about low-cost accommodation is limited. The study aims to focus on hostels as tourist accommodation. The purpose of this paper is to document the perceptions of hostel front-desk employees about customers and examine employees’ perceptions from a cultural perspective. As culture moderates behavior in general, in light of the cultural difference postulate which proposes that guests and hosts who are from similar or proximate cultures are more likely to experience positive service encounter and that encounter between guests and hosts from distant cultures may be more challenging to service providers, the study compares the perceptions of hostel Western front-desk employees with those of Eastern front-desk employees of their customers. Customers are categorized into four groups – Western customers, Eastern, Middle Eastern/Arab and African. Exploratory interviews paved the development of perception items, which were later on used in a questionnaire to serve the study’s purpose. The paper has managerial and theoretical implications and offers suggestions for further research to advance understanding about this neglected tourism environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Preliminary/exploratory short interviews with hostel employees in London paved the development of perception items, which were later on used in a questionnaire. There are about 190 hostels in the London area. The questionnaire was self-administered and successfully completed by 113 front-desk employees working in London hostels. t-test statistics was used to examine whether the two groups of employees hold different perceptions about their culturally different group of customers.

Findings

Results indicate that, generally, differences in perception exist among hostel employees about their customer groups. For example, Western customers are perceived as nicer and more tip-givers than Eastern customers, but they also complain more and are more demanding than their counterparts. Asian customers are perceived to be friendlier, least troublesome and least demanding than the other customer groups. African customers are the least positively perceived. As for Middle Eastern (Arab) customers, they are perceived rather somewhat positively and yet the least favorite. Furthermore, no statistical differences were observed between Western employees and Eastern employees’ perceptions about their customer groups, except that the latter perceives Asian customers to be more troublesome and more complaining.

Research limitations/implications

Although researchers have compared Western people’s behaviors and attitudes with those of Eastern people, differences may also exist within cultural groups, especially between East Europeans and West Europeans, between Middle Eastern and North Africans or between Americans and Canadians, despite cultural proximity. Therefore, it is always reasonable to interpret cultural differences studies cautiously.

Practical implications

Hostel management is advised not to take cultural proximity/distance between employees and customers for granted and, thus, should not assume that Eastern employees are more likely to provide better service to Eastern customers than Western employees or that Western employees are more likely to do so to Western customers because they are culturally similar or proximate. In an increasingly globalized world and mobile and culturally diverse workforce in the hospitality sector, it becomes necessary to raise employees’ awareness about cultural differences and their probable effects on perceptions. This is especially true for hostels because of their social characteristic.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of hostels to the tourism and hospitality industry, not much is known about their customers or their employees. In addition to contributing to employee perception in general, which is also a neglected area of study, this paper used cultural distance/proximity to assess differences in perception between Eastern employees and Western employees about four culturally different groups of hostel customers. In light of the impacts of globalization on consumer behavior, this paper joins other research to challenge the cultural distance postulate in the service encounter context.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Adegoke Oke, Arnold Maltz and Poul Erik Christiansen

Increasingly, sourcing decisions are routinely including contract manufacturers and suppliers in developing countries. While many studies have researched and identified…

2839

Abstract

Purpose

Increasingly, sourcing decisions are routinely including contract manufacturers and suppliers in developing countries. While many studies have researched and identified the criteria for selecting suppliers in general terms, there has been a dearth of studies on the criteria for choosing amongst suppliers in developing countries including suppliers in Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the criteria for choosing amongst suppliers in different developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology consists of a series of case studies involving six firms some of which are sourcing from developing countries and some that are based in developing countries and supply lead firms in developed countries.

Findings

Cost, physical and cultural proximity, political factors and reliability are found to be the primary criteria for sourcing decisions that include suppliers in Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Further, the paper identifies why these criteria are used and the drawbacks in using them.

Research limitations/implications

A key limitation of the study is generalizability. Based on the use of a case study methodology, caution should be exercised in generalizing the results of the study.

Originality/value

In spite of the limitations, this paper contributes to the extant literature on sourcing from developing countries. It provides valuable insights for global purchasing managers interested in sourcing from developing countries in terms of the criteria for choosing a particular location for sourcing and selecting a supplier within a given location.

Details

Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8297

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2010

Julio Sánchez Loppacher, Raffaella Cagliano and Gianluca Spina

According to the reviewed literature, in order to build effective and efficient global supply (GS) strategies, multinational companies (MNCs) need to define and implement…

1827

Abstract

Purpose

According to the reviewed literature, in order to build effective and efficient global supply (GS) strategies, multinational companies (MNCs) need to define and implement adequate headquarters' control and follow‐up systems for GS management performance in order to guarantee world supply consistence and alignment. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on how key variables affect GS headquarters‐subsidiary control systems and their complementary behaviours across culturally similar business units.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple case study methodology, with a sample including seven Italian MNCs, has expanded their operations to the Mercosur area (Latin America's Southern Common Market) and designed to guarantee theoretical replication in the analysis of the empirical evidence.

Findings

It was found that, although cultural similarities strongly influence MNCs' GS headquarters‐subsidiary control systems, other factors, such as purchasing and globalization sourcing strategy centralization and globalization process evolution, lead companies to implement complementary formal control systems that are consistent with the sharply personalized profile set by cultural proximity.

Research limitations/implications

In order to expand and deepen these conclusions, further research will be necessary to validate these findings in a wider sample, including companies from various countries of origin and destination. In any case, a longitudinal study could help to shed some light on the evolution of headquarters‐subsidiary relationships within global sourcing strategies.

Originality/value

The paper enables better understanding of the impact of and interactions between key driving factors in GS headquarters‐subsidiary control systems in cases of strong cultural similarities through a multi‐case sample study.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Alain Verbeke and Wenlong Yuan

The aim of this paper is to investigate how multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiary capabilities are influenced by the firm-specific advantages (FSAs) of the parent…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate how multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiary capabilities are influenced by the firm-specific advantages (FSAs) of the parent company, as well as by cultural and geographic distance between the home and host country.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper assesses how the effects of the parent FSAs, cultural distance and geographic distance on subsidiary capabilities vary for different value-chain activities, with an empirical application to 60 foreign subsidiaries operating in Canada.

Findings

This paper uncovers distinct, three-way interaction effects among parent-level FSAs, cultural distance and geographic distance for upstream versus downstream activities in the value chain.

Originality/value

We find that in special cases, high levels of distance can be positive for MNEs, in terms of driving the creation of stronger subsidiary capabilities.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Soonkwan Hong and Chang‐Ho Kim

The purpose of this study is to present a theoretical framework to demythologize Asian consumers' cultural and ideological narratives in relation to the newly emerging…

4144

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a theoretical framework to demythologize Asian consumers' cultural and ideological narratives in relation to the newly emerging popular culture developed in Korea, widely known as “Korean wave.” In addition, methodological considerations for the understudied consumption phenomenon are also discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

From the extant literature on popular culture and globalization, a theoretical overview of Korean popular culture (KPC) is provided. Subsequently, a condensed presentation of netnography employing critical discourse analysis (CDA) is provided.

Findings

A netnography fused with CDA suggests a reflexive process in which a range of sociocultural tensions in the globalization process of KPC dynamically hybridize and transform into new cultural tastes in respective cultures.

Research limitations/implications

Cultural branding can be revisited, as the new discourse generated in Asia envisions new entries into the global brandscape. Moreover, this endeavor helps explicate how a globalized trend is replaced with another through a paradoxical discursive process.

Originality/value

As this article discusses popular culture as a product to be consumed just as are other tangible products, it assists researchers in visualizing and theorizing about the globalization process of incorporeal, cultural products. The application of discursively enriched netnography facilitates pertinent analysis and ultimately theory‐building.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Jonathan Ruiz-Jaramillo, Luis José García-Pulido, Laura Montiel-Vega, Carmen M. Muñoz-Gonzalez and María Dolores Joyanes-Diaz

Heritage landmarks and historical values often coexist with places and regions of remarkable environmental and landscape wealth. This article studies their capacity to…

Abstract

Purpose

Heritage landmarks and historical values often coexist with places and regions of remarkable environmental and landscape wealth. This article studies their capacity to generate global understanding of their territory through the creation of cultural routes. The proposed methodology is verified through the study of the defensive features of the ancient Nasrid Kingdom, the last Islamic territory in the Iberian Peninsula from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, which shaped the Spanish region known as the Kingdom of Granada until the nineteenth century.

Design/methodology/approach

To assist in the proposal of new routes, a precise collection of physical data (topography, landmarks, resources, population centres …), existing public paths and protected natural sites was carried out. Those cultural routes relevant to the area of study were also selected and mapped through GIS. A set of indicators prioritised through an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) have evaluated the proposed itineraries.

Findings

The methodology enables the integral evaluation of parameters such as natural heritage, existing paths networks, defensive architectural heritage (watchtowers), existing cultural routes or proximity to basic services. The methodology's application allows an index to be obtained that quantifies the global implications of these parameters in the design of new itineraries. This leads to the development of a network with its own narrative that provides a historical, environmental and cultural meaning.

Originality/value

Watchtowers in this region have previously been studied as isolated and locally relevant architectural features. This work studies them from an overall perspective, considering each tower as a piece of a complex defensive and territorial system. Cultural routes arise from this joint interpretation as tools to restore and highlight the interrelationship between architectural heritage and territory and people.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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