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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Ai Na Seow, Yuen Onn Choong, Chee Keong Choong and Krishna Moorthy

Health tourism is recognised as a recent new pattern of taking a break while accessing health-care services overseas. Past studies have explored this research area, but few have…

1263

Abstract

Purpose

Health tourism is recognised as a recent new pattern of taking a break while accessing health-care services overseas. Past studies have explored this research area, but few have focussed on the theoretical perspective. Applying an appropriate theoretical model to guide interventions in planning and programme development is crucial, particularly when the focus of the study is on the cognitive mediation processes of change in individual behaviour. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory with the influence of threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The purpose is to trigger the behavioural intention to engage in international health tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 299 international tourists participated in the survey. The partial least squares structural equation modelling technique was used to test the research framework. Both the measurement model and the structural model were assessed as adequate.

Findings

The empirical results demonstrate that tourists’ high risk perception must be complemented by coping ability to produce a motivational response. Further, the adaptive behaviours of international tourists are focussed more on perceived efficacy than on the perception of threats related to behavioural intentions towards health tourism.

Originality/value

The study presents an effective theoretical model intervention applicable to health tourism. Future studies should conduct a more comprehensive assessment to generate strong decision-making effectiveness from the theoretical model.

健康旅游:行为意图与保护动机理论

摘要

设计/方法/路径

共有299名国际游客参加了此次调查。使用偏最小二乘结构方程建模技术来测试研究框架。测量模型和结构模型均被评估为足够。

目的

健康旅游业被公认为是最近在海外获得医疗服务时休息的新模式。过去的研究已经探索了这个研究领域, 但是很少有人关注理论观点。应用适当的理论模型来指导计划和程序开发的干预措施至关重要, 特别是当研究的重点是个人行为改变的认知中介过程时。本研究在威胁评估和应对评估的影响下检验了保护动机理论(PMT)的有效性。目的是激发从事国际健康旅游的行为意图。

结果

实证结果表明, 游客的高风险感知必须通过应对能力来补充, 以产生激励反应。此外, 国际游客的适应行为更多地集中在感知的效能上, 而不是感知与针对健康旅游的行为意图有关的威胁。

原创性/价值

该研究提出了一种适用于健康旅游的有效理论模型干预措施。未来的研究应进行更全面的评估, 以从理论模型中产生强大的决策效力。

关键词 健康旅游, 行为意图, 保护动机理论, 国际游客, 马来西亚

文章类型: 研究型论文

Título: Turismo de salud: Intención de comportamiento y teoría de la motivación de la protección

Resumen

Diseño/metodología/enfoque (límite 100 palabras)

Un total de 299 turistas internacionales participaron en la encuesta. Se utilizó la técnica de modelización de ecuaciones estructurales por mínimos cuadrados parciales para probar el marco de investigación. Tanto el modelo de medición como el modelo estructural se consideraron adecuados.

Objetivo (límite 100 palabras)

El turismo de salud se reconoce como un nuevo modelo reciente de descanso para acceder a los servicios sanitarios en el extranjero. Estudios anteriores han explorado esta área de investigación, pero pocos se han centrado en la perspectiva teórica. La aplicación de un modelo teórico adecuado para guiar las intervenciones en la planificación y el desarrollo de programas es crucial, especialmente cuando el estudio se centra en los procesos de mediación cognitiva del cambio en el comportamiento individual. Este estudio examina la eficacia de la teoría de la motivación de la protección (PMT) con la influencia de la valoración de la amenaza y la valoración del afrontamiento. El objetivo es activar la intención conductual de realizar turismo sanitario internacional.

Conclusiones (límite 100 palabras)

Los resultados empíricos demuestran que la percepción de alto riesgo de los turistas debe complementarse con la capacidad de afrontamiento para producir una respuesta motivacional. Además, los comportamientos adaptativos de los turistas internacionales se centran más en la eficacia percibida, que en la percepción de las amenazas relacionadas con las intenciones de comportamiento hacia el turismo de salud.

Originalidad/valor (límite 100 palabras)

El estudio presenta un modelo teórico de intervención eficaz aplicable al turismo de salud. Futuros estudios deberían realizar una evaluación más exhaustiva para generar mayor eficacia en la toma de decisiones a partir del modelo teórico.

Palabras clave

Turismo de salud; Intención de comportamiento; Teoría de la motivación de la protección; Turistas internacionales; Malasia

Tipo de papel

Trabajo de investigación

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Ai Na Seow, Chee Keong Choong, I-Chi Chen and Yuen Onn Choong

Medical tourism has grown to become a formidable multinational industry to generate revenue. This phenomenon has also increased impact on the healthcare sector as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

Medical tourism has grown to become a formidable multinational industry to generate revenue. This phenomenon has also increased impact on the healthcare sector as well as strategies development opportunities. The present study emphases on the international tourists' behavioural intention for medical tourism in Malaysia. A research framework is derived from the exceptional component of fear appeal in protection motivation theory (PMT).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected with a sample of 501 respondents and analysed via structural equation modelling approach. Both measurement model and structural model were assessed to generate the result.

Findings

The outcomes have shown a good backing on the use of adapted PMT theoretical model. There is a higher predictive power on health coping than health threats. Coping alternatives can be served as the linkage between the PMT appraisals and behavioural intention.

Research limitations/implications

The study confirmed the effectiveness of using a theoretical framework in predicting international tourists' behavioural intention for medical tourism. It is suggesting that risk adaptive behaviour does offer a valuable proposition in contributing to the reception of medical tourism.

Practical implications

The present study argues the need for greater clarity in understanding the emergent implications for health policy and healthcare delivery for future medical tourism development.

Originality/value

The fundamental theories and current literature do not incorporate the component of fear appeal in explaining decision making. The study findings demonstrate that protection motivation theory has provide another promising theoretical model in explaining international tourists' behaviour intention for medical tourism.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Ai Na Seow, Yuen Onn Choong, Krishna Moorthy and Chee Keong Choong

Few studies have adopted social psychology theories to understand the medical tourism decision-making process. The purpose of this study is to fill the said gap by suggesting the…

Abstract

Purpose

Few studies have adopted social psychology theories to understand the medical tourism decision-making process. The purpose of this study is to fill the said gap by suggesting the adoption of two social cognition models: the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and protection motivation theory (PMT), to predict medical tourism behavioural intention, as well as compare their predictive power by integrating TBP and PMT in a single model.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative method has been adopted. There were 265 international tourists from various regions who visited Malaysia (one of the main medical tourism players in Asia), who were asked to complete the survey questionnaire. Data was analysed using the partial least squares structural equation modelling technique.

Findings

The results of this study provided support and validated the well-developed research models of TPB and PMT. Although PMT appears to be a more concrete and specific framework, the TPB model results have a slight advantage. TPB results emphasised the important roles of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control in developing behavioural intentions, and thus directly linked to the development of pull marketing strategies. PMT results emphasised the important roles of perceived threats and coping appraisal of health care in developing push strategies for medical tourism.

Originality/value

The research illustrates the need for rigorous examination of the ability of behavioural theories. The findings can aid in scrutinising their shortcomings and their readiness to modify, integrate and enhance in a more constructive manner when they address the health-education interventions, especially in a medical tourism context.

目的

很少有研究采用社会心理学理论来理解医疗旅游的决策过程。这项研究的目的是通过建议采用两种社会认知模型(计划行为理论(TPB)和保护动机理论(PMT))来填补上述空白。通过将TBP和PMT集成到一个模型中, 预测医疗旅游行为意愿并比较其预测能力。

设计/方法/方法

采用定量方法。样本包括265名访问了马来西亚(亚洲主要的医疗旅游公司之一)的国际游客, 他们被邀请填写调查问卷。研究使用偏最小二乘结构方程建模技术分析数据。

结果

这项研究的结果支持并验证了TPB和PMT完善的研究模型。尽管PMT似乎是一个更具体的框架, 但TPB模型结果却有一点优势。TPB模型的结果强调了态度, 主观规范和感知的行为控制在形成行为意愿中的重要作用, 因此直接与拉动式营销策略的发展相关。 PMT结果强调了感知到的威胁和对医疗保健的应对评估在制定医疗旅游推动策略中的重要作用。

独创性/价值

该研究阐述了严格检验行为理论能力的必要性。当研究结果针对健康教育干预措施时, 尤其是在医疗旅游领域, 这些发现可以帮助审查它们的缺点以及它们是否准备好以更具建设性的方式进行修改, 整合和改善。

关键词

医疗旅游, 游客的行为意愿, 保护动机理论, 计划行为理论, 模型比较, 马来西亚

文章类型

研究论文

Propósito

Pocos estudios han adoptado teorías de psicología social para comprender el proceso de toma de decisiones de turismo médico. El objetivo de esta investigación es llenar dicho vacío sugiriendo la adopción de dos modelos de cognición social: la teoría del comportamiento planificado (TPB) y la teoría de la motivación de protección (PMT), para predecir la intención conductual del turismo médico y comparar su poder predictivo integrando TBP y PMT en un solo modelo.

Diseño/Metodología/Enfoque

se ha adoptado un método cuantitativo. Hubo 265 turistas internacionales de diversas regiones que visitaron Malasia (uno de los principales actores del turismo médico en Asia) a quienes se les pidió que completaran el cuestionario de la encuesta. Los datos se analizaron utilizando la técnica de modelado de ecuaciones estructurales de mínimos cuadrados parciales.

Resultados

Los resultados de este estudio brindaron apoyo y validaron los modelos de investigación bien desarrollados de TPB y PMT. Aunque PMT parece ser un marco más concreto y específico, los resultados del modelo TPB tienen una ligera ventaja. Los resultados del TPB enfatizaron los roles importantes de las actitudes, las normas subjetivas y el control conductual percibido en el desarrollo de las intenciones conductuales y, por lo tanto, directamente vinculados con el desarrollo de estrategias de marketing pull. Los resultados de PMT enfatizaron los roles importantes de las amenazas percibidas y la evaluación de la atención médica en el desarrollo de estrategias de empuje para el turismo médico.

Originalidad/Valor

La investigación ilustra la necesidad de un examen riguroso de la capacidad de las teorías conductuales. Los hallazgos pueden ayudar a analizar sus deficiencias y su disposición a modificar, integrar y mejorar de una manera más constructiva cuando abordan las intervenciones de educación sanitaria, especialmente en un contexto de turismo médico.

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2019

Yuen Onn Choong, Lee Peng Ng, Seow Ai Na and Chun Eng Tan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of teachers’ perception on trust over their willingness to exercise organisational citizenship behaviours (OCB) using…

1302

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of teachers’ perception on trust over their willingness to exercise organisational citizenship behaviours (OCB) using self-efficacy as a mediator.

Design/methodology/approach

Usable questionnaires were collected from 411 teachers in secondary schools. A two-stage analytic approach was used to analyse the data.

Findings

The results indicated that trust and teachers’ self-efficacy dimensions (general teaching and personal teaching) are positively related to OCB. Additionally, trust in the principal, colleagues and clients are predicted to have indirect influence on OCB through self-efficacy.

Practical implications

Teachers’ personal sense of efficacy is largely dependent on the amount of efforts devoted in their teaching, their decision-making ability and the degree of persistency in solving problematic issues. School management and policy makers are urged to develop effective human resources initiatives and programmes that can create a trusting relationship in the organisation and enhance teachers’ self-efficacy. These may include the socialisation programmes that can inculcate teachers’ inner natures, confidence and interpersonal skills when directed towards perceived abilities in given specific tasks and responsibilities to make a significant impact on OCB. Apart from this, the school administrator is advised to offer relevant training and workshops that able to enhance the efficacy level of teachers.

Originality/value

This study explored how teachers’ self-efficacy was related to trust and OCB. Teachers’ positive behaviours enable them to have greater belief in their capability of handling pressures and crises. The study contributes to the current body of literature and creates a comprehensive theoretical framework for teachers to be involved in OCB. Besides, these unique findings served as a reference to management of any school to better understand the importance of trust in the school and how it relates to teacher self-efficacy, which, in turn nurture the citizenship behaviour in workplace.

Article
Publication date: 15 December 2023

Ai Na Seow, Siew Yong Lam, Yuen Onn Choong and Chee Keong Choong

The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ attitudes, self-efficacy and emotional behaviour associated with online learning and the effectiveness of online learning.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ attitudes, self-efficacy and emotional behaviour associated with online learning and the effectiveness of online learning.

Design/methodology/approach

A research model was formulated and analysed with the structural equation modelling technique. The respondents consist of 843 students pursuing their studies at a private university’s foundation, undergraduate and postgraduate levels. A two-step systematic approach was used using the SmartPLS version 3 software to conduct statistical analysis and draw meaningful insights.

Findings

The study’s findings have demonstrated that students’ attitudes and self-efficacy exhibit a positive relationship with online learning behaviour (OLB). It is observed that the students’ emotions are related to online learning effectiveness (OLE) and mediate the relationship between OLB and OLE. Furthermore, OLB partially mediates the relationship between attitude and OLE and between self-efficacy and OLE.

Research limitations/implications

The operational instructions and digital resources have proven to be highly effective in providing valuable learning experiences to the students. As a result, the students are now expanding and applying their new encounters to a broader range of learning opportunities. This study has provided valuable insights for stakeholders, including scholars, higher education institutions and the Ministry of Higher Education, in providing the ideas of online learning or Web-based education.

Originality/value

The originality of this study sheds light on the role of OLB as a mediator. It was underlined that emotion is critical in improving students’ OLE. Thus, students’ attitudes and self-efficacy have been essential in reassuring OLB and enhancing OLE.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 September 2023

Peter Sin Howe Tan, Ai Na Seow, Yuen Onn Choong, Chi Hau Tan, Siew Yong Lam and Chee Keong Choong

Numerous academic institutions have embarked on the pursuit of hybrid learning as an alternative approach, catering to students who opt for replacing a fraction of their…

Abstract

Purpose

Numerous academic institutions have embarked on the pursuit of hybrid learning as an alternative approach, catering to students who opt for replacing a fraction of their conventional in-person meeting schedule with remote teaching. However, these new remote learning patterns have brought forth new stands against students' expectations. The universities have come across immense challenges in devising efficacious strategies that encompass the delivery, effectiveness and acceptability of hybrid courses. Consequently, identifying pivotal determinants related to user acceptance of technology persists as a crucial matter. This study aims to shed light on the adoption of hybrid learning from students' perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to scrutinise the proposed research model and hypotheses. A total sample of 444 students responded and partook in the survey. The data were analysed using AMOS software, a powerful tool for statistical analysis in the field of social sciences.

Findings

The findings of this study show that perceived service quality positively and significantly impacts the ease of use and usefulness of a hybrid learning system among students. In addition, the results demonstrate that ease of use and usefulness of the system positively and significantly influence students' favourable attitudes toward hybrid learning. Remarkably, the statistical analysis unveils the significant mediating effect of ease of use and usefulness in the relationship between perceived service quality and students' attitudes toward hybrid learning.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that the pervasive dependence on information systems and the quality of service from novel technologies continues to be a vital influence in the learning environment. The study has provided valuable insights into student perseverance learning strategies for higher education institutions.

Originality/value

This study's novelty lies in illuminating the crucial role of ease of use and usefulness as mediators, highlighting their criticality in enhancing students' attitudes towards hybrid learning. Notably, the study underscores that perceived service quality exerts a positive influence on ease of use and usefulness.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Krishna Moorthy, Loh Chun T’ing, Seow Ai Na, Chew Tze Ching, Lee Yuin Loong, Lim Sze Xian and Teoh Wei Ling

This paper aims to study the factors that influence customer loyalty toward the internet service providers in Malaysia. The five factors used are corporate image, perceived…

1798

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the factors that influence customer loyalty toward the internet service providers in Malaysia. The five factors used are corporate image, perceived quality, perceived value, price fairness and promotion. The mediating variable of this study is customer satisfaction, while customer loyalty is the study variable.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data collection has been done by distributing survey questionnaires to 338 internet users in Malaysia. The data collected have been analyzed with SAS software.

Findings

The results showed that perceived quality has the strongest influence on customer satisfaction toward internet service providers in Malaysia. However, corporate image has no relationship with customer satisfaction toward internet service providers in Malaysia. Furthermore, customer satisfaction has a significant and positive relationship to customer loyalty toward the internet service providers in Malaysia.

Originality/value

European Customer Satisfaction Index has been adopted and combined with price fairness and promotion as a new research model that other researchers may look into it further. This research may also serve as a guide to internet service providers as they may learn about the underlying factors that affect the satisfaction and loyalty of customers and which factor has the strongest impact.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 60 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Krishna Moorthy, Seow Ai Na, Chan Wei Yee, Chia Yi Xian, Ong Tian Jin, Teoh Sook Mun and Won Shu Shan

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether different corporate social responsibility (CSR) dimensions, namely, workplace economic responsibility, legal responsibility…

1019

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether different corporate social responsibility (CSR) dimensions, namely, workplace economic responsibility, legal responsibility, ethical responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and environmental responsibility, have different influence on job pursuit intention among undergraduate students in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The target respondents are undergraduate business students from five leading private universities in Malaysia. Primary data were collected through survey questionnaires via face-to-face method. Five-point Likert scale was used to assess the variables and to measure the items. Collected data were tested through SAS software and analysed with descriptive and inferential analyses.

Findings

Four out of the five CSR dimensions significantly influence job pursuit intention with ethical responsibility being the exception.

Practical implications

This study proved that the adoption of CSR in an organisation will become a competitive advantage to attract new talents. Also, this is an improved research model by adopting multi-dimensional perspectives of CSR.

Originality/value

This proposed framework with a combination of five CSR dimensions (workplace economic responsibility, legal responsibility, ethical responsibility, philanthropic responsibility and environmental responsibility) is useful to future researchers as it enables them to have a broader view on CSR and its effect on job pursuit intention.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 59 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Yasean Tahat, T. Dunne, S. Fifield and D. Power

The purpose of this paper is to: examine the value relevance of financial instruments disclosure (FID) provided by Jordanian listed companies under International Financial…

1397

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to: examine the value relevance of financial instruments disclosure (FID) provided by Jordanian listed companies under International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS 7) as compared to that supplied under IAS 30/32; provide evidence about the value relevance of high vs low levels of FID; and investigate which components of FI-related information are more value relevant.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 70 Jordanian listed companies is used in this monograph. A disclosure index checklist was constructed to measure FI information provided by the sample companies. In addition, a valuation model is employed to test the association between FID and market value.

Findings

Although evidence is provided that FI information was value relevant over the two periods of investigation, the information supplied after the implementation of IFRS 7 was more strongly associated with market values. An analysis of the sub-components of FID reveals that the details about balance sheet, fair value and risk information matter when valuing equity. Overall, the results indicate that investors value FI-related information when making their equity pricing decisions. The result suggests that compliance with IFRS mandatory disclosure requirements does produce relevant financial statements.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the current study have a number of implications for policy makers. First, they provide a great deal of insight for the IASB about the relevance of its standards to countries outside the western context. In addition, the findings provide valuable insights for policy makers in Jordan who are concerned about the implications of mandatory disclosures.

Originality/value

The analysis of FID in developing countries in general, and in Jordan in particular, has been overlooked by the extant literature and therefore this study is the first of its kind to examine this research issue for a sample of Jordanian firms.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Karin Barac, Kato Plant, Rolien Kunz and Marina Kirstein

This study investigates perceptions regarding generic skills future entry-level accountants and auditors will require. Such soft or pervasive skills are necessary to operate…

1024

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates perceptions regarding generic skills future entry-level accountants and auditors will require. Such soft or pervasive skills are necessary to operate effectively in the future world of work. Prior research mainly explores generic skills from an attribute-based perspective, while this paper combines it with an activity-based perspective in generic skill profiles of accountants and auditors.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a mixed methods research approach through focus group discussions and a survey involving more than 3,000 professional accountants and/or auditors, the study uses data from the Southern African region (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Namibia) to determine views on the competency needs of future accountants and auditors. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine whether categories of generic skills for future entry-level accountants and auditors differ.

Findings

Four generic skills factors emerged as essential for future entry-level chartered accountants (CAs): digital, decision-making, organisational and business acumens. Three generic skill factors emerged for future registered auditors (RAs): digital, practice and commercial acumens. The results show that generic skill profiles of CAs and RAs, who are members of an accounting body differ and that both the context, related to an activity-based perspective, and individual or internal abilities, related to an attribute-based perspective, matter.

Research limitations/implications

The study extends generic skill theory by identifying broad categories of generic skills (referred to as acumens) for future accountants and auditors.

Practical implications

Insights from this paper facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the generic skill profile approach, combining attribute-based and activity-based perspectives, and this could assist accounting educators, practitioners and professional bodies to better prepare entry-level accounting and audit professionals for the workplace.

Originality/value

The study identifies broad categories (digital, decision-making, organisational, business, practice and commercial acumens) within generic skill profiles of CAs and RAs and shows that generic skills do not operate independently and should be viewed as an interdependent set or constellation of competencies.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

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