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Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

Derek Rucker and David Dubois

This case features Bel-Brand's efforts to position its flagship brand The Laughing Cow in the United States. The challenges in this case are twofold. First, choose a…

Abstract

This case features Bel-Brand's efforts to position its flagship brand The Laughing Cow in the United States. The challenges in this case are twofold. First, choose a viable position for a brand after a period of high growth following the South Beach Craze. The difficulty here is that the initial driver of the brand's position, the South Beach Craze, an environmental factor, is dwindling and is not sustainable. Second, the brand was receiving pressure from global stakeholders to try to unify the positioning in the United States with the global brand positioning. These are both challenges that were faced by the marketing team and raised in the case.

This case can be used to teach the following topics: 1) Developing a sustainable positioning. This case gives students the valuable experience of making a positioning choice and supporting the rationale for the positioning chosen. Furthermore, it demonstrates how a brand maintained a position after the initial support/argument for that position has dwindled or disappeared. 2) Managing global versus local positioning. The case also showcases a real life example of where positioning in the United States was extremely misaligned from the global positioning of the brand, and how the brand responded to this. 3) Write a positioning statement. One important exercise that students could be asked to do is write a positioning statement and become more familiar with concepts such as point-of-parity (POP), point-of-difference (POD), and reason-to-believe (RTB).

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Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Leeford Edem Kojo Ameyibor, Peter Anabila and Yvonne Kabeya Saini

This study aims to investigate the relationship between brand positioning and business performance, as well as the mediation effect of brand equity between them within the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between brand positioning and business performance, as well as the mediation effect of brand equity between them within the context of Ghana’s alcoholic beverages industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 196 staff across four alcoholic beverage firms in Accra, Ghana was selected using a judgemental sampling technique. A structural equation modelling approach using partial least squares was used to conduct the analyses to answer the research hypotheses.

Findings

All the hypotheses were confirmed in line with extant literature. Specifically, the study found a positive relationship between brand positioning and business performance. The study also found that brand equity partially mediates the relationship between brand positioning and business performance.

Practical implications

The study serves as a useful guide to strategy and policy formulation in branding in general and specifically on how brand positioning can be effectively deployed as a key strategy to enhance business performance.

Originality/value

The study has practical implications not only for the marketing and sale of alcoholic beverages in Ghana to achieve financial performance but also for lasting competitive advantage.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Siyu Gong, Guanghua Sheng, Peter Peverelli and Jialin Dai

This study aims to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework to investigate how green brand positioning strategies positively impact consumer response. It focusses on…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework to investigate how green brand positioning strategies positively impact consumer response. It focusses on uncovering the causal mechanism in which such effect is mediated by brand stereotypes. Additionally, it outlines the moderating role of construal level in this formation process.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies were conducted to examine the hypotheses. Study 1 tests the positive influence of green brand positioning on consumer response. Study 2 tests the dual mediating effect of warmth and competence in the relationship between green brand positioning and consumer response. Study 3 further examines the moderating role of construal level in the effects of green brand positioning on brand stereotypes.

Findings

The findings reveal that green emotional positioning strategies are predominantly stereotyped as warm while green functional positioning strategies are predominantly stereotyped as competent. Both warm and competent mediate the effects of green brand positioning on consumer response. Furthermore, a congruency between green emotional positioning and high-level construal, as well as the match between green functional positioning and low-level construal, leads to more warmth and competence perception.

Originality/value

This study contributes to green brand management literature by proposing a brand stereotype-based mechanism to explain how green brand positioning strategies trigger consumers’ stereotyping process, leading to positive consumer response. This study also identifies the construal level as a moderating variable that impacts consumers’ warmth and competence perceptions towards two kinds of green brand positioning strategies. Managerially, the findings of this study provide managerial ideas for developing green branding strategies.

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Patrick Hartmann, Vanessa Apaolaza Ibáñez and F. Javier Forcada Sainz

Proposes a set of strategic options for green brand positioning, based either on functional brand attributes or on emotional benefits. The aim of the study is to test the…

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Abstract

Purpose

Proposes a set of strategic options for green brand positioning, based either on functional brand attributes or on emotional benefits. The aim of the study is to test the suggested green positioning strategies against one another, assessing their effect on perceived brand positioning and brand attitude.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model of the dimensionality and attitudinal effects of green brand positioning was developed. Both suggested alternatives to green brand positioning, along with a combined functional and emotional strategy, were tested in an experimental online setting. The hypothesized model was tested in the scope of exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling.

Findings

Results indicate an overall positive influence of green brand positioning on brand attitude. Further findings suggest distinct functional and emotional dimensions of green brand positioning with the interaction of both dimensions in the formation of brand attitude. Highest perceptual effects were achieved through a green positioning strategy that combined functional attributes with emotional benefits.

Research limitations/implications

The measures used, while providing good reliability and validity, have their limitations, especially in the case of the emotional dimension of green brand associations. Future research should concentrate on the further development of the constructs used in the study, particularly that of the emotional dimension of green brand associations and replicate the study under “real‐life” conditions within different product categories and with a representative sample.

Practical implications

A well implemented green positioning strategy can lead to a more favourable perception of the brand, giving support to the green marketing approach in general. This study supports significant attitude effects of both functional and emotional green positioning strategies. Thus, brand managers should deliver emotional benefits through the brand, at the same time making sure that target groups perceive real environmental benefits.

Originality/value

Although green marketing has been an important research topic for more than three decades, hardly any research has been conducted that focuses specifically on green branding. This paper analyses the dimensionality of green brand positioning, offers green branding insight and suggests strategic tools for brand managers.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

J. Lucy Lee, Yukyoum Kim and June Won

The purpose of this paper is to identify the location of sport brands in sport consumers’ minds using a perceptual map of multiple positions; and examine whether there is…

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3933

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the location of sport brands in sport consumers’ minds using a perceptual map of multiple positions; and examine whether there is congruence between the sport brands’ purported images and the targeted consumers’ perception of the brands’ images.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method was used. Four steps of data collections (i.e. face-to-face, focus group interviews, and questionnaires) and analyses (i.e. content analysis, MDS analysis, PROXSCAL analysis, multiple regressions analysis, frequency analysis, and congruence score) were performed.

Findings

Four positioning typologies (i.e. great quality equipment, equipment for professionals, innovation, and tradition) were identified; each brand’s positions in consumers’ minds were distinctly portrayed in the perceptual map; and the congruence between intended and perceived positions was found in two brands – Titleist and Ping – implying they established a high position-congruity and providing evidence of positioning effectiveness.

Practical implications

The findings will aid practitioners and scholars in positioning and its effectiveness: the results provide information for managers to select, implement, and manage effective positioning strategies and the study provides initial evidence about whether companies and their brands are well-positioned in the sport consumer’s perception.

Originality/value

The authors attempt to examine how consumers perceive brands and how effectively brand positions are portrayed in consumers’ minds. The effectiveness and competitiveness of positioning strategies were examined via a perceptional map.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Mats Urde and Christian Koch

– The purpose of this paper is to revise the concept of positioning to differentiate between fundamental approaches to it and chart a scheme of schools of positioning.

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8789

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to revise the concept of positioning to differentiate between fundamental approaches to it and chart a scheme of schools of positioning.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review traces the roots and evolution of the concept. Two approaches to positioning are explored and related to the paradigms of market and brand orientation. Based on current theory and practice, different schools of positioning are identified and categorized along a market- and brand-orientation spectrum. Metaphors differentiate schools of positioning, illustrated by case examples.

Findings

Positioning is a key concept in marketing, branding and strategy. However, its theoretical and practical usefulness is in peril due to its many meanings, applications and overall vagueness. There is a need for a theoretical overview of positioning, which the literature currently lacks. Two approaches to define a brand’s position are identified and introduced: market- and brand-oriented positioning. Five principal schools of positioning show how these are different and why differentiating between them matters. The choice of school implies the market- and/or brand-oriented approach to positioning.

Research limitations/implications

Further empirical case-based research might investigate when, what and how different positioning schools are applied in practice. The brief cases in this paper indicate a dynamic over time regarding the applications of the brand- and market-oriented school of positioning. An in-depth theoretical and practical investigation of the dynamics of positions would be of value for the research field.

Practical implications

The distinction among different schools of thought helps bridge the gap between the theory and practice of positioning. A specific positioning objective can guide management in the selection of a particular school of positioning, which enables management to make more insightful conscious choices regarding its opportunities, limitations and consequences.

Social implications

Position and positioning is of relevance in society in broad terms, e.g. in sports, politics and culture. Positioning strategy is discussed and implemented in different industries (business-to-business and consumer), for all kinds of brands (including, for instance, corporate brands) and for “brands” in the very widest sense (such as places or people).

Originality/value

This paper relates positioning to the fundamental discussion of brand and market orientation. It integrates positioning research and provides a structured overview of the concept.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Bangwool Han and Minho Kim

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating roles of equality and scarcity on the impact of underdog brand positioning on consumer purchase intentions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating roles of equality and scarcity on the impact of underdog brand positioning on consumer purchase intentions. Beyond testing the relationship between underdog brand positioning and purchase intentions (Study 1), the study examines how the equality perception affects consumer choices on underdog brands (Study 2) and how the reasons for product scarcity influence purchase intentions of consumers with prosocial orientations (Study 3).

Design/methodology/approach

A research model is developed, depicting the impact of underdog brand positioning on purchase intentions via social value orientations and scarcity types. The conceptual model is validated using moderation process modeling and data for which are collected through sets of structured questionnaires analyzed through PROCESS modeling in SPSS.

Findings

The findings support that compared with top dog brand positioning, underdog brand positioning has a greater impact on consumers’ purchase intentions, and consumers with prosocial orientations generate greater purchase intentions than consumers with proself orientations. In addition, the demand-caused product scarcity also moderates the relationship between underdog brand biography and purchase intentions.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the ongoing research on brand positioning by examining the associations between equality perception and purchase intentions in the context of underdog brand biography. The study also shows the value of demand-caused scarcity as a moderator of the underdog brand–purchase intention linkage.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Hui-Ju Wang

The purpose of this paper is to offer a perspective of brand-based analysis on green brand positioning differentiation through a network analysis approach.

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3350

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a perspective of brand-based analysis on green brand positioning differentiation through a network analysis approach.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs centrality and distinctiveness as bases to develop a matrix framework of green brand positioning differentiation. The two dimensions are measured from the techniques of network analysis, including analysis of the core-periphery structure and adjacency matrix.

Findings

The results yield four clusters with different positions in a 2×2 matrix, including 23 core brands with high-positioning distinctiveness, ten core brands with low-positioning distinctiveness, ten peripheral brands with high-positioning distinctiveness, and seven peripheral brands with low-positioning distinctiveness.

Research limitations/implications

The results contribute to providing brand researchers with different analytical perspectives on the existing knowledge about green brand positioning and offer strategic positioning information for green brand practitioners.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature in three ways. First, this research is a first attempt to offer a brand-based perspective on differentiation of green brand positioning. Second, this research advances the existing knowledge that uses network analysis on green brand positioning by offering different techniques for brand differentiation analysis. Finally, this research complements the strategic positioning information of the current business environment in the context of green branding.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 55 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2010

Christoph Fuchs and Adamantios Diamantopoulos

The purpose of the paper is to explore empirically the overall relative effectiveness of alternative positioning strategies from a consumer perspective.

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40138

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to explore empirically the overall relative effectiveness of alternative positioning strategies from a consumer perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies (within‐ and between‐subjects design) are conducted aimed at evaluating the positioning success of four distinct positioning strategies of real brands in terms of consumers' perceptions of brand favorability, differentiation, and credibility, while controlling for brand‐specific, product category‐specific, and socio‐demographic influences.

Findings

The results show that the type of positioning strategy used affects the positioning success of a brand. More specifically, the study confirms normative arguments about the overall relative effectiveness of main positioning strategies by revealing that benefit‐based positioning and surrogate (user) positioning generally outperform feature‐based positioning strategies along the three effectiveness dimensions. The findings also demonstrate that no single strategy outperforms all the others on all dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited in terms of the number of positioning strategies and product categories evaluated. The paper introduces an alternative approach to measure the effectiveness of positioning strategies of real brands. Moreover, the results of the paper show empirically that measuring positioning effectiveness must extend beyond capturing unidimensional brand attitude measures.

Practical implications

The findings should guide brand managers in selecting the most appropriate positioning strategies for their brands in high‐involvement markets such as the automobile market.

Originality/value

The study sheds initial light on the overall relative effectiveness of major positioning strategies. The study differentiates itself from existing studies by focusing on the conceptually most prominent positioning strategies, a different dependent variable, and employing real‐life brands and advertisements.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2019

Bashar S. Gammoh, Anthony C. Koh and Sam C. Okoroafo

This study aims to extend current research efforts by utilizing the institutional theory to propose cross-cultural-based asymmetrical moderating effects of ethnocentrism…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to extend current research efforts by utilizing the institutional theory to propose cross-cultural-based asymmetrical moderating effects of ethnocentrism and cultural openness on the effectiveness of global, foreign and local consumer culture brand positioning strategies of high-tech products.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an experimental design in the USA (developed country) and India (developing country). Print advertisements across the two countries were used to explore the proposed moderating effects of ethnocentrism and cultural openness on consumer brand evaluations of a high-tech product under the three different consumer culture brand positioning strategies.

Findings

Overall, this study provided empirical evidence in support of the proposed cross-cultural asymmetrical effects. The study findings indicate that consumer ethnocentrism seems to be more important in influencing a subject’s brand evaluations across the positioning strategies in a developed country like the USA, while consumer cultural openness will be more important in influencing a subject’s brand evaluations across the positioning strategies in a developing country like India.

Originality/value

Despite existing research efforts on the potential benefits of positioning brands using global, foreign or local consumer cultures, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of these positioning strategies across different cultures. Theoretically, this research draws on the institutional theory to investigate the asymmetrical cross-cultural moderating effects of ethnocentrism and cultural openness on the effectiveness of the three-consumer culture brand positioning strategies. Managerially, this study provides empirically based suggestions for brand managers attempting to position their brands with different segments of consumers while highlighting the importance of cultural differences between developed and developing markets.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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