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Book part
Publication date: 13 June 2013

Durairaj Maheswaran, Cathy Yi Chen and Junhong He

Purpose – Extensive research in the area of consumer behavior has documented the “Country of Origin Effect,” which identifies country of origin as an important decision…

Abstract

Purpose – Extensive research in the area of consumer behavior has documented the “Country of Origin Effect,” which identifies country of origin as an important decision variable in evaluating products and services. Past research has mostly assumed that country of origin effect is driven by the performance of the products originating in that country. However, consumers can also form opinions about countries based on exposure to information that is unrelated to the product and may have roots in macro factors such as history, culture, and politics. These emotions, while extraneous to the product, can also influence product evaluations along with performance-related country information.Design/methodology/approach – This review examines research addressing both performance and emotional perceptions related to country of origin.Findings – This review presents an integrating framework termed “Nation Equity” to systematically understand and examine the influence of various dimensions of country of origin on consumer decision making.

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Review of Marketing Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-761-0

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Vilmante Kumpikaite -Valiuniene, Jurga Duobiene, Ashly H. Pinnington and Abdelmounaim Lahrech

The authors investigate empirically emigrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin. The study focuses on a country with substantial…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigate empirically emigrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin. The study focuses on a country with substantial, persistent emigration and explores theories of diaspora investment motivation and virtual work characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory questionnaire survey on migrants' intentions and motivations to work virtually for their country of origin was conducted in late 2016 on 3,022 respondents, all emigrants from Lithuania.

Findings

Migrants are more likely to engage in virtual work for their country of origin when they experience negative career satisfaction, perceive the country of origin as their home country, belong to a recent wave of migration and possess occupational skills commonly employed in virtual work.

Research limitations/implications

A major limitation of this study conducted on emigrants from one country is that it does not permit generalisation of the results to other countries and regions. It is limited, thus, to making general comparisons to what is known in the literature about migrants from other nations. However, the authors have identified some of the main factors which have theoretical and empirical import for future research, and the auhtors have argued that the results of our study possess only a few inherent geographic limitations. This research is a starting point for studies connecting diaspora motivation and their linkage to virtual work as a mean of human capital gain for the country of origin. The findings inform the conceptual model of virtual workplaces of Kumpikaite-Valiuniene et al. (2014) in relation to migrants and support Nielsen and Riddle's (2010) migrant diaspora investment motivation theory.

Practical implications

Understanding how and when organisations will work virtually with migrants from the country of origin as well as knowing more about their needs and expectations for migrants' knowledge, skills and work experience are necessary for future research on the attractiveness and potential of virtual work. As a first step in exploring diaspora motivation for virtual work, the authors recommend conducting qualitative research that would investigate more deeply the various motivations migrants can have for virtual work with their country or origin. This study revealed that females are more motivated to work virtually compared to males. However, gender issues have not been explored in this survey and constitute a future study direction.

Social implications

Moreover, future research should examine what areas of human capital, commercial and cultural knowledge can be productively delivered by migrants working virtually for organisations in the country of origin, which will contribute to greater understanding of knowledge transfer and human capital issues (“brain gain”) in the migration literature. Further, specific forms of virtual work should be studied empirically for the extent that they provide opportunities for self-development and for satisfaction in personal lives and work careers. In addition, the potential business and societal benefits for the country of origin should be studied further through examining diverse dimensions of family, community, work and careers. These studies will expand knowledge of virtual work and related research phenomena and will contribute to this gap in the migration and human resource management (HRM) literature studies.

Originality/value

This research is a starting point for studies connecting diaspora motivation and their linkage to virtual work as a mean of human capital gain for the country of origin. The findings inform the proposed conceptual model of virtual workplaces by Kumpikaite-Valiuniene et al (2014) in relation to migrants and support Nielsen and Riddle (2010) migrant diaspora investment motivation theory. The authors have identified some of the main factors that have theoretical and empirical import for future study. This research topic and new related studies on diaspora have the potential to contribute to the fields of migration, HRM, work and career studies.

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International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2011

Shamindra Nath Sanyal and Saroj Kumar Datta

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of country of origin image on brand equity of branded generic drugs.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of country of origin image on brand equity of branded generic drugs.

Design/methodology/approach

Brand equity of branded generics is examined through an analytical review. Country of origin image is hypothesised to influence components of brand equity, i.e. brand strength and brand awareness, which in turn influence brand equity. An empirical investigation was carried out among professionally similar respondents, i.e. doctors of different categories in Kolkata megapolis, India.

Findings

Results showed that country of origin image had a positive and significant effect on components of brand equity, i.e. brand strength and brand awareness, derived from factor analysis conducted on brand equity components. The result also showed that country of origin image of branded generics significantly, but indirectly, affected brand equity through the mediating variables, brand strength and brand awareness.

Research limitations/implications

Different variables have influence on brand equity. This study dealt with only one type of variable, i.e. country of origin image, that may limit the total process of brand equity enhancement.

Practical implications

Marketing actions should be implemented to enhance brand strength and awareness levels. Country of origin image should be assessed as a multidimensional concept for enhancing brand equity. Marketers should be aware of the fact that physicians are influenced by the brand's original country image.

Originality/value

This research work has extended prior country of origin research by conceptualising the country of origin image as a brand equity enhancing tool in a new area called branded generic drugs.

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Hans B. Thorelli, Jeen‐Su Lim and Jongsuk Ye

The relative importance of country of origin, product warranty, andretail store image on consumers′ product quality perception, overallattitude toward the product, and…

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2092

Abstract

The relative importance of country of origin, product warranty, and retail store image on consumers′ product quality perception, overall attitude toward the product, and purchase intentions is investigated. A 2x2x2 full factorial design with two levels (high and low) of country of origin, warranty and retail store image is utilised. ANOVA results show that country of origin and warranty cues have significant impacts on the three dependent measures. The interaction effects of all three independent variables are significant for the quality perception and overall attitude towards the product but are not significant for the purchase intentions. In addition excellent warranty terms combined with store reputation has a greater impact on the dependent variables than the country‐of‐origin cue. Managerial implications of the research findings are discussed.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Khalid I. Al‐Sulaiti and Michael J. Baker

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the effect of country of origin on consumer perceptions of products and services. Results reveal…

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27444

Abstract

This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the effect of country of origin on consumer perceptions of products and services. Results reveal that consumer perceptions differ significantly on the basis of product/service and country of origin. The country of origin may be an important element in the perceptions consumers have of products and services especially where little other information is known. However, the question of how much influence the country of origin provides in product and service evaluations remains unanswered and a number of other major issues have yet to be resolved. Directions for future research are developed.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2011

Nizar Souiden, Frank Pons and Marie‐Eve Mayrand

The pupose of this paper is to investigate consumers' behavior in emerging countries. In particular, it simultaneously assesses the effects of country image and…

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4434

Abstract

Purpose

The pupose of this paper is to investigate consumers' behavior in emerging countries. In particular, it simultaneously assesses the effects of country image and country‐of‐origin's image on consumers' uncertainty, aspiration and purchasing intention of high‐tech products.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 479 Chinese consumers, structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Results show that compared to country‐of‐origin, country's image is a more effective tool in reducing consumers' uncertainty and increasing their aspiration to purchase high technology products. Contrary to country's image, however, country‐of‐origin's image plays a considerable role in influencing the product image.

Research limitations/implications

The major role of a country‐of‐origin is to influence product image while that of country's image is to increase consumers' aspiration to acquire its product and diminish their uncertainty and hesitation about buying the product. In other words, the image of a product is much more prone to the effect of country‐of‐origin's image than country's image.

Practical implications

Marketers should understand that consumers in emerging countries are ambivalent when they consider the purchase of complex products. On the one hand, highlighting the country image can contribute in alleviating consumers' uncertainty and increasing their aspiration to purchase sophisticated and complex products. On the other hand, promoting the country‐of‐origin's image can prove an effective means to improve product image in emerging markets.

Originality/value

Most of the previous studies have focused on one of the two concepts (i.e. country's image or country‐of‐origin), interchangeably used both of them, and relatively ignored their simultaneous impact on consumer behavior. The present study has tried to address this shortfall through simultaneously studying their influences on product image and consumer purchase intention; and highlighting their differential impacts.

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Ravi Pappu, Pascale G. Quester and Ray W. Cooksey

The objective of the present research is to examine the impact of the country of origin of a brand on its consumer‐based equity.

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20229

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of the present research is to examine the impact of the country of origin of a brand on its consumer‐based equity.

Design/methodology/approach

Brand equity was conceptualized in this paper as a combination of brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality and attitudinal brand loyalty. A doubly multivariate design was incorporated in a structured questionnaire to collect data via mall intercepts in an Australian capital city.

Findings

Multivariate analysis of variance of the data indicated that consumer‐based brand equity varied according to the country of origin of the brand and product category. This impact of country of origin on brand equity occurred where consumers perceived substantive differences between the countries in terms of their product category‐country associations.

Research limitations/implications

An important direction for future research would be to examine how the consumer‐based equity of a brand would be affected, if the country of origin were changed from a country with weaker association with the product category to a country with strong association with the product category. The results would be useful to MNCs contemplating international manufacturing.

Practical implications

Marketing managers operating in the international context must identify the sources of brand equity, and understand the importance of incorporating country of origin into their brand equity measurement. Further, the results suggest that, when a brand offers a variety of product categories, brand managers should monitor and track the brand's consumer‐based equity for each product category.

Originality/value

The present study is one of the first to empirically examine and confirm the impact of country of origin on the consumer‐based equity of a brand.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 40 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1989

Sevgin A. Eroglu and Karen A. Machleit

This article advances the country of origin research stream byaddressing some of the theoretical and methodological issues given aslimitations in past studies. A…

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1660

Abstract

This article advances the country of origin research stream by addressing some of the theoretical and methodological issues given as limitations in past studies. A conceptual model based on the cue paradigm was developed to investigate the relative impact of country of origin as a quality indicator in a causal framework. Results indicate that the country of origin cue is indeed a significant indicator of product quality; however, its relative effect varies by product category as well as by certain individual and product variables.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 6 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Johny K. Johansson

Selected empirical findings on the effects of a product′s“made‐in” label are integrated with theoretical developmentsin consumer information processing and the economics…

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2105

Abstract

Selected empirical findings on the effects of a product′s “made‐in” label are integrated with theoretical developments in consumer information processing and the economics of consumer search. The result is an internally consistent theory of how country‐of‐origin effects vary across situations, individuals and products. The new perspective explains why country stereotyping influences decisions more among well‐informed buyers and dismisses the idea that country‐of‐origin cues are necessarily misleading or bad. It also generates predictions of when country‐of‐origin effects are greater and when they are smaller.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Anja Schaefer

Consumer knowledge has frequently been mentioned in the literature as a potential mediating factor in consumers’ use of country of origin as a product information cue…

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10915

Abstract

Consumer knowledge has frequently been mentioned in the literature as a potential mediating factor in consumers’ use of country of origin as a product information cue. However, there is little agreement on the appropriate definition and measurement of consumer knowledge in this context, nor on the likely direction of its impact. Reports of empirical findings concerning the issue are even scarcer. Looks at various dimensions of consumer knowledge and how they impact on consumers’ use of the country of origin cue in evaluations of alcoholic beverages. Finds that neither brand familiarity nor objective or subjective product knowledge has a general main effect on consumers’ use of the country of origin cue but there are significant interaction effects. Shows that objective product class knowledge can, under certain circumstances, increase consumers’ reliance on country of origin when evaluating products with unfamiliar brand names but not with familiar brand names.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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