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1 – 10 of over 17000
Article
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Yonghwan Chang and Yong Jae Ko

The purpose of this study was to test whether endorsements that show a low strength of association (bottom-up bias) benefit from increased attention and processing…

1320

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to test whether endorsements that show a low strength of association (bottom-up bias) benefit from increased attention and processing efforts. The current study also tested whether consumer involvement level (top-down bias) dynamically interacts with the bottom-up attention phenomena.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a series of pretests, 36 potential celebrity-product matches were identified using real athletes and product brands. Two experiments were conducted: 330 individual responses (110 participants × three conditions) were obtained in a within-subjects lab experiment, and 868 participants were recruited for a between-subjects online experiment. Linear mixed modeling and moderated mediation analysis were performed.

Findings

The relationships between the strength of image associations and attention time to endorsements and recall and choice consideration of endorsed brands were U-shaped and curvilinear. Attention largely mediated the relationship between the strength of association and recall/choice. Involvement effects were diluted by the strength of association effects, rejecting top-down attentional control.

Practical implications

Brand managers for both products and celebrities are recommended to search for corresponding not only image-matched partners but also endorsement partners with dissonant pre-existing images.

Originality/value

The majority of the existing endorsement literature has conventionally suggested that congruence between the endorser and the endorsed property, rather than incongruence, induces consumers’ positive endorsement evaluation. This study constructs important theoretical advancements to the existing literature by empirically proving that through an attentional process, an endorsement contract, conventionally perceived as mismatched, can also generate positive outcomes.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 52 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Jung Ok Jeon and Sunmee Baeck

This paper aims to investigate consumers’ attitudinal and behavioral responses to brand crisis and examine an empirical model to explain consumer’s internal process in the…

4794

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate consumers’ attitudinal and behavioral responses to brand crisis and examine an empirical model to explain consumer’s internal process in the context of negative information about a brand, analyzing the relationships between the brand association types, brand-customer relationship strength and consumers’ responses depending on the types of brand crises.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses an integrative approach based on qualitative and quantitative methods: a focus-group interview and an experiment.

Findings

The results indicated that consumers’ responses were more favorable in the corporate ability (CA) crisis than in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) crisis. In addition, consumers with high brand-customer relationship strength and brand associations for CA (CSR) showed more favorable responses to a brand crisis related to CA (CSR) than to that related to CSR (CA).

Practical implications

Managerially, firms should improve their marketing activity to reinforce particular brand association type that strongly related customers mainly have. In addition, firms should carefully find the best timing and channel that strongly related customers usually access, to present corporate corresponding statements in brand crisis and information of their corporate crisis-coping process.

Originality/value

Theoretically, this study will contribute to the literature on brand crises by providing critical insights into the mechanism underlying consumers’ responses to brand crises.

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Alan French and Gareth Smith

To date, the brand equity literature has been limited by a gap in the measurement of a key driver of consumer based brand equity (CBBE). The authors ' aim is to…

15023

Abstract

Purpose

To date, the brand equity literature has been limited by a gap in the measurement of a key driver of consumer based brand equity (CBBE). The authors ' aim is to address this gap by developing a new, consumer-based measure of brand association strength, a critical element of CBBE.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper, based on cognitive psychology, takes a recently developed brand mapping approach and uses its features, along with network analysis measures designed specifically by the authors for this particular analysis, to produce a novel measure of brand association strength.

Findings

Traditional network analysis measures (e.g. number of associations, density) neglect to take into account the underlying structure of consumers ' brand associations as reflected in concept maps. The authors use primary research on a well-known brand (McDonald ' s) to show that both number of associations and a modified density measure taking account of the special structure of concept maps can be used to generate an intuitive and readily understood measure of brand association strength.

Originality/value

The paper develops a new measure to analyse brand association strength for any given brand. As such it contributes to the methodological and practical development of the CBBE construct.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Mikael Andéhn and Patrick L’Espoir Decosta

Recent research has shown that the country-of-origin (COO) effect – the influence on consumers’ attitudes and purchase behavior derived from a brand’s perceived association

2380

Abstract

Purpose

Recent research has shown that the country-of-origin (COO) effect – the influence on consumers’ attitudes and purchase behavior derived from a brand’s perceived association with a country – is inextricably linked to consumer perception. The purpose of this paper is to examine this shift by considering origin as a characteristic derived from perceived association and also by proposing that this association varies by degree, rather than simply acting as a binary attribute in its effect on consumer attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from a test series in which respondents (n=100) rated 38 brand-country pairs were put to split-half multi-group analysis tests to capture the moderating influence of association strength (AS) on several facets of country image (CI) simultaneously.

Findings

AS is a variable that exerts a moderating influence on how different dimensions of CI influence consumers’ evaluation of brands.

Research limitations/implications

The findings indicate that origin, as a characteristic, should be considered an association that is variable by degree and not as dichotomous. The implications of such a shift are broad, not only for the theoretical understanding of the COO effect but also for marketing and brand management practice. Accounting for AS allows for more accurate prediction of how consumers will react to COO.

Originality/value

The paper explicitly demonstrates that the strength of country-brand association moderates COO’s influence on brand equity. Such a relationship had previously only been theoretically implied but had not been empirically tested across multiple categories of products on multiple levels of CI.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2011

Florence Benoit‐Moreau and Béatrice Parguel

Using Keller's brand equity framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the firm's environmental communication on brand equity, and specifically…

3383

Abstract

Purpose

Using Keller's brand equity framework, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the firm's environmental communication on brand equity, and specifically its impact on brand image, through the strength and favourability of brand environmental associations.

Design/methodology/approach

A between‐subjects experimental design tests the hypotheses with a generalisable sample of 165 French consumers.

Findings

Environmental communication positively influences the strength and favourability of brand environmental associations, therefore improving brand equity. Two moderators reinforce the impact of environmental communication on brand equity through the strength of brand environmental associations: the perceived congruence between the brand and the cause, and the perceived credibility of the claim.

Practical implications

In the context of greater consumer pressure regarding business ethics, managers should favour environmental arguments in their corporate communication to improve brand image through societal associations. Doing so, they should focus their communication on causes that are congruent with their brands to facilitate brand equity building, and ensure they are credible when proclaiming these arguments.

Originality/value

Despite existing research on corporate social responsibility (CSR), no studies focus on the specific impact of CSR communication on brand equity. The paper provides initial empirical evidence about the positive effect of environmental claims on customer‐based brand equity.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Pascal Kottemann, Anja Plumeyer and Reinhold Decker

The purpose of this paper is to apply the (advanced) brand concept maps (BCM) approach to reinvestigate previous findings on feedback effects resulting from brand

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to apply the (advanced) brand concept maps (BCM) approach to reinvestigate previous findings on feedback effects resulting from brand extension information (BEI) and to explore whether this information affects the structure of a brand’s associative network.

Design/methodology/approach

This research builds on the associative network memory model, as well as Keller’s conceptualization of customer-based brand equity, and uses a series of empirical studies with a total of 839 respondents in two different countries.

Findings

The findings reveal that BEI has no significant impact on the structure of the parent brand’s associative network at the individual level. Furthermore, key brand image dimensions (i.e. favorability, strength, and uniqueness of brand associations) are not affected.

Research limitations/implications

By applying the (advanced) BCM approach, this paper is able to address shortcomings that are incorporated with the use of Likert scales for measuring a brand’s image and for investigating feedback effects in the field of brand extension. As the results indicate that the identification of feedback effects might be influenced by the approach used to measure a brand’s image, this paper calls for further investigations of feedback effects on a brand’s image.

Originality/value

Data from three empirical studies provide insights into the cognitive processing of BEI and their impact on a brand’s associative network.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

Cochen Wu and Yung‐Chien Yen

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the strength of brand associations, different brand breadths, and the similarity between a parent brand's product categories…

6494

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the strength of brand associations, different brand breadths, and the similarity between a parent brand's product categories and its extension product categories influence consumers' attitudes toward brand extensions.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental research design was applied to testing the set of hypotheses. A total of 384 respondents participated in the main study. This study analyzed experimental results using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Findings

The paper finds that when a brand is extended to similar product categories, only when the association is strong (trust or affect) will consumers prefer the extension of the narrow brand to that of the broad brand. Conversely, when a brand is extended to dissimilar product categories, regardless of the brand associations (trust or affect), consumers prefer the extension of the favorable broad brand to that of the narrow brand.

Practical implications

For corporations that operate within a narrow brand, brand extension strategies must be based on parent brand associations (trust or affect) that are very strong. In addition, the extension must only be to extremely similar product categories. In contrast, for corporations operating a broad brand, although the chance of brand extension success is better, favorability of consumer brand association (trust or affect) must never be ignored.

Originality/value

The study results reemphasize the importance of brand breadth effects when launching category extensions. Also, the research provides new insight into the strength of parent brand associations when evaluating consumers' brand attitude on brand extension.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2022

Lars Erling Olsen, Bendik Meling Samuelsen, Ioannis Pappas and Luk Warlop

Brand managers can choose among two fundamentally different brand positioning strategies. One is a broad brand strategy, focusing on many favorable brand associations. The…

1406

Abstract

Purpose

Brand managers can choose among two fundamentally different brand positioning strategies. One is a broad brand strategy, focusing on many favorable brand associations. The other is a narrow brand strategy, focusing on just a few and thus more mentally accessible associations. Building on associative memory theory, this paper aims to examine which of these brand positioning strategies performs better under dynamic market conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experiments test the effect of brand positioning strategy on memory accessibility and competitive brand performance. Study 1 tests how brand strategy (broad vs narrow) affects defensive brand performance. Study 2 tests how broad vs narrow brands perform differently in a brand extension scenario (offensive brand performance). Study 3 uses real brands and situation-based attributes as stimuli in a defensive scenario.

Findings

The results show that a narrow brand positioning strategy leads to a competitive advantage. Narrow brands with fewer and more accessible associations resist new competitors more easily and have higher brand extension acceptance than do broad brands.

Research limitations/implications

The study shows how to use accessibility as evidence of associative strength and test how accessibility influences competitive brand performance in a controlled experimental context.

Practical implications

Brand managers would benefit from a narrow brand positioning strategy in accordance with the unique selling proposition (USP) school of thought used by many marketing practitioners.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that narrow brand positioning performs better than broad brand positioning in dynamic markets, and to the knowledge is the first to do so.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Brian D. Till, Daniel Baack and Brian Waterman

The primary purpose of this paper is to illustrate a new methodology for gaining actionable, strategic insight into a brand's associations and its competitive uniqueness…

17209

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this paper is to illustrate a new methodology for gaining actionable, strategic insight into a brand's associations and its competitive uniqueness vis‐à‐vis key competitors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors integrate free association protocols, response latency, and more conventional scale items to develop a strategic overview of a brand's associations and to depict brands' strategic meaning in a comprehensive visual presentation.

Findings

The authors show, via an example featuring peanut butter brands, how their methodology effectively uncovers associations that the market has for the brands and how strong, unique, relevant, and favorable those associations are.

Research limitations/implications

This methodology is most appropriate for four to six brands at a time.

Practical implications

The strategic brand association map process demonstrated provides managers with a very clear, consumer‐driven, strategic view of the associations their brand has, and how those associations may (or may not) be serving to differentiate their brand. Additionally, these strategic brand association maps serve as an excellent diagnostic as to the overall health of a brand and can provide actionable insight for better understanding strategic reasons why a particular brand may be under‐performing against expectations.

Originality/value

Brand associations are one of the fundamental cornerstones of brand value. Brand associations serve to differentiate and create meaning for brands. Better understanding and managing a brand's associations is a fundamental role of brand managers. This process illustrates a new way to give brand managers strategic, consumer‐driven insight into their brand's associative network.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

İrem Eren-Erdoğmuş and Taşkın Dirsehan

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate local versus global brand associations in an emerging market (Turkey)’s coffee shop market.

1586

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to differentiate local versus global brand associations in an emerging market (Turkey)’s coffee shop market.

Design/methodology/approach

Two leading coffee shop brands – one local and one global – were analyzed with an emerging exploratory research technique – brand concept mapping (BCM) – to reveal their strong, favorable and unique associations leading them to market leadership.

Findings

The results indicate that, these two successful brands both have distinctive, yet relevant positions in their consumers’ mind. Local cultural experience is relevant for differentiating local brands, even if the coffee shop concept is globally imported. Global coffee shop brand, on the other hand, means membership to global middle income segment and is remembered as global fast coffee service.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this exploratory study is the sample size limitation by its nature. So, the generalizability of the results should be approached with caution. Researchers use BCM technique; however, this method does not permit to reveal the expected levels and the importance of the attributes. Thus, further research are suggested to be complementary.

Originality/value

This study fills the research gap in revealing and comparing local vs global brand associations by using BCM technique, which enables one to measure the strength, unique and favorable associations/brand images more suitable to Keller’s (1993) conceptualization. This study pioneers in using this technique in international branding.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

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