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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Joana G. Aguiar, Alfred E. Thumser, Sarah G. Bailey, Sarah L. Trinder, Ian Bailey, Danielle L. Evans and Ian M. Kinchin

Concept maps have been described as a valuable tool for exploring curriculum knowledge. However, less attention has been given to the use of them to visualise contested…

Abstract

Purpose

Concept maps have been described as a valuable tool for exploring curriculum knowledge. However, less attention has been given to the use of them to visualise contested and tacit knowledge, i.e. the values and perceptions of teachers that underpin their practice. This paper aims to explore the use of concept mapping to uncover academics’ views and help them articulate their perspectives within the framework provided by the concepts of pedagogic frailty and resilience in a collaborative environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were a group of five colleagues within a Biochemical Science Department, working on the development of a new undergraduate curriculum. A qualitative single-case study was conducted to get some insights on how concept mapping might scaffold each step of the collaborative process. They answered the online questionnaire; their answers were “translated” into an initial expert-constructed concept map, which was offered as a starting point to articulate their views during a group session, resulting in a consensus map.

Findings

Engaging with the questionnaire was useful for providing the participants with an example of an “excellent” map, sensitising them to the core concepts and the possible links between them, without imposing a high level of cognitive load. This fostered dialogue of complex ideas, introducing the potential benefits of consensus maps in team-based projects.

Originality/value

An online questionnaire may facilitate the application of the pedagogic frailty model for academic development by scaling up the mapping process. The map-mediated facilitation of dialogue within teams of academics may facilitate faculty development by making explicit the underpinning values held by team members.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Cathy Atkinson, George Thomas and Sarah Parry

Motivational interviewing (MI) has developed considerably since its inception, which may have led to diverse practice across contexts and differential understanding of…

Abstract

Purpose

Motivational interviewing (MI) has developed considerably since its inception, which may have led to diverse practice across contexts and differential understanding of core principles. Concept mapping is one potential method for offering insight into practitioner awareness, understanding and application of MI. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 29 professionals from a range of disciplines, including counselling, education and health, completed concept maps about MI, following brief training at the UK regional MI interest network. In total, 17 completed maps were submitted for analysis using quantitative and qualitative methods.

Findings

A total of 186 concepts and 175 propositional links were found within the 17 maps. The most commonly identified concepts were: change, empathy, collaboration, open-ended questions, affirmations, reflections, summaries (OARS), client centred and compassion. The concept maps also suggested differing levels of expertise across network members using concept mapping morphology classification.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was small scale and located in one region of the UK. Maps were submitted anonymously meaning that participant data could not be matched to the maps.

Practical implications

Concept mapping is a potentially useful method for auditing practice and developing skills in MI, as well as exploring participants’ understanding of related concepts and therapeutic mechanisms.

Social implications

MI has a strong evidence-based across a variety of disciplines and contexts. Refining practitioner skills in MI has implications for the integrity of delivery, and improved client outcomes in areas such as substance use, health promotion and educational disaffection.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate concept mapping as a means of understanding MI practice. It has potential implications for training, monitoring, supervision and development in MI practice.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Kym Fraser and Joseph Novak

This paper reports on the outcomes of a study in a service industry in which concept maps were used to facilitate the process of employees at all levels of an organisation…

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2168

Abstract

This paper reports on the outcomes of a study in a service industry in which concept maps were used to facilitate the process of employees at all levels of an organisation discussing and negotiating work issues. The use of the maps in the discussions facilitated inter‐employee co‐operation and communication. Specifically the use of the maps assisted employees to understand the perspective of others, organise their own thoughts, keep on track during meetings, reduce confrontation in meetings, share information, and involve all participants. The authors include, as an example, a description of one of the nine cases in the study in which two employees redesign a component of their work, and in the process improve their working relationship, thus addressing issues of significance to both employees. The authors conclude that concept mapping is an innovative tool which can be used by employees at all levels of an organisation for co‐operative work redesign.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

Jacob Thimor and Uri Fidelman

Finds a statistically significant relation between top‐down conceptmapping and the right cerebral hemisphere, and between bottom‐up conceptmapping and the right…

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220

Abstract

Finds a statistically significant relation between top‐down conceptmapping and the right cerebral hemisphere, and between bottom‐up conceptmapping and the right hemisphere. Correlates scores on conceptmapping with scores on hemispheric tests, and compares the scores of the subjects on hemispheric tests with the preferable style of conceptmapping. Concludes that top‐down conceptmapping, the right hemisphere, and Frege’s logic are mutually related. Similarly, bottom‐up conceptmapping, the left hemisphere, and Russell’s logic are mutually related.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2005

Devi R. Gnyawali and Beverly B. Tyler

Our primary objective is to provide method-related broad guidelines to researchers on the entire spectrum of issues involved in cause mapping and to encourage researchers…

Abstract

Our primary objective is to provide method-related broad guidelines to researchers on the entire spectrum of issues involved in cause mapping and to encourage researchers to use causal mapping techniques in strategy research. We challenge strategists to open the black box and investigate the mental models that depict the cause and effect beliefs of managers, “walk” readers through the causal mapping process by discussing the “nuts and bolts” of cause mapping, provide an illustration, and outline “key issues to consider.” We conclude with a discussion of some promising research directions.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-208-5

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

David Hay and Ian Kinchin

This paper aims to describe a method of teaching that is based on Novak's conceptmapping technique.

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4012

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe a method of teaching that is based on Novak's conceptmapping technique.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper shows how concept mapping can be used to measure prior knowledge and how simple mapping exercises can promote the integration of teachers' and students' understandings in ways that are meaningful.

Findings

The conceptmapping method facilitates quick and easy measures of student knowledge‐change so that teachers can identify the parts of the curriculum that are being understood and those that are not. This is possible even among very large student groups in the 50‐minute slots that are allocated to so much teaching in higher education.

Research limitations/implications

Concept mapping is discussed in the wider context of student learning style. The styles literature has been criticised because it tends to encourage undue labelling of people or behaviours. The approach described here also uses “labels” to typify learning (using the terms non‐learning and rote or meaningful learning to identify different qualities of change).

Originality/value

The difference in this approach is that terms are attached to empirical measures of learning outcome, not to personal or psychological styles. Concept mapping makes learning visible so that the actual quality of the learning that has occurred can be seen and explored. Using concept mapping in the course of teaching means that learning is no longer a complex and intractable process, measurable only by proxy, but an observable phenomenon.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 50 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Alon Friedman and Richard P. Smiraglia

The purpose of the research reported here is to improve comprehension of the socially‐negotiated identity of concepts in the domain of knowledge organization. Because…

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1744

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the research reported here is to improve comprehension of the socially‐negotiated identity of concepts in the domain of knowledge organization. Because knowledge organization as a domain has as its focus the order of concepts, both from a theoretical perspective and from an applied perspective, it is important to understand how the domain itself understands the meaning of a concept.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an empirical demonstration of how the domain itself understands the meaning of a concept. The paper employs content analysis to demonstrate the ways in which concepts are portrayed in KO concept maps as signs, and they are subjected to evaluative semiotic analysis as a way to understand their meaning. The frame was the entire population of formal proceedings in knowledge organization – all proceedings of the International Society for Knowledge Organization's international conferences (1990‐2010) and those of the annual classification workshops of the Special Interest Group for Classification Research of the American Society for Information Science and Technology (SIG/CR).

Findings

A total of 344 concept maps were analyzed. There was no discernible chronological pattern. Most concept maps were created by authors who were professors from the USA, Germany, France, or Canada. Roughly half were judged to contain semiotic content. Peirceian semiotics predominated, and tended to convey greater granularity and complexity in conceptual terminology. Nodes could be identified as anchors of conceptual clusters in the domain; the arcs were identifiable as verbal relationship indicators. Saussurian concept maps were more applied than theoretical; Peirceian concept maps had more theoretical content.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates important empirical evidence about the coherence of the domain of knowledge organization. Core values are conveyed across time through the concept maps in this population of conference papers.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 69 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

David B. Hay and Ian M. Kinchin

The purpose of this paper is to explain and develop a classification of cognitive structures (or typologies of thought), previously designated as spoke, chain and network…

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4065

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain and develop a classification of cognitive structures (or typologies of thought), previously designated as spoke, chain and network thinking by Kinchin et al.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper shows how concept mapping can be used to reveal these conceptual typologies and endeavours to place the conceptmapping method in the broader context of learning styles and learning theory.

Findings

The findings suggest that spoke structures are indicative of a naïve epistemology, or of “learning‐readiness”; chain structures are indicators of “goal‐orientation” and networks are indicators of expertise. Furthermore, change that comprises simple elaboration of existing spokes or chains is likely to be the result of surface learning styles and the emergence of networks indicative of deep learning. The utility of these different cognitive approaches is discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The work is limited by the general lack of empirical testing, but the approach is presented as an important source of hypotheses for future research.

Practical implications

The practical implications of the research are considerable. First, concept mapping provides a framework for documenting and assessing understanding at “novice” and “expert” levels. Second, where definitive criteria can be developed from the learning styles literature, cognitive change in the course of learning can be evaluated to distinguish between deep versus surface or holist versus serialist approaches, for example.

Originality/value

The papers original and comprises a synthetic approach to the study of learning style and learning theory through the use of the conceptmapping method. It has both practical and theoretical value because it suggests a new approach and is an important source of testable hypotheses.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 48 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2013

Mauri Laukkanen and Päivi Eriksson

The paper's first objective is to develop a new conceptual framework for categorizing and designing cognitive, specifically comparative, causal mapping (CCM) research by…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's first objective is to develop a new conceptual framework for categorizing and designing cognitive, specifically comparative, causal mapping (CCM) research by building upon the theory‐centred and participant‐centred perspectives. The second purpose is to enable the discerned study prototypes by introducing a new CCM software application, CMAP3.

Design/methodology/approach

Building upon the distinction between theory‐centred (etic) and participant‐centred (emic) perspectives in social research, we first construct and apply a conceptual framework for analysing and categorising extant CCM studies in terms of their objectives and basic design. Next, after noting the important role and basic tasks in computerising causal mapping studies, we present a new CCM software application.

Findings

The theory‐centred/participant‐centred perspectives define four causal mapping study prototypes, each with different goals, basic designs and methodological requirements. Noting the present lack of widely accessible software for qualitatively oriented CCM studies, we introduce CMAP3, a new non‐commercial Windows application, and summarise how it is used in related research.

Originality/value

The framework and the studies representing the prototypes demonstrate the versatility of CCM methods and that the proposed framework offers a new, systematic approach to categorising and designing CCM studies. Research technically, CMAP3 can support the defined CCM‐prototypes, based on a low‐structured (inductive/qualitative) or a structured (nomothetic/quantitative) methodological approach/stance, and having therefore different needs of data acquisition, processing, coding, aggregation/comparison, and analysis of the emerging aggregated cause maps’ contents or structure.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2018

Chunxiu Qin, Pengwei Zhao, Jian Mou and Jin Zhang

Browsing knowledge documents in a peer-to-peer (P2P) environment is difficult because knowledge documents in such an environment are large in quantity and distributed over…

Abstract

Purpose

Browsing knowledge documents in a peer-to-peer (P2P) environment is difficult because knowledge documents in such an environment are large in quantity and distributed over different peers who organize the documents according to their own views. This paper aims to propose a method for constructing a personal knowledge map for a peer to facilitate knowledge browsing and alleviate information overload in P2P environments.

Design/methodology/approach

The research presents a method for constructing a personal knowledge map. The method adopts an ontology-concept-tree-based classification algorithm to recognize a peer’s personal knowledge structure and construct a personal knowledge map, and uses a self-organizing map algorithm to cluster and visualize the knowledge documents. The correctness of the created knowledge map is evaluated with a collection of abstracts of academic papers.

Findings

The method for constructing a personal knowledge map is the main finding of this research. The evaluation shows that the created knowledge map is good in quality.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed method provides a way for P2P platforms to understand their users’ knowledge background, as well as to improve the P2P platform environment. However, the proposed method will not help a peer when he has nothing in his individual knowledge document repository (i.e. the “cold start” problem). The method also requires a relatively good ontology base for a P2P document sharing system to use the method effectively.

Originality/value

It is novel that the proposed method organizes the knowledge documents related to a peer’s knowledge background into a personal knowledge map. Moreover, the created knowledge map combines the advantages of a hierarchical display and a map display. It has values for a distributed P2P environment to facilitate users’ knowledge browsing and to alleviate information overload.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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