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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2021

Zaloa Aginako, María Begoña Peña-Lang, Miren Terese Bedialauneta and Teresa Guraya

There are multiple questionnaires in the literature that try to gather university students’ perception about sustainable development (SD), but they are mainly focused on…

Abstract

Purpose

There are multiple questionnaires in the literature that try to gather university students’ perception about sustainable development (SD), but they are mainly focused on determining the students’ knowledge and attitude about sustainability. As the existing questionnaires did not fit the type of analysis that is intended to carry out, a new questionnaire was developed, adapted to the aims and context (engineering students) of the pretended study. The questionnaire contains two scales; one to determine the level of insertion of sustainability and the other to measure the importance that students give in their training process to the three dimensions of sustainability: economic, environmental and social. This new instrument requires a validation process to ensure its content – validity, reliability and clarity. The aim of this paper is to describe the validation process.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper shows the validation process of a questionnaire designed ad hoc to measure the students’ perception on SD inclusion level in three current engineering degrees, at the Engineering School of Bilbao (EIB) that belongs to the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). The questionnaire validation process was conducted in three stages: experts on the subject provided their advice to ensure the study objectives, a small number of students contributed to clarify the statement of the questions, and thus, to increase the reliability of the questionnaire and finally, a larger number of students completed the survey to analyse the internal consistency of the two scales in the questionnaire with the Cronbach’s alpha test.

Findings

As a result of the entire validation process, an appropriate scale has been obtained to measure the importance that students give to the three dimensions of sustainability, economic, environmental and social, and to the sustainability overall. Furthermore, an appropriate scale to measure the insertion level of sustainability in engineering studies has been developed. However, the insertion scale needs a revision in the items of social and economic dimension to be valid to conduct disaggregated studies by dimensions.

Originality/value

The surveys published in the literature try to determine the knowledge and attitude that students have regarding SD. However, this new questionnaire, whose validation process is described in this paper, aims to know how engineering students of the EIB perceive the level of insertion of SD in their academic programs, from a frequency perspective, and the importance they give to it, both personally and professionally, given to the analysis a holistic perspective. Thus, the questionnaire can be used by higher education institutions to design strategies for inserting SD in engineering studies.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2021

Brady Lund

The purpose of this study is to identify typical sample sizes and response rates in questionnaire research studies within the discipline of information systems, as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify typical sample sizes and response rates in questionnaire research studies within the discipline of information systems, as well as the top statistical analyses utilized for questionnaire data in these studies.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 842 articles published between the years of 2000 and 2019 were identified that met the criteria of using a questionnaire as the research method. These articles were analyzed based on the sample size, response rate (if applicable) and statistical analysis methods used.

Findings

The typical questionnaire study received between 136 (first quartile) and 374 (third quartile) respondents, with a median number of 217. Typical response rate ranged between 16.5% and 50.0%, with a median of 27.8%. it was found that articles published in journals included in the Social Science Citation Index had significantly larger numbers of respondents than those not included in the index, though no difference was found for response rate. Studies that utilized more advanced statistical methods (regression analysis, structural equation modeling) were found to have significantly larger sample sizes than those that utilized only descriptive statistics or t-tests. Structural equation modeling, including the partial least squares approach, was used in the largest number of studies.

Originality/value

This study is the first to broadly examine the typical sample size, response rates and methods of statistical analysis used in information systems questionnaire studies. The findings of this study may be useful for systems researchers in developing appropriate procedures for questionnaire-based research.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

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Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2009

Alfred Ogle

This paper reviews the literature on hotel guest questionnaires, also commonly known in the industry as comment cards. Considered a hotel tradition, the ubiquitous…

Abstract

This paper reviews the literature on hotel guest questionnaires, also commonly known in the industry as comment cards. Considered a hotel tradition, the ubiquitous questionnaire remains the primary method employed by mainstream hotels to elicit and record guest feedback despite shortcomings in data reliability and response rates. Hence questionnaires play a key facilitation role in the collection of guest feedback (guest–hotel dyad in hotel communication). The paper traces the history of questionnaire utilization in the hotel industry, and examines evolutionary changes in terms of form and function. A typology of questionnaire genre is constructed. Used either independently or in combination with other methods, the traditional paper guest questionnaire has been complemented or even superseded by e-based variants. Obsolescence threatens the paper questionnaire as technology uptake permeates the hotel industry. This paper considers a “service innovation” by using the questionnaire as a communication tool along the hotel–guest dyad. A back-to-basics approach potentially yields a valuable and cost-efficient guest service encounter opportunity whilst mitigating questionnaire data deficiencies.

Details

Perspectives on Cross-Cultural, Ethnographic, Brand Image, Storytelling, Unconscious Needs, and Hospitality Guest Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-604-5

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2015

Md Shah Azam

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to…

Abstract

Information and communications technology (ICT) offers enormous opportunities for individuals, businesses and society. The application of ICT is equally important to economic and non-economic activities. Researchers have increasingly focused on the adoption and use of ICT by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as the economic development of a country is largely dependent on them. Following the success of ICT utilisation in SMEs in developed countries, many developing countries are looking to utilise the potential of the technology to develop SMEs. Past studies have shown that the contribution of ICT to the performance of SMEs is not clear and certain. Thus, it is crucial to determine the effectiveness of ICT in generating firm performance since this has implications for SMEs’ expenditure on the technology. This research examines the diffusion of ICT among SMEs with respect to the typical stages from innovation adoption to post-adoption, by analysing the actual usage of ICT and value creation. The mediating effects of integration and utilisation on SME performance are also studied. Grounded in the innovation diffusion literature, institutional theory and resource-based theory, this study has developed a comprehensive integrated research model focused on the research objectives. Following a positivist research paradigm, this study employs a mixed-method research approach. A preliminary conceptual framework is developed through an extensive literature review and is refined by results from an in-depth field study. During the field study, a total of 11 SME owners or decision-makers were interviewed. The recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using NVivo 10 to refine the model to develop the research hypotheses. The final research model is composed of 30 first-order and five higher-order constructs which involve both reflective and formative measures. Partial least squares-based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is employed to test the theoretical model with a cross-sectional data set of 282 SMEs in Bangladesh. Survey data were collected using a structured questionnaire issued to SMEs selected by applying a stratified random sampling technique. The structural equation modelling utilises a two-step procedure of data analysis. Prior to estimating the structural model, the measurement model is examined for construct validity of the study variables (i.e. convergent and discriminant validity).

The estimates show cognitive evaluation as an important antecedent for expectation which is shaped primarily by the entrepreneurs’ beliefs (perception) and also influenced by the owners’ innovativeness and culture. Culture further influences expectation. The study finds that facilitating condition, environmental pressure and country readiness are important antecedents of expectation and ICT use. The results also reveal that integration and the degree of ICT utilisation significantly affect SMEs’ performance. Surprisingly, the findings do not reveal any significant impact of ICT usage on performance which apparently suggests the possibility of the ICT productivity paradox. However, the analysis finally proves the non-existence of the paradox by demonstrating the mediating role of ICT integration and degree of utilisation explain the influence of information technology (IT) usage on firm performance which is consistent with the resource-based theory. The results suggest that the use of ICT can enhance SMEs’ performance if the technology is integrated and properly utilised. SME owners or managers, interested stakeholders and policy makers may follow the study’s outcomes and focus on ICT integration and degree of utilisation with a view to attaining superior organisational performance.

This study urges concerned business enterprises and government to look at the environmental and cultural factors with a view to achieving ICT usage success in terms of enhanced firm performance. In particular, improving organisational practices and procedures by eliminating the traditional power distance inside organisations and implementing necessary rules and regulations are important actions for managing environmental and cultural uncertainties. The application of a Bengali user interface may help to ensure the productivity of ICT use by SMEs in Bangladesh. Establishing a favourable national technology infrastructure and legal environment may contribute positively to improving the overall situation. This study also suggests some changes and modifications in the country’s existing policies and strategies. The government and policy makers should undertake mass promotional programs to disseminate information about the various uses of computers and their contribution in developing better organisational performance. Organising specialised training programs for SME capacity building may succeed in attaining the motivation for SMEs to use ICT. Ensuring easy access to the technology by providing loans, grants and subsidies is important. Various stakeholders, partners and related organisations should come forward to support government policies and priorities in order to ensure the productive use of ICT among SMEs which finally will help to foster Bangladesh’s economic development.

Details

E-Services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-325-9

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Sudhakar Patra

This chapter covers the attributes of a well-designed questionnaire and on how to adopt a framework for developing questionnaires. Different types of questionnaires are…

Abstract

This chapter covers the attributes of a well-designed questionnaire and on how to adopt a framework for developing questionnaires. Different types of questionnaires are discussed exhaustively, with tips on structure, procedures, and standard format examples. The author gives an elaborate example of a survey questionnaire, closely related to one of his major research project.

Details

Methodological Issues in Management Research: Advances, Challenges, and the Way Ahead
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-973-2

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2004

Michele Bernasconi and Valentino Dardanoni

Social mobility is an issue at the crossroad of various disciplines: sociology, statistics, political science and economics. We review alternative approaches to the…

Abstract

Social mobility is an issue at the crossroad of various disciplines: sociology, statistics, political science and economics. We review alternative approaches to the analysis of intergenerational income mobility, and conduct a questionnaire aimed to reveal students’ opinions on some basic principles developed in the literature. The questionnaire includes questions focussed on: (a) the difference between structural and exchange mobility; (b) the decomposition of mobility tables into parameters linked to structural mobility and parameters linked to exchange mobility; (c) the effects of transformations of the status variables (incomes) on mobility comparisons. These issues have been formalized as hypotheses that can be formally tested by the questionnaire. We find various regularities in the data, but also some rejections of basic principles that require further scrutiny.

Details

Inequality, Welfare and Income Distribution: Experimental Approaches
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-113-2

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Dekar Urumsah

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally…

Abstract

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.

The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.

In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.

The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

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Abstract

Details

Tourism Destination Quality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-558-0

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Abstract

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Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-190288-2

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Jane Brown, Anders Wäppling and Helen Woodruffe-Burton

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to questionnaires as a corporate touch point, and their relationship with corporate identity (CI).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to questionnaires as a corporate touch point, and their relationship with corporate identity (CI).

Design/methodology/approach

Following observational research, the paper presents a review of published works, including journals, textbooks and industry papers that consider qualitative aspects of questionnaire design. Primary data was collected via existential phenomenological interviews to understand the experiences of employees who engage with questionnaires from external companies within the industrial business-to-business (B2B) industry.

Findings

A lack of practical advice around aesthetic appearance of questionnaires in both journal papers and research design textbooks is identified, suggesting limited awareness of visual aspects of questionnaire design, even for those with formal training. Through interviews, it is suggested that poor design is forgiven through the understanding of the practical nature of the document, the idea that CI is a performance that is unnecessary at particular points of the B2B relationship, and that a more powerful company need not spend time on CI if collecting data from a stakeholder that is perhaps perceived as less important than other stakeholders. The findings indicate that organisations should consider questionnaires as a vehicle to promote CI, and as stakeholders to consider the document in terms of their relationship with the issuing company.

Research limitations/implications

This study proposes that qualitative inquiry is required to further determine how questionnaires are understood as a corporate touch point by stakeholders.

Originality/value

This paper considers the relationship between questionnaire appearance and stakeholder perceptions in the context of CI.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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