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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Rusli Ahmad and Noor Azman Ali

The purpose of this article is to analyse the use of a qualitative approach using cognitive mapping techniques in the study of a decision‐making process. This study takes…

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2206

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to analyse the use of a qualitative approach using cognitive mapping techniques in the study of a decision‐making process. This study takes place in a public sector and in the context of a performance appraisal system (PAS). This is in line with recommendations by scholars and researchers to conduct a management research in a public service context (see Brown, 1999; Bissessar, 2000; Jabroun and Balakrishnan, 2000; O’Donnell and O’Brien, 2000; Redman, Snape and Thompson, 2000). This article also intends to elucidate and justify the methodological approach used, examine the assumptions underlying the use of a particular research design, and provide arguments for the preference of the methodology used. It is hoped that this will contribute to the understanding of the nature and validity of the research undertaken. This article begins by reviewing the theoretical issues of the research framework, the main features of the qualitative methodologies, and finally, the research method applied in this research is determined and justified.

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Management Research News, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Gail P. Clarkson and Mike A. Kelly

The implications and influence of different cognitive map structures on decision-making, reasoning, predictions about future events, affect, and behavior remain poorly…

Abstract

The implications and influence of different cognitive map structures on decision-making, reasoning, predictions about future events, affect, and behavior remain poorly understood. To-date, we have not had the mechanisms to determine whether any measure of cognitive map structure picks up anything more than would be detected on a purely random basis. We report a Monte Carlo method of simulation used to empirically estimate parameterized probability outcomes as a means to better understand the behavior of cognitive map. Using worked examples, we demonstrate how the results of our simulation permit the use of exact statistics which can be applied by hand to an individual map or groups of maps, providing maximum utility for the collective and cumulative process of theory building and testing.

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Methodological Challenges and Advances in Managerial and Organizational Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-677-0

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Article
Publication date: 31 March 2021

Ana Luísa A. Vaz, Fernando A.F. Ferreira, Leandro F. Pereira, Ricardo J.C. Correia and Audrius Banaitis

The concept of smart city has recently become more topical in academic and policy discussions. This idea is considered a complex, non-consensual subject since its…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of smart city has recently become more topical in academic and policy discussions. This idea is considered a complex, non-consensual subject since its definition has not yet been agreed upon by most authors in the relevant fields. The need to identify and measure smart city indicators has also given rise to many different evaluation procedures. However, the available frameworks have yet to overcome challenges in structuring and measuring all the evaluation parameters of the cities in question. Thus, methods still need to be developed and applied that can structure criteria used to assess smart city success.

Design/methodology/approach

This study sought to show cognitive mapping's tangible usefulness as an expedient tool for strategic analysis, using smart cities as a complex object of study. To this end, various cognitive maps were constructed and compared using the Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) approach.

Findings

Cognitive mapping's advantages and limitations in the strategic visualization research context are analyzed and discussed.

Originality/value

The authors know of no prior work reporting comparative analysis of this methodological approach in the same research context.

Details

Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2015

Santi Furnari

Research has highlighted the cognitive nature of the business model intended as a cognitive representation describing a business’ value creation and value capture…

Abstract

Research has highlighted the cognitive nature of the business model intended as a cognitive representation describing a business’ value creation and value capture activities. Although the content of the business model has been extensively investigated from this perspective, less attention has been paid to the business model’s causal structure – that is the pattern of cause-effect relations that, in top managers’ or entrepreneurs’ understandings, link value creation and value capture activities. Building on the strategic cognition literature, this paper argues that conceptualizing and analysing business models as cognitive maps can shed light on four important properties of a business model’s causal structure: the levels of complexity, focus and clustering that characterize the causal structure and the mechanisms underlying the causal links featured in that structure. I use examples of business models drawn from the literature as illustrations to describe these four properties. Finally, I discuss the value of a cognitive mapping approach for augmenting extant theories and practices of business model design.

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Business Models and Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-462-1

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Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2005

Devi R. Gnyawali and Beverly B. Tyler

Our primary objective is to provide method-related broad guidelines to researchers on the entire spectrum of issues involved in cause mapping and to encourage researchers…

Abstract

Our primary objective is to provide method-related broad guidelines to researchers on the entire spectrum of issues involved in cause mapping and to encourage researchers to use causal mapping techniques in strategy research. We challenge strategists to open the black box and investigate the mental models that depict the cause and effect beliefs of managers, “walk” readers through the causal mapping process by discussing the “nuts and bolts” of cause mapping, provide an illustration, and outline “key issues to consider.” We conclude with a discussion of some promising research directions.

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Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-208-5

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Mauri Laukkanen

This chapter’s focus is comparative causal mapping (CCM) methods in MOC research. For a background, the chapter discusses first the conceptual (cognitive theoretic) basis…

Abstract

This chapter’s focus is comparative causal mapping (CCM) methods in MOC research. For a background, the chapter discusses first the conceptual (cognitive theoretic) basis in typical CCM studies and its implications for understanding the target phenomena and for CCM methods. Next, it presents the CMAP3 software and describes its operating logic and main functions. Third, the chapter describes how to use CMAP3 in three prototypical cases of CCM, each characterized by different research objectives, kinds of data, and methods of data acquisition but also by potential dilemmas. The chapter concludes by speculating about the future directions of causal mapping and suggesting some ideas for developing in particular large-N CCM methods.

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Methodological Challenges and Advances in Managerial and Organizational Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-677-0

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Erin Kwong and W.B. Lee

The purpose of this paper is to identify the appropriate method, demonstrating with a prototype model, of how knowledge in reliability management can be elicited from

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2345

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the appropriate method, demonstrating with a prototype model, of how knowledge in reliability management can be elicited from individuals as well as a team.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is to elicit the tacit knowledge of the reliability engineers through narratives and cognitive mapping. With a sufficient number of cognitive maps, patterns are revealed and an aggregate cognitive map for all participating members is produced, which helps to summarize various approaches and procedures that can be taken in handling different reliability management issues.

Findings

The work provides a real‐life example to support the stages of learning from the individual, the group to the organizational level as described in the theoretical Learning Framework.

Research limitations/implications

Many knowledge management programs failed for various reasons. One common pitfall is that they are either too ambitious or too vague in the scope, methodology of their deliverables. To be successful, the project objectives should be linked to the business needs that lead to solving their business problems.

Practical implications

A prototype is developed in the organization of expertise knowledge in a bottom‐up manner in the building of a corporate memory from individuals to team level in the reliability management in an airline company.

Originality/value

This is the first study in the airline industry to capture the know‐how and experience of its reliability engineers in the form of congregate cognitive maps so as to facilitate team learning and the building of organizational memory. It is the first in the airline industry to adopt this methodology for developing its own procedure manuals. The model was implemented successfully in the Engineering Division of an airline business in order to handle their reliability management issues.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

David P. Spicer

Effective organisational learning is critical in today’s turbulent business conditions, and for this to occur, an organisation requires an effective means of storing and…

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2967

Abstract

Effective organisational learning is critical in today’s turbulent business conditions, and for this to occur, an organisation requires an effective means of storing and transferring knowledge and learning between individuals and the organisation as a whole. Reviews two large disparate streams of research, concerning the concepts of mental models and cognitive maps, each of which has been posited as a potential mechanism for the storage and transfer of knowledge within an organisation. Confusion exists between the application of the two terms in studies of organisation, and both concepts suffer from a lack of clarity in their definition. Identifies major similarities and differences, and potential synergies that exist between mental models and cognitive maps, outlines their heuristic value, and identifies how they can be used together to further our understanding of organisational learning.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Jukka-Pekka Bergman, Antti Knutas, Pasi Luukka, Ari Jantunen, Anssi Tarkiainen, Aleksander Karlik and Vladimir Platonov

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of cognitive diversity on strategic issue interpretation among the boards of directors making sense of sustainability…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of cognitive diversity on strategic issue interpretation among the boards of directors making sense of sustainability management. The study also investigated the centrality of the corporate sustainability issues to identify common interpretative patterns in the shared cognitive maps among the companies. In addition, the aim was to advance quantitative methods for the analysis of decision-makers’ cognition.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was an exploratory study analyzing 43 individual cognitive maps collected through surveys from the boards of nine cleantech companies. For the elicitation of the cognitive maps, the study used the hybrid cognitive mapping technique. The diversity of the shared cognitive maps was analyzed using the distance ratio formula and the graph analysis method with eigenvector to measure the centrality of the strategic issue interpretation in the maps.

Findings

This study provides evidence through the analysis of distance ratios on the existence of cognitive diversity among companies within the same industry. Surprisingly, despite the cognitive diversity, the study identified strong common patterns on strategic issue interpretations among the companies. In addition, the study shows that the sustainability management issues have gained minor attention from the boards of directors.

Research limitations/implications

The initial industry sample provided relatively restricted perspectives on managerial cognition, and to confirm the findings regarding the effects of industry on the shared cognitive maps of top decision-makers, wider industry-level data are needed.

Practical implications

This study provides an approach to facilitate the process of strategic decision-making for top decision-makers by identifying the shared beliefs of the selected strategic theme and to concentrate on the most central strategic issues in the company and industry. It reveals asymmetry between the significance of sustainability issues in an open agenda and the real position of sustainability concepts in the shared cognitive maps in the green industry. Also, the study advances cognitive mapping techniques for application in the board’s decision-making.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to brightening the black box of corporate governance by shedding light on the interaction of the concepts of corporate sustainability and other key strategic issues within the shared cognitive maps of the boards. It also provides new empirical knowledge on top decision-making processes and the effects of cognitive diversity on the strategic issue interpretations within the corporate boards of the green industry, and it further develops the methodology for the quantification of cognitive diversity and the content of cognitive maps.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2015

Thomas Wrona and Tina Ladwig

The major part of studies in the field of strategic cognition focussed on strategy content, while process studies are comparatively rare. Those of the studies that are…

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1225

Abstract

Purpose

The major part of studies in the field of strategic cognition focussed on strategy content, while process studies are comparatively rare. Those of the studies that are dedicated to explain strategy occurrence are dominantly restricted to formal decision making. In contrast to this, the purpose of this paper is to draw on a framework that helps to get a differentiated picture on contingent processes, strategies may pass through in organizations. Furthermore, an own elicitation procedure is introduced that enables to measure strategic cognition on different levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an empirical approach by applying collective causal mapping techniques, both on an individual as well as collective level. The conceptual framework of the study rests on the “genesis” concept of strategy formation introduced by Kirsch and colleagues.

Findings

The main contribution of the paper is the presentation of a methodical approach to study the formation of shared strategic orientations in small companies. An operationalization to study these cognitive processes, based on collective causal mapping techniques is provided.

Practical implications

Applying the methodical approach presented in the paper is expected to make a contribution to the understanding of the shared knowledge of organizational members about major strengths and weaknesses of a new strategic reorientation and to contribute to practical concerns of organizational members in specific problematic situations, especially in small companies.

Originality/value

The study empirically approaches the complex phenomenon on strategy formation in small companies and therefore expands the understanding of shared cognition in organizations.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

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