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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 19 January 2023

Cecilia Albert and Maria A. Davia

This paper addresses the relevance of job search methods and strategies in determining vertical mismatch and the risk of underusing skills or knowledge in first jobs…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper addresses the relevance of job search methods and strategies in determining vertical mismatch and the risk of underusing skills or knowledge in first jobs amongst graduates from bachelor's and master's programmes in Spain. Support from universities (via internships and career services) is compared to support from public institutions and informal strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the 2019 University Graduate Job Placement Survey. The dependent variables are estimated with a bivariate probit model with sample selection on a subsample of graduates who were not working at graduation.

Findings

Internships and university career employment offices significantly improve the quality of first job matches. Job banks and public examinations also contribute to finding well-matched first positions, while for public employment services, results are mixed. When the job search is not supported by institutions, graduates generally do worse finding their first jobs, particularly when temporary employment agencies are involved. There are also large differences in mismatch risks across fields of study.

Practical implications

If more graduates found their first jobs through internships and university job placement services, educational mismatch rates would decrease substantially. Further collaboration between universities and employers for the provision of high-quality internships may foster their conversion into regular, well-matched jobs. Industrial policies addressed to knowledge-based economic activities would enhance the creation of highly skilled positions. Further orientation towards STEM degrees is required to improve imbalances between supply and demand for graduate labour in Spain.

Originality/value

Evidence about education mismatch among master's degree graduates is very scarce. This paper compares them to bachelor's degree graduates. It addresses two complementary types of education mismatch and takes into account potential self-selection into post-graduation job search.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 65 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2013

Lourdes Badillo‐Amador and Luis E. Vila

This paper aims to highlight the relevance of examining education and skill job‐worker mismatches as two different, although simultaneous, phenomena of the labor market…

4351

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the relevance of examining education and skill job‐worker mismatches as two different, although simultaneous, phenomena of the labor market. Most previous literature does not take into account skill mismatch, and a number of papers deal with both kinds of mismatches as equivalent.

Design/methodology/approach

Spanish data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) survey for the year 2001 are used to examine the degree of statistical association between both education and skill mismatches, and to estimate wage equations as well as job satisfaction equations, considering satisfaction with pay, with the type of job and overall job satisfaction, in order to analyze the consequences of both types of mismatches from the workers’ viewpoint.

Findings

The statistical analysis shows that education and skill mismatches are weakly related in the Spanish labor market. The econometric analysis reveals that skill mismatches appear as key determinants of workers’ job satisfaction, while education mismatches have much weaker impacts, if any, on workers’ job satisfaction; however, both skill and education mismatches have negative impacts on wages.

Practical implications

The analysis points out that the research strategy that considers education mismatch as a proxy for the study of the effects of skill mismatch is rather weak because skill and education mismatches appear to capture different aspects of the accuracy of the job‐worker pairing, and, therefore, they have separate consequences for workers, both in monetary and non‐monetary terms. Skill mismatches are perceived by workers as a much more relevant problem than education mismatches. The wage and job satisfaction consequences of skill mismatches are strongly negative; to the contrary, education mismatches show much weaker effects.

Originality/value

The paper emphasizes that neglecting the effects of skill mismatch along with those of education mismatch in the analysis of the monetary and non‐monetary consequences of inadequate job‐worker pairing can lead to erroneous interpretations of the facts.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2017

Müge Adalet McGowan and Dan Andrews

This paper explores the link between skill and qualification mismatch and labor productivity using cross-country industry data for 19 OECD countries. Utilizing mismatch

Abstract

This paper explores the link between skill and qualification mismatch and labor productivity using cross-country industry data for 19 OECD countries. Utilizing mismatch indicators aggregated from micro-data sourced from the recent OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), the main results suggest that higher skill and qualification mismatch is associated with lower labor productivity, with over-skilling and under-qualification accounting for most of these impacts. A novel result is that higher skill mismatch is associated with lower labor productivity through a less efficient allocation of resources, presumably because when the share of over-skilled workers is higher, more productive firms find it more difficult to attract skilled labor and gain market shares at the expense of less productive firms. At the same time, a higher share of under-qualified workers is associated with both lower allocative efficiency and within-firm productivity – that is, a lower ratio of high productivity to low productivity firms. While differences in managerial quality can potentially account for the relationship between mismatch and within-firm productivity, the paper offers some preliminary insights into the policy factors that might explain the link between skill mismatch and resource allocation.

Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2007

Jeremy Reynolds and Lydia Aletraris

Using classic and contemporary perspectives on work, this paper examines how and why extrinsic and intrinsic job rewards, work–life conflict, and flexible hours are…

Abstract

Using classic and contemporary perspectives on work, this paper examines how and why extrinsic and intrinsic job rewards, work–life conflict, and flexible hours are related to mismatches between actual and preferred hours of work. We find that making raises, bonuses, and promotions contingent on job performance has little effect on actual or preferred work hours. Discretionary effort, as signaled by higher actual and preferred hours, is more common when people find their work meaningful. Work-to-life conflict, in contrast, generates a desire for fewer hours because people who report it prefer average hours but work many. Offering men flexible hours can partially offset that problem by increasing their appetite for work.

Details

Workplace Temporalities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1268-9

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2022

Kyung Hee Park and Nan Luo

This study aims to demonstrate whether the educational mismatch prevalent in society can be overcome by various types of lifelong learning and whether lifelong learning…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to demonstrate whether the educational mismatch prevalent in society can be overcome by various types of lifelong learning and whether lifelong learning can contribute to job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The participants were 2,559 young Korean employees who graduated from general or specialized vocational high school. This study applied structural equation modeling to verify the mediating effects of lifelong learning on the relationship between educational mismatch and job satisfaction. In addition, this study compared whether the conceptual model results were applied to those who graduated from general school and specialized vocational school through multigroup analysis.

Findings

Regarding the horizontal mismatch, the mediating effect of lifelong learning correlated with job satisfaction was significantly measured in all multigroup models, including the conceptual model. Nevertheless, regarding the vertical mismatch, this study confirmed that informal learning influences job satisfaction differently according to the type of high school from which employees graduated. Furthermore, for those who graduated from specialized vocational school, the relationship between vertical mismatch and job satisfaction was significantly indicated. However, there was no influence of informal learning at the workplace.

Originality/value

This study empirically demonstrated the alternative value of lifelong learning in overcoming the preceding educational mismatch. Moreover, the evidence that such lifelong learning effects may vary depending on the vocational education experiences before entering the labor market is valuable.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Zineb Draissi, Qi Zhanyong and Princess Zarla Jurado Raguindin

This paper aims to understand the development track of skills mismatch research and discover the hidden internal connections between literature.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the development track of skills mismatch research and discover the hidden internal connections between literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors gathered data through scientometric quantitative analysis using CiteSpace. Specifically, this article applied basic analysis, journal cocitation analysis (JCA), author cocitation analysis (ACA) and document cocitation analysis (DCA), cluster analysis, citation burstness detection, scientific research cooperation analysis and coconcurrence analysis of keywords of 3,125 documents from Web of Science core collections for the period 2000–2020.

Findings

Through the document cocitation analysis and the keywords' co-occurrence, this article identifies influential scholars, documents, research institutions, journals and research hotspots in research on the skills mismatch phenomenon. The results showed that the publications had ballooned, and the phenomenon has become an interdisciplinary research subject. The USA and Finland remain the main contributors, which is attributed to their high-yield institutions such as the University of Helsinki, the University of Witwatersrand, the University of Washington and so on. While the African continent lacks research on skills mismatch even with the continent’s effort to overcome such a crucial issue. The paper presents an in-depth analysis of skills and educational mismatch issues to better understand the evolutionary trajectory of the collective knowledge over the past 20 years and highlight the areas of active pursuit.

Research limitations/implications

The authors only used Web of Science core collection to collect data; however, they can added Scopus indexed database as well to extend the research trends and explore more new research hot topics to solve the skills mismatch phenomenon.

Originality/value

The scientometric analysis is of great significance for identifying the potential relationship between the literature and investigating the knowledge evolution of skills mismatch research. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Labor Organization and the World Health Organization are the giants who are mostly concerned of the mismatch skills phenomenon. Researchers can refer to this study to understand the status quo, gaps and research trends to deal with the skills mismatch issue.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2019

Kamalbek Karymshakov and Burulcha Sulaimanova

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it analyses the relationship between educational level, the school-to-work transition period for youth and positions which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it analyses the relationship between educational level, the school-to-work transition period for youth and positions which suffer from an education-job mismatch in Kyrgyzstan; and second, it investigates the effect of the education-job mismatch on the wages of youth in Kyrgyzstan.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the International Labor Organization 2013 data from the school-to-work transition survey for Kyrgyzstan. The Kaplan–Meier failure analysis is employed to demonstrate the relationship between school-to-work transition and mismatch status. To investigate the effect of an education-job mismatch on wages, a Mincer-type equation with OLS estimations is used. Along with this, taking into consideration potential unobserved heterogeneity issue, a propensity score matching method is applied.

Findings

The results indicate a large difference between those with tertiary education and those with non-tertiary education in terms of the probability of being employed with a wrong match. Young individuals without tertiary education are more likely to be employed with a right match. Analysis of the impact of overeducation on wages shows that the impact of overeducation depends on how it is measured. According to the objective approach, overeducated male individuals receive low wages compared to well matched, but estimation results based on the total sample of subjective approach indicate the positive effects of overeducation on wage.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature on the school-to-work transition and overeducation by focusing on one of the transition economies, which has been largely neglected by the literature.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

I.J. Hetty van Emmerik and Karin Sanders

This study examined the relationship between two types of mismatch (i.e. non‐correspondence between preferred and actual number of hours), and affective commitment. It was…

2866

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the relationship between two types of mismatch (i.e. non‐correspondence between preferred and actual number of hours), and affective commitment. It was argued that specific groups of employees, i.e. women and part‐time working employees, attach more importance to their working hours and, therefore, are less likely to show affective commitment when they experience a mismatch.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from 222 employees of a Dutch Ministry, hypotheses were tested using regression analyses.

Findings

It was shown that a mismatch of working more hours was differentially related to the affective commitment of employees who wanted to work more and who wanted to work fewer hours. Moreover, gender and full‐time status were found to moderate the negative relationship between a mismatch and the affective commitment of employees who wants to work less.

Research limitations/implications

The focus is on affective commitment; however, it is possible that other types of commitment are also associated with perceptions of psychological contract breach.

Practical implications

Tailored HRM is needed: assisting employees with a mismatch wanting to work fewer hours can be achieved by allowing them more flexibility in their working schedules. Employees with a mismatch of wanting to work more hours can be assisted with additional support, e.g. shopping services.

Originality/value

HRM practices can be tailored to different preferences: the value of this paper is the examination of different types of mismatch for different group of employees.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 20 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Sandra Nieto, Alessia Matano and Raúl Ramos

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and explain the factors contributing to the observed differences in skill mismatches (vertical and horizontal) between natives and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse and explain the factors contributing to the observed differences in skill mismatches (vertical and horizontal) between natives and immigrants in EU countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using microdata from the 2007 wave of the Adult Education Survey (AES), different probit models are specified and estimated to analyse differences in the probability of each type of skill mismatch between natives and immigrants. Yun’s decomposition method is used to identify the relative contribution of characteristics and returns to explain the differences between the two groups.

Findings

Immigrants are more likely to be skill mismatched than natives. The difference is much larger for vertical mismatch, wherein the difference is higher for immigrants coming from non-EU countries than for those coming from other EU countries. The authors find that immigrants from non-EU countries are less valued in EU labour markets than natives with similar characteristics – a result that is not observed for immigrants from EU countries. These results could be related to the limited transferability of human capital acquired in non-EU countries.

Social implications

The findings suggest that specific programmes to adapt immigrants’ human capital acquired in the home country are required to reduce differences in the incidence of skill mismatch and better integration into EU labour markets.

Originality/value

This research is original, because it distinguishes between horizontal and vertical mismatch – an issue that has not been considered in the literature on differences between native and immigrant workers and due to the wide geographical scope of the analysis, which considers EU and non-EU countries.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Peter Robert

The purpose of this paper is to investigate vertical and horizontal mismatch between education and current occupation for graduates in four post-communist societies…

1296

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate vertical and horizontal mismatch between education and current occupation for graduates in four post-communist societies: Hungary, Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. In this way it contributes to the field by exploring how mechanisms, known from previous studies on western societies, affect job mismatch in emerging market economies.

Design/methodology/approach

Two dependent variables are constructed: working in a non-graduate occupation as defined by the ISCO job title depicts vertical mismatch; assessment of the job from the perspective of the fields of study describes horizontal mismatch. Since the dependent variables are dichotomous ones, binary logistic regression models are fitted to the data predicting the incidence of mismatch. Explanatory variables cover mechanisms affecting job mismatch: variation by fields of studies, accumulated work experience during studies, labour market uncertainties during early career, trade off between job safety and job mismatch, persistence of “bad” labour market entry during early career, influence of parental background on school-to-work transition.

Findings

The analysis reveals significant differences for study fields in association with occupational specificity of the disciplines. Only study-related work experience seems to be advantageous to find a matching job. Labour market uncertainties increase the probability of job mismatch. Job safety is more important than a matching job.

Originality/value

Mismatch in first occupation has strong and long-lasting effect on the job match even five years after the graduation. The effect of parental background on job mismatch is curvilinear.

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